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Ex  Libris 
C.  K.  OGDEN 


THE    WORKS 


REV.  WILLIAM  BRIDGE,  M.A. 


FORMERLY  FELLOW  OK  KMANL'EL  COLLEGE,  CAMBRIDGE,  AND  PASTOR  Ol' 
TUT  CHURCH  OF  CHRIST  IN  GREAT  YARMOUTH,  NORFOLK. 


NOW    FIRST   COLLECTED. 


IN  FIVE  VOLUMES. 
VOL.  III. 


LONDON : 

PRINTED     FOR    THOMAS     TEGG, 

73,    CHEAPSIDE. 
1845. 


CONTENTS  OF  VOL.  III. 


CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT,  THE  WORK  AND  WAY  OF 
MEDITATION,  GOD'S  RETURN  TO  THE  SOUL  OR  NATION,  TO- 
GETHER WITH  HIS  PREVENTING  MERCY:  IN  TEN  SER- 
MONS. 

Sermon  1.     Christ's  Personal  Excellencies  the  Object  of  our 

Love.     John  ziv.  28 3 

Sermon  2.     Christ  Crucified  the  Object  of  our  Faith.     1  Cor. 

ii.  2 20 

Sermon  3.     The  New  Covenant  of  Grace  Opened.    Heb.  xii. 

24 ..41 

Sermon  4.     Christ  the  Mediator  of  the  New  Covenant.  Heb. 

xii.  24 61 

Sermon  5.     The  Way  and  Spirit  of  the  New  Covenant,  or 

New  Testament.  Heb.  xii.  24.  ..  80 
Sermon  6.  The  Blood  of  Sprinkling.  Heb.  xii.  24  . .  104 
Sermon  7.  The  Sweetness  and  Profitableness  of  Divine  Me. 

dilation.     Psalm  civ.  34 124 

Sermon  8.     The  Work  and  Way  of  Meditation.     Psalm  civ. 

34 143 

Sermon  9.     God's  Return  to  the  Soul  or  Nation.     Psalm  xc. 

13 161 

Sermon  10.  Preventing  Mercy.     Psalm  xxi.  2,  3.         ..    179 

CHRIST    IN   TRAVAIL:     THREE    SERMONS    ON    ISAIAH    LHI. 
11. 

Sermon  1.     The  Travail  of  Christ 199 

Sermon  2.     Christ's  Assurance  of  Issue 218 

Sermon  3.     The  Contentment  that  Christ  doth  and  shall  find 
in  his  Assurance  of  Issue.       . .          . .    248 

SEASONABLE  TRUTHS  IN  EVIL  TIMES:    NINE   SERMONS. 

Rev.  W.  Greenhill's  Preface 278 

Sermon  1.     Of  Grace  Growing  and  Increasing.      1  Thess. 

iv.  1 279 

Sermon  2.   "The  First  and  Last  in  Suffering  Work.     Matt. 

xix.  30 299 

Sermon  3,     The  Way  to  Obtain  a  Sure  and  great  Reward. 

Matt.  xix.  28 ..319 

Sermon  4.     The  Two  Witnesses,  their  Testimony.     Rev.xi.3. 

313 


2018123 


CONTENTS     OF   VOL.    III. 


Sermon  5.  The  Uncertainty  of  the  World  should  take  off  our 
Hearts  from  the  Love  of  it.  1  Cor.  vii.  30, 
31 365 

Sermon  6.  Men's  Wrath,  against  God's  People  shall  turn  to 
God's  Praise.  Psalm  Ixxvi.  10.  . .  387 

Sermon  7.  Comfort  to  Mourners  for  the  Loss  of  Solemn 
Assemblies.  Zeph.  iii.  18 407 

Sermon  8.  The  Evil  of  Unbelief  in  Departing  from  God. 
Heb.  iii.  12 426 

Sermon  9.     A  Warning  to  Apostates.     Luke  xviii.  32. .   441 


CHRIST    AND    THE     COVENANT, 

THE 

WORK  AND  WAY    OF  MEDITATION, 
GOD'S   RETURN  TO  THE   SOUL  OR  NATION, 

TOGETHER  WITH    HIS 

PREVENTING    MERCY. 

DELIVERED 

IN  TEN  SERMONS. 

1667. 


VOL.  III. 


TO   THE    READER. 


COURTEOUS  READER, — These  Ten  Sermons,  lately  taken  by  an  expert  hand, 
as  they  fell  from  the  mouth  of  the  sweet  preacher  of  them,  contain  so  great  a 
variety  of  heavenly  matter,  so  much  of  the  very  marrow  and  quintessence  of 
the  gospel,  that  thou  wilt  no  sooner  begin  to  read  them,  but  wilt  presently  find 
that  the  heart  of  the  reverend  author  of  them  hath  lain  long  asoke  in. the  blood 
of  Je-us,  and  that  he  hath  been  no  stranger  to  his  very  bosom  love.  Buy  them 
therefore  with  what  speed  thou  canst,  and  read  them  over  diligently,  it  will  be  a 
good  bargain  for  thy  soul,  and  one  of  the  richest  commodities  that  ever  thou 
meetedst  with  at  so  cheap  a  rate.  It  is  put  into  so  small  a  letter  and  bulk,  pur- 
posely for  thy  better  accommodation,  and  that  not  only  in  the  ease  of  thy  purse, 
but  principally  that  thou  mayest  make  it  as  well  thy  pocket  as  thy  heart's  com- 
panion, wherever  thou  goest.  Farewell. 


CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT. 


SERMON    I. 

CHRIST'S    PERSONAL   EXCELLENCIES   THE   OBJECT 
OP  OUR  LOVE. 

"  If  ye  loved  me  ye  would  rejoice,  because  I  said,  I  go  unto  the 
Father,  for  my  Father  is  greater  than  I." — JOHN  xiv.  28. 

THESE  words  are  part  of  the  last  sweet  sermon  which  our 
Saviour  preached  unto  his  disciples  before  his  death  and  de- 
parture from  them ;  wherein  he  labours  to  allay  their  sorrow 
and  grief  upon  the  occasion  of  his  departure  :  therefore  he 
tells  them  at  the  2nd  verse,  "  In  my  Father's  house  are 
many  mansions  •"  and  at  the  3rd  verse,  t{  I  go  to  prepare  a 
place  for  you." 

Then  he  tells  them  at  the  16th,  17th  and  18th  verses,  that 
"  he  would  send  them  another  Comforter ;"  and  "  I  will  not 
leave  you  comfortless,  I  will  come  unto  you." 

Then  he  labours  to  persuade  them  unto  comfort  by  their 
protestation  of  their  own  love  unto  him.  "  Ye  say  you  love 
me  (saith  he),  if  ye  loved  me  ye  would  rejoice,  because  I  said, 
I  go  unto  the  Father,  for  my  Father  is  greater  than  I." 

"  If  ye  loved  me ;"  that  is,  if  you  loved  me  so  much  as 
you  should.  It  is  usual  with  Scripture  to  speak  of  things 
absolutely  when  they  are  meant  comparatively.  If  you  loved 
me  so  much  as  you  profess,  and  so  much  as  you  should ;  for 
they  did  love  him. 

"  If  ye  loved  me,  ye  would  rejoice,  because  I  go  unto  my 
Father." 

Joy  is  the  top  of  comfort  as  comfort  is  the  top  of  peace. 
Joy  is  the  cream  of  comfort.  If  ye  loved  me,  ye  would  be  so 
far  from  being  troubled  at  my  going,  that  you  would  be  very 
much  'comforted,  for  I  go  unto  my  Father  who  "  is  greater 
than  I ;"  than  I  am  as  Mediator  :  who  upon  my  coming  to 
him  will  exalt  me  :  and  therefore  if  ye  loved  me  ye  would 
rather  rejoice,  "  because  I  go  unto  my  Father  who  is  greater 
than  I."  From  whence  then  I  take  up  this  doctrine  : 
B2 


4  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SfiR.  1. 

That  true  love  unto  the  person  of  Christ  will  make  us  re- 
joice in  his  personal  exaltment,  though  it  may  be  in  some 
respects  unto  our  debasement  or  present  loss. 

For  the  opening  and  prosecuting  whereof, 

First,  We  must  inquire  what  there  is  in  Christ's  going  to 
the  Father  that  is  matter  of  our  rejoicing. 

Secondly,  I  shall  labour  to  shew  you  that  it  is  our  duty  to 
rejoice  in  the  personal  exaltment  of  Christ,  though  in  some 
respects  it  may  be  to  our  own  loss  and  debasement. 

Thirdly,  That  true  love  to  the  person  of  Christ  will  enable 
us  to  do  this. 

Fourthly,  That  it  is  possible  that  Christ's  own  and  best 
disciples  may  be  wanting  in  their  love  to  Christ's  person. 

Fifthly,  What  an  excellent  thing  it  is  to  love  the  person  of 
Christ  rather  than  the  benefits  of  Christ ;  to  have  our  hearts 
drawn  out  in  love  to  his  person,  more  excellent  than  to  have 
a  love  to  him  upon  the  account  of  benefits.  And, 

Sixthly,  What  we  should  do  that  our  hearts  may  be  drawn 
out  in  love  to  the  very  person  of  Christ,  so  as  we  may  be  able 
to  rejoice  in  his  exaltment  though  to  our  own  debasement. 

First,  If  you  ask  what  there  is  in  Christ's  going  to  the  Fa- 
ther that  is  matter  of  rejoicing,  of  a  disciple's  rejoicing. 

I  answer,  Much  every  way.  Much  in  reference  to  our  own 
concernments;  much  in  reference  to  the  concernments  of 
Christ;  much  in  reference  to  the  concernments  of  God  the 
Father. 

As  for  our  own  concernments. 

If  Christ  had  not  gone  unto  the  Father,  his  satisfaction  for 
our  sins  had  not  been  accepted,  nor  our  redemption  perfected. 
"  Neither  by  the  blood  of  goats  and  calves,  but  by  his  own 
blood  he  entered  in  once  into  the  holy  place,  having  obtained 
eternal  redemption  for  us,"  Heb.  ix.  12.  It  doth  relate  and 
allude  unto  the  manner  of  the  old  testament :  when  the  blood 
of  goats  and  calves  was  poured  out,  the  priest  "  took  the 
blood  and  carried  it  into  the  holy  of  holiest,  and  sprinkled 
the  mercy  seat."  But  though  the  blood  of  bulls  or  calves 
had  been  poured  out,  yet  if  the  priest  had  not  carried  it  into 
the  holy  of  holiest,  the  typical  satisfaction  and  redemption 
had  not  been  obtained.  And  so  here,  though  the  blood  of 
Jesus  had  been  shed,  and  poured  out  upon  the  cross,  if  he 
had  not  gone  unto  the  Father,  and  carried  his  blood  into 


.   1.]  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  5 

heaven,  into  the  holy  of  holiest,  his  satisfaction  for  our  sin 
had  not  been  accepted,  and  our  redemption  had  not  been 
perfected. 

If  Christ  had  not  gone  unto  the  Father,  he  had  not  made 
the  application  of  his  death  and  blood  and  merits  unto  our 
souls.  He  came  into  the  world  that  we  should  have  repent- 
ance and  remission.  Both  were  purchased  by  his  death. 
But  now  if  he  had  not  gone  unto  the  Father  there  had  not 
been  an  application.  Both  were  purchased  by  his  death  on 
earth.  But  was  the  business  so  left  at  a  loose  ?  No,  but  by 
his  going  to  the  Father,  what  he  purchased  by  his  death,  he 
doth  apply.  In  Acts  v.  it  is  said,  "  Him  hath  God  exalted 
with  his  right  hand  to  be  a  Prince  and  a  Saviour,  for  to  give 
repentance  unto  Israel  and  forgiveness  of  sins."  So  that  had 
he  not  gone  unto  the  Father,  there  had  not  been  an  applica- 
tion of  his  blood  and  death  and  merit  unto  our  souls. 

If  Christ  had  not  gone  unto  the  Father,  the  Holy  Ghost, 
the  Comforter,  had  not  come.  "  If  I  go  not  away  the  Com- 
forter will  not  come."  But  why  might  not  the  Comforter,  or 
the  Holy  Ghost,  come,  though  Christ  had  been  here  on  earth, 
if  he  had  not  gone  unto  the  Father  ? 

I  answer,  the  gifts,  graces  and  comforts  of  the  Holy  Ghost 
were  the  dona  regia  which  were  given  oat  upon  the  coronation 
of  Christ ;  for  by  this  going  to  the  Father  he  was  "  crowned 
with  glory  and  honour,"  as  in  Heb.  ii.  When  the  Holy 
Ghost  comes,  he  doth  bear  witness  to  our  spirits  that  we  are 
the  children  of  God,  and  God  reconciled  to  us.  But  how 
should  God  give  such  a  testimony  of  his  reconciliation  unto 
us,  if  Christ  had  not  first  gone  into  heaven  and  given  up  his 
accounts  of  what  he  had  done  here  on  earth.  It  is  said  ex- 
pressly in  John  vii.  "  This  spake  he  of  the  Spirit,  which  they 
that  believe  on  him  should  receive ;  for  the  Holy  Ghost  was 
not  yet  given,  because  that  Jesus  was  not  yet  glorified."  And 
if  Jesus  Christ  had  not  gone  unto  the  Father,  and  so  sent  the 
Spirit,  how  should  we  have  known  that  he  had  so  much  care 
for  us  and  love  to  us  when  he  was  in  heaven  as  by  the  send- 
ing of  the  Holy  Ghost.  We  are  never  more  fit  for  the  Holy 
Ghost  than  when  we  are  weaned  from  the  carnal  presence  of 
Christ.  And  therefore  if  Christ  had  not  gone  unto  the  Father, 
the  Spirit,  the  Holy  Ghost  had  not  come. 

If  our  Lord  and  Saviour  Christ  had  not  gone  unto  the 


€  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SfiB.  1. 

Father,  we  should  have  had  no  advocate  in  heaven  to  plead 
our  cause  in  heaven  upon  all  occasions.  It  is  a  great  matter, 
we  say,  to  have  a  friend  at  court,  an  agent  there  that  may 
plead  for  us.  What  a  mercy  is  it  to  have  an  agent  in  heaven 
to  negotiate  our  business  there !  Why  now,  saith  the  apostle, 
"  If  any  man  sin,  we  have  an  Advocate  with  the  Father, 
Jesus  Christ  the  righteous."  If  Christ  had  not  gone  unto 
the  Father,  we  had  not  had  this  Advocate  in  heaven  to  plead 
for  us  upon  all  occasions.  And, 

If  Christ  had  not  gone  unto  the  Father,  we  should  have 
no  entrance  into  heaven.  Heaven  was  locked  up,  the  gates 
of  paradise  were  shut,  and  kept  by  an  angel  with  a  flaming 
sword.  This  paradise  was  opened  upon  the  cross  :  "This  day 
shalt  thou  be  with  me  in  paradise."  And  we  enter  into  it 
by  Christ's  going  into  heaven,  by  his  going  into  the  holy  of 
holiest.  "  I  go  to  prepare  a  place  for  you ; "  not  as  sent 
before  to  take  up  your  lodgings,  but  as  one  friend  goes  before 
another,  to  make  a  great  entertainment  for  his  friends.  But, 
I  say,  if  Christ  had  not  gone  unto  the  Father,  we  had  had 
no  entrance  into  heaven.  Why  now,  is  it  not  a  matter  of 
joy  and  of  great  comfort,  that  we  have  entrance  into  heaven  ; 
that  the  Comforter  is  come  ;  that  we  have  always  one  in  hea- 
ven to  plead  our  cause  upon  all  occasions  ?  These  and  many 
other  things  we  obtain  by  Christ's  going  to  the  Father.  This 
for  our  own  concemment.  And, 

As  for  the  concernment  of  Christ :  by  his  going  to  the 
Father  he  was  exalted  and  glorified  (as  Mediator  I  speak). 

And  if  you  ask  what  was  the  glory  and  greatness  that  was 
put  upon  Christ,  as  Mediator,  by  his  going  to  the  Father  ? 
It  consists  in  two  things  :  the  royalty  of  his  entertainment 
when  he  came  unto  his  Father ;  and  the  greatness  of  his 
advancement. 

And  if  you  ask  yet,  what  was  the  entertainment  that  he 
had  when  he  came  unto  the  Father  ? 

Why,  it  was  an  entertainment  suitable  to  such  a  Father, 
and  to  such  a  Son.  When  that  great  sinner,  the  prodigal, 
returned  unto  his  father,  "  his  father  fell  upon  his  neck 
and  kissed  him."  Bring  out  the  robes,  kill  the  fatted  calf, 
bring  out  the  ring.  And  if  such  an  entertainment  for  a 
prodigal  son,  what  entertainment  then  for  the  natural  Son  of 
God,  the  obedient  Son  of  God,  that  had  been  upon  his 


.  1.]  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  7 

Father's  great  concernment  in  the  world  ?  Great  was  this 
entertainment  surely,  beyond  all  my  expression.  But  now 
more  particularly, 

1.  No  sooner  did  he  come  into  heaven  unto  his  Father,  but 
he  was  justified  in  all  that  which  he  did  and  suffered  for  us  ;  as 
you  have  it  in  the  1  Tim.  iii.  16,  "  God  was  manifest  in  the 
flesh,  justified  in  the  spirit,  seen  of  angels,  preached  unto  the 
gentiles,  believed  on  in  the  world,  received  up  into  glory/' 

2.  No  sooner  did  he  come  unto  the  Father,  but  he  was 
mightily  declared  to  be  the  Son  of  God,  as  you  have  it  in 
Rom.  i.  "Thou  art  my  Son,  this  day  (that  is,  upon  the  resur- 
rection) this  day  have  I  begotten  thee."   The  apostle  explains 
it  concerning  the  resurrection  in  Acts  xiii. 

3.  No  sooner  did  he  come  unto  the  Father,  but  he  was 
anointed  with  a  new  and  fresh   anointing,  with  the  oil  of 
gladness  above  all  his  fellows.     For  as  David,  the  type,  had  a 
double  anointing,  one  by  the  hand  of  Samuel,  after  which  he 
was  thrust  out  into  the  wilderness,  and  another  at  the  day  of 
his  coronation ;  so  Christ  typified  had  a  double  anointing, 
one  upon  his  incarnation,  in  which  respects  he  saith,  "  The 
Spirit  of  the  Lord  is  upon  me,  and  he  hath  anointed  me  to 
preach,"  and  another  upon   his   coronation,  when   he  was 
crowned  with  glory  and  honour.     And  therefore  in  Heb.  i., 
"  He  is  anointed  with  the  oil  of  gladness  above  his  fellows," 
comes  in  upon  his  exaltation.     And, 

4.  No  sooner  did  he  come  into  the  presence  of  his  Father, 
but  his  Father  said  unto  him,  (<  Sit  thou  down  at  my  right- 
hand  •"  the  most  honourable  place  in  heaven  :  Sit  thou  at  my 
right-hand,  my  Son.     Why  now  is  it  not  a  matter  of  great 
rejoicing  to  us,  that  Christ  going  to  heaven  with  our  names 
upon  his  shoulder  and  heart,  should  have  such  an  entertain- 
ment as  this,  such  a  welcome  as  this  unto  God  the  Father  ? 

But,  what  advancement  had  he  upon  his  going  to  the 
Father  ? 

Why,  great  was  his  advancement  as  Mediator. 

For,  1.  No  sooner  did  he  come  unto  the  Father,  but  he 
was  invested  with  all  that  glory  that  he  had  with  God  the 
Father  from  all  eternity,  which  he  had  laid  by  and  vailed, 
when  he  took  our  nature  upon  him  ;  and  therefore  in  John 
xvii,  saith  he,  "  And  now,  O  Father,  glorify  thou  me  with 
thyself,  with  the  glory  which  I  had  with  thee  before  tha 


8  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SfiR.  1. 

world  was."  No  sooner  did  he  come  into  heaven  unto  his 
Father,  but  he  was  invested  with  that  glory  again,  that  he 
had  vailed  to  take  our  nature  upon  him. 

2.  No  sooner  did  he  come  into  the  presence  of  his  Father 
into  heaven,  but  God  commanded  all  the  angels  to  worship 
him  :  "  Worship  him  all  ye  angels." 

3.  No  sooner  did  he  come  into  the  presence  of  his  Father, 
to  heaven,  but  he  was  made  executor  and  administrator  to 
his   own  will,  to  see  that  performed.     We  die  and  leave 
legacies,  but  cannot  administer  ourselves,  nor  be  the  execu- 
tors of  our  own  wills ;  but  Christ  lives  for  ever.     "  I  was 
dead,  but  am  alive."     And  when  he  came  into  heaven,  God 
the  Father  made  him  executor  to  his  own  will ;  and  therefore 
saith  he,  "  Ask  the  Father  in  my  name,  and  whatever  ye  ask, 
that  will  I  give  you."     '•  Him  hath  God  the  Father  exalted 
to  give  remission  and  repentance."     Executor  of  his  own 
will  and  testament. 

4.  No  sooner  did  he  come  into  heaven,  into  the  presence 
of  his  Father,  but  he  was  made  the  great  governor  of  all  the 
world,  and  Head  of  the  church.     In  Acts  v.,  "  Him  hath 
God   exalted  with   his   right-hand,  to    be   a  Prince   and    a 
Saviour  j"  lord  over  all  the  world,  and  Saviour  of  the  church. 
Agreeable  to  that  in  Eph.  i.  20,  "  which  he  wrought  in  Christ, 
when  he  raised  him  from  the  dead,  and  set  him  at  his  own 
right-hand  in  the  heavenly  places,  far  above  all  principalities 
and  powers,  and  might  and  dominion,  and  every  name  that 
is  named,  not  only  in  this  world,  but  also  in  that  which  is  to 
come.     And  hath  put  all  things  under  his  feet,  and  gave  him 
to  be  head  over  all  things  to  the  church,  which  is  his  body ;" 
Prince  and  Saviour,  Lord  over  all  the  world,  and  Saviour  and 
Head  unto  the  church. 

5.  And  to  say  no  more  in  it:  No  sooner  did  he  come  into 
the  presence  of  God  his  Father,  (that  is,  greater  than  he,  as 
Mediator,)  but  God  the  Father  did  take  him  into  fellowship 
in  the  matter  of  divine  worship.     Whether  aye  or  no,  Christ 
qua  Mediator,  or  quia  Mediator,  be  to  be  adored  with  divine 
worship,  I  will  not  now  debate  ;  but  whatsoever  worship  was 
due  to  God  the  Father,  was  given  to  Christ.   "  Confounded  be 
all  they  that  worship  graven  images ;  worship  him  all  ye 
gods."     All  divine  worship  due  to  God  the  Father,  is  given 
to  him.     Here  is  an  advancement.     Now  is  it  not  a  matter 


SER.    1.]  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  9 

of  great  rejoicing,  that  Christ  our  Head  should  be  thus 
advanced  ?  Saith  the  emperor's  wife,  If  thou  be  Caius,  I  am 
Caia ;  and,  if  Christ  be  king,  the  church  is  queen,  Ps.  xlv. 
Is  it  not,  I  say,  a  matter  of  great  rejoicing,  that  Christ  our 
Head  should  be  thus  advanced  ?  Now  thus  he  is  advanced 
by  his  going  to  God  the  Father.  Thus  for  the  Son's  con- 
cernment. But 

What  matter  is  there  of  rejoicing  by  Christ's  going  to  the 
Father,  in  reference  to  the  Father's  concernment  ? 

Much ;  saith  Christ  in  John  xiv.  13,  "  Whatsoever  ye 
shall  ask  in  my  name,  that  will  I  do,  that  the  Father  may  be 
glorified  in  the  Son."  That  will  I  do ;  I  am  now  going  from 
you,  and  if  ye  ask  the  Father  in  my  name,  that  will  I  do. 
Why  ?  not  that  the  Son  may  be  glorified  only,  but  that  the 
Father  may  be  glorified. 

Look  when  the  great  promise  of  the  Father  is  fulfilled,  then 
is  the  Father  glorified.  What  is  the  great  promise  of  the 
Father  ?  Acts  i.  The  coming  of  the  Holy  Ghost.  By  Christ's 
going  to  the  Father  comes  the  Holy  Ghost :  therein  was  the 
Father  glorified  then. 

And  look,  when  "  Every  tongue  shall  confess  that  Jesus 
is  the  Lord,  to  the  glory  of  the  Father,"  then  is  the  Father 
glorified.  Now  by  Christ's  going  to  the  Father,  being  exalted, 
every  tongue  doth  confess,  that  Jesus  is  the  Lord,  to  the 
glory  of  the  Father,  as  in  Phil.  ii. 

And  to  say  no  more  in  it  but  this :  look,  when  the  great 
design  of  God  upon  the  world  is  accomplished,  and  Christ 
the  Son  glorified,  then  is  the  Father  glorified.  Now  by 
Christ's  going  to  the  Father,  the  great  design  of  God  is  ac- 
complished, and  the  Son  glorified.  Thus  we  have  cause  ot 
rejoicing  in  reference  to  the  concernment  of  God  the  Father: 
look  where  you  will.  Will  you  look  into  your  own  concern- 
ment ;  will  you  look  into  the  concernment  of  Christ ;  will  you 
look  upon  the  concernment  of  God  the  Father  ?  there  is 
matter  of  our  rejoicing  in  Christ's  going  to  the  Father.  And 
so  I  have  done  with  the  first  thing.  But  then, 

Secondly,  How  ncay  it  appear  that  it  is  our  work  and  duty, 
to  rejoice  in  the  personal  exaltment  of  Christ,  though  in  some 
respect  it  should  be  to  our  own  debasement,  or  present  loss  ? 

Why  you  see  what  our  Saviour  saith  here,  "  If  ye  loved 
me,  ye  would  rejoice,  because  I  go  unto  the  Father  who  is 


10  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SfiR.  1. 

greater  than  I."  You  lose  by  my  going  you  think  ;  and  in- 
deed in  some  respects  you  do.  But  however,  it  is  your  duty 
to  rejoice,  because  it  is  for  my  personal  exaltment :  and  you 
know  what  Paul  saith  in  another  case.  Some  preach  Christ 
out  of  envy,  and  out  of  contention,  and  to  add  affliction  to 
my  bonds ;  but  however,  saith  he,  Christ  is  preached, 
"  Christ  is  exalted,  and  therein  I  will  rejoice  :"  I  will  rejoice 
though  I  be  debased,  so  Christ  may  be  exalted,  I  rejoice. 

If  that  we  are  to  praise  God  for  the  exaltment  of  Christ, 
then  we  are  to  rejoice  therein  ;  for  praise  and  rejoicing  go  to- 
gether in  scripture.  Now  though  I  cannot  praise  God  and 
be  thankful  that  God  loves  me,  I  may  praise  God  for  this, 
that  the  Father  loves  Christ,  and  be  thankful  for  his  love  and 
his  goodness  to  Christ.  Christ  praised  God  for  our  glory 
and  happiness,  though  to  his  own  debasement,  why  should 
not  we  praise  God  for  his  exaltment,  though  it  be  to  our 
debasement. 

If  I  am  to  mourn  for  sin,  because  it  is  a  dishonour  to  God, 
though  the  sin  be  to  my  own  profit,  then  I  am  to  praise  God 
and  Christ  for  his  glory,  though  it  may  be  in  some  respects 
to  my  prejudice. 

But  besides  this,  the  more  communicative  any  good  is,  the 
more  we  may  and  should  rejoice  therein.  There  is  abundance 
of  light  in  the  sun,  but  if  the  sun  be  not  up  and  ascended,  it 
cannot  give  light  unto  all  the  world :  so  now,  though  there  be 
light  in  Christ,  able  to  enlighten  all  the  world,  yet  if  this  sun 
be  not  up,  he  cannot  give  light  to  all  the  world :  but  being 
now  ascended,  he  is  able  to  give  forth  his  beams  of  light  unto 
all  the  world. 

But  you  will  say ;  how  may  it  appear,  that  Christ  will  be 
as  gracious  and  communicative  in  his  love  unto  us  now  in 
heaven,  as  he  would  have  been  had  he  been  here  on  earth  ? 

You  know  what  he  said  when  he  was  here  on  earth,  "  And 
let  him  that  is  athirst  come/'  John  vii.  37-  "  In  the  last  day, 
the  great  day  of  the  feast,  Jesus  stood  and  cried,  saying ;  If 
any  man  thirst,  let  him  come  unto  me  and  drink."  Now  he 
is  in  heaven,  look  into  the  book  of  the  Revelation,  which  he 
speaks  from  heaven,  he  speaks  more  than  that,  "  And  let  him 
that  is  athirst  come,"  there  is  that,  "  And  whosoever  will,  let 
him  take  of  the  water  of  life  freely,"  here  is  more  now  he  is 
in  heaven. 


SEJI.  1.]  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  11 

And  I  pray,  when  did  our  Lord  and  Saviour  Christ,  wash 
his  disciples'  feet ;  give  the  glorious  testimony  of  his  condes- 
cending love  unto  his  disciples,  than  when  he  was  going  to 
the  Father  ?  f<  Jesus  knowing  that  the  Father  had  given  all 
things  into  his  hands,  and  that  he  was  come  from  God,  and 
went  to  God :  he  arose  from  supper,  and  laid  aside  his  gar- 
ments, and  tok  a  towel  and  girded  himself."  Knowing  that 
all  power  was  given  into  his  hand,  he  gives  that  reason :  he 
did  thus  condescend  in  this  way  of  love,  knowing  that  all 
power  was  given  into  his  hand. 

Now  that  he  is  in  heaven,  all  power  is  given  into  his  hand, 
and  therefore  now  certainly  he  will  be  as  gracious,  and  com- 
municative in  his  love  and  goodness,  as  if  he  had  been  here 
on  earth ;  and  rather  over  and  above.  Surely  therefore  it  is 
our  work  and  our  duty  to  rejoice  in  this  exaltment  of  Christ, 
though  in  some  respects  it  may  be  to  our  debasement,  or 
present  loss.  But  then 

Thirdly,  How  shall  we  do  this  ? 

Why,  true  love  to  the  person  of  Christ  will  enable  us  to  do 
this :  it  will  enable  us  to  rejoice  in  the  personal  exaltment  of 
Christ,  though  it  may  be  to  our  own  present  loss  and  abase- 
ment. It  is  a  sweet  thing  to  the  lover,  to  suffer  for  the  per- 
son loved  :  that  is,  where  love  is  fixed  upon  the  person,  and  not 
upon  the  benefits,  if  love  be  fixed  upon  the  benefit,  it  is  not 
so,  but  if  upon  the  person  it  is  so :  so  if  our  love  be  fixed 
upon  the  person  of  Christ,  this  love  will  enable  us  to  rejoice 
in  the  exaltment  of  Christ,  though  it  be  in  our  own  de- 
basement: Christ  rejoiced  in  our  exaltment,  though  it  was 
to  his  own  debasement.  Why  ?  Because  he  loved  our  per- 
sons, "  who  loved  us,  and  gave  himself  for  us,"  so  that  true 
love  unto  the  person  of  Christ,  will  make  us  rejoice  in  his 
exaltment,  though  it  may  be  to  our  own  present  debasement. 

You  will  say  then,  How  few  are  there  that  do  love  Christ 
indeed  :  Christ  is  hardly  loved  for  Christ :  Christ  himself  is 
hardly  loved  for  himself:  to  love  the  person  of  Christ, 
how  few  are  there  that  do  that.  And  so  I  come  unto  the 
fourth  thing. 

Fourthly,  It  is  possible  that  Christ's  own  disciples  may 
be  wanting  in  their  love  to  Christ's  person.  It  is  somewhat 
strange  this  :  If  a  prince  or  nobleman  should  take  a  poor 
woman,  a  beggar  off  the  dunghill,  and  marry  her,  it  would  be 


12  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SER.  1. 

somewhat  strange,  that  she  should  not  love  his  person.  If 
he  should  not  love  her,  you  would  think  it  so  strange :  if 
Boaz  should  not  love  Ruth,  you  would  not  have  thought  it  so 
strenge,  but  that  Ruth  should  not  love  the  person  of  Boaz, 
this  may  seem  strange  :  so  now,  such  beggars  were  we,  when 
the  Lord  came  and  took  us  off  the  dunghill,  and  said,  Now  is 
a  time  of  love.  If  the  Lord  Jesus  should  not  love  our  per- 
sons, it  would  not  seem  so  strange ;  but  that  we  should  be 
wanting  in  our  love  to  the  person  of  Christ,  this  is  strange : 
yea  friends,  it  is  possible  that  Christ's  own  disciples  may  be 
wanting  in  their  love  to  the  person  of  Christ. 

They  may  be  wanting  in  the  manner  of  their  love  to 
Christ's  person. 

They  may  be  wanting  in  the  measure  of  their  love  to 
Christ's  person. 

"  If  ye  loved  me,"  saith  he,  and  yet  they  left  all  to  follow 
him :  possibly  then,  the  best  disciples  of  Christ,  the  best 
men  may  be  wanting  in  their  love  to  the  person  of  Christ. 
To  make  this  out  a  little  to  you. 

The  more  we  love  the  person  of  Christ,  the  more 
diligent  and  observant  we  shall  be  in  keeping  Christ's 
commandments,  that  are  properly  his.  "  If  ye  love  me, 
keep  my  commandments."  Why  now,  how  many  are  there 
of  God's  own  people,  that  are  too  negligent  in  keeping 
Christ's  commandments;  the  commandment  of  love,  the 
institutions  of  Christ:  and  why  so,  but  because  they  are 
wanting  in  their  love  to  the  person  of  Christ,  "  If  ye  love  me, 
keep  my  commandments." 

If  a  good  man  may  be  wanting  in  his  zeal  for  Christ, 
possibly  he  may  be  wanting  in  his  love  to  Christ's  person  : 
what  is  zeal,  but  fired  love,  inflamed  love,  angered  love  ? 
Now  possibly  a  man  that  loves  Christ  in  truth,  may  be  want- 
ing in  his  zeal.  Old  Eli  loved  God,  without  all  doubt,  and 
yet  he  was  wanting  in  his  love  to  God.  Peter  loved  Christ, 
"  Thou  knowest  that  I  love  thee,"  and  yet  wanting  in  his 
love  by  denying  of  Christ.  Good  men  may  be  wanting  in 
their  zeal  for  Christ.  Why  ?  But  because  they  are  wanting 
in  their  love  to  the  person  of  Christ. 

The  more  a  man  loves  the  person  of  Christ,  the  more  he 
doth  love  the  servants,  the  people  of  Christ.  It  was  a  good 
speech  of  Jerom,  when  there  was  a  difference  between  Austin 


SER.   1.]  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  13 

and  him :  I  love  Christ  dwelling  in  Austin :  even  at  that  very 
time  when  there  was  a  difference  between  them.  And  cer- 
tainly if  we  love  the  person  of  Christ,  we  shall  love  Christ 
dwelling  in  the  saints.  But  now  do  not  we  find  by  woeful  ex- 
perience, that  even  in  good  people,  their  love  to  the  saints  is 
wanting  ?  Why  ?  But  because  their  love  to  the  person  of 
Christ  is  wanting. 

The  more  a  man  doth  love  the  person  of  Christ,  the  more 
he  will  be  speaking  and  thinking  of  him  :  love  is  busied  and 
exercised  in  thoughtfulness  about  the  person  loved;  and  in 
speech.  If  a  man  love  a  person  or  thing,  he  will  be  thinking 
much  on  it,  and  speaking  much  on  it.  But  now  by  our  ex- 
perience, cannot  we  go  a  whole  day  together  and  have  no 
thought  of  Christ?  Do  not  we  sit  down  at  our  meals  fre- 
quently and  not  one  word  of  Christ?  Good  conference, 
where  art  thou  ?  Good  and  holy  conference,  where  art  thou  ? 
Come  to  professors'  tables,  one  dish  after  another,  one  cup  of 
wine  after  another,  but  nothing  of  Christ.  It  is  gone,  it  is 
gone :  what  is  the  reason,  but  because  we  are  wanting  in  our 
love  to  the  person  of  Christ  ?  Certainly,  if  we  were  not 
wanting  in  our  love  to  the  person  of  Christ,  we  should  be 
thinking  more  of  him  and  speaking  more  of  him. 

The  more  we  love  the  person  of  Christ,  the  more  we  shall 
desire  to  be  dissolved,  that  we  may  be  with  him  in  the  enjoy- 
ments of  himself  and  those  heavenly  embracements.  "  I 
desire  to  be  dissolved,"  (saith  St.  Paul)  why  ?  «  And  to  be 
with  Christ,"  to  have  the  person  of  Christ.  But  how  many 
good  people  are  there  that  cannot  desire  to  be  dissolved ; 
why  ?  Because  there  is  a  want  in  their  love  to  the  person  of 
Christ.  Possibly  then  you  see  by  all  these  things,  it  is  pos- 
sible that  a  good  man,  Christ's  own  and  best  disciples,  may 
be  wanting  in  their  love  to  the  person  of  Christ.  But 

Fifthly,  You  will  say,  Suppose  that  my  heart  be  riot  drawn 
out  in  love  to  the  person  of  Christ,  but  my  love  is  rather 
fixed  on  Christ's  benefits,  spiritual  benefits,  is  not  that 
good  ?  Is  it  not  good  that  I  should  have  love  for  Christ  in 
reference  unto  the  benefits  that  I  have  from  him. 

Good  ?  Yes.  "  I  sat  down  under  his  shadow  with  great 
delight,"  saith  the  spouse,  "  and  his  fruit  was  sweet  unto  my 
taste."  Fruit ;  that  is  the  fruit  of  justification,  the  fruit  of 
sanctification,  of  consolation,  "  and  his  fruit  was  sweet  unto 


14  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  [SfiR.  1. 

my  taste.     It  is  good  without  all  doubt,  that  our  hearts  should 
be  drawn  out  to  Christ,  by  occasion  even  of  his  benefits. 
But  I  pray  do  not  mistake  me ;  I  grant  therefore, 

1.  It  is  good,  and  a  lawful  thing  to  love  Christ  in  reference 
to  his  benefits.     But 

2.  It  is  our  duty  to  love  Christ's  person,  to  have  our  hearts 
drawn  out  with  love  to  the  very  person  of  Christ.     But 

3.  The  excellency  of  Christ's  person  is  not  the  object  of 
my  faith,  but  Christ  crucified.     And 

4.  Though  Christ  crucified  be  the  object  of  my  faith,  yet 
the  personal  excellencies   of  Christ   are   the   object   of  my 
love.     Yea,  it  is  a  more  excellent  thing  yet  to  love  the  person 
of  Christ,  than  the  benefits   of  Christ.     A  more   excellent 
thing  to  have  my  heart  drawn  out  in  love  to  the  person  of 
Christ,  than  to  have  my  heart  drawn  out  in  love  to  him  for 
his  benefits. 

But  you  will  say,  Wherein  doth  our  love  to  the  very  person 
of  Christ  exceed  or  excel  our  love  upon  the  account  of  benefits, 
though  spiritual  ?  Many  ways. 

First  of  all,  If  your  hearts  be  drawn  out  in  love  to  the 
very  person  of  Christ,  "  by  your  loving  him  you  make  him 
your  own."  It  is  not  so  in  other  loves.  By  my  loving  gold 
I  do  not  make  it  my  own  ;  by  my  loving  silver  I  do  not  make 
it  my  own ;  but  by  loving  his  person  I  make  him  my  own. 
It  is  not  so  in  regard  of  benefits.  By  my  loving  the  benefits 
of  Christ,  the  comforts  from  Christ,  I  do  not  make  Christ 
my  own,  but  by  my  love  unto  the  person  of  Christ  I  make 
Christ  my  own. 

2.  The  less  of  self  in  your  love  to  Christ,  the  more  pure 
and  clean  it  is  and  so  the  better.     Now  if  your  heart  be 
drawn  out  in  love  to  the  benefits  of  Christ,  your  love  is  more 
selfish,  you  love  him  in  reference  unto  yourselves  ;  because 
you  have  such  enjoyments  and  such  benefits.     But  if  your 
hearts  be  drawn  out  in  love  to  the  person  of  Christ,  your 
love  is  less  selfish ;  so  the  more  pure,  the  more  holy  and 
clean. 

3.  If  your  heart  be  drawn  out  unto  Christ  himself  and  the 
person  of  Christ,  you  will  more  readily  accept  of  "  anything 
from  Christ,  though  it  be  never  so   small ; "  yea,  though  it 
be  afflictive.     If  that  your  love  be  placed  and  founded  upon 
the  benefits  of  Christ,  then  you  will  not  so  easily  and  readily 


.   1.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  15 

accept  of  anything  from  Christ,  especially  if  afflictive.  True 
love  interprets  all  things  in  the  best  sense ;  that  is,  love  to 
the  person,  but  love  to  the  benefit  does  not.  Love  the  person 
of  Christ  and  you  will  interpret  every  dispensation  in  a  good 
sense,  for  you  love  his  person,  but  love  to  the  benefit  will  not 
do  so. 

4.  If  your  heart  be  drawn  out  in  love  to  the  very  person 
of  Christ,  then  you  will  sympathize  with  Christ  in  all  his 
concernments  of  the  gospel,  whether  matter  of  joy  or  matter 
of  grief.     If  your  love  be  founded  upon  Christ's  benefits  you 
will  not  sympathise  with  him  so,  but  love  his  person  and  you 
will  sympathize  with  him  in  all  his  concernments. 

5.  If  your  heart  be  drawn  out  in  love  to  the  very  person 
of  Christ,  then  you  will  abound  therein.     "  The  only  measure 
of  love,  is  to  know  no  measure,"  that  is,  where  the  person  is 
loved.     But  if  love  be  placed  upon  the   benefit,   it   knows 
stints,  and  limits,  and  measures.     But  if  your  heart  be  drawn 
out  in  love  to  the  very  person  of  Christ,  you  will  be  abundant 
therein,  and  you  will  never  think  you  can  love  enough. 

6.  If  your  heart  be  drawn  out  in  love  to   the  very  person 
of  Christ,  then  you  will (( long  after  the  presence  of  Christ, 
and  you  will  be  afflicted  for  his  absence."     Love  Christ  upon 
the  account  of  benefits  and  it  will  not  be  so ;  but  love  Christ 
upon  the  account  of  his  person  and  then  it  will  be  so.     You 
will  long  after  his  presence  and  you  will  be  afflicted  for  his 
absence. 

7-  The  more  your  heart  is  drawn  out  in  love  to  Christ  and 
the  person  of  Christ,  the  more  you  will  love  the  seed  of 
Christ,  the  posterity  of  Christ,  the  children,  and  the  people 
of  Christ.  David  loved  Jonathan's  seed,  why  ?  for  he  loved 
his  person,  not  his  benefits.  So,  love  but  the  person  of 
Christ,  and  then  you  will  shew  kindness  to  the  seed  of 
Christ,  arid  be  more  loving  to  the  seed  of  Christ. 

8,  The  more  your  heart  is  drawn  out  to  the  very  person 
of  Christ,  the  more  will  your  love  continue.  That  is  per- 
petual that  hath  a  perpetuating  cause.  The  personal  excel- 
lency of  Christ  is  a  perpetual  cause  of  love,  but  the  benefit 
that  doth  come  from  Christ  is  not  so.  Let  the  benefit  be 
never  so  great,  if  your  love  be  founded  upon  the  benefit  that 
doth  come  from  Christ,  as  the  benefit  dies  your  love  will  die  ; 
but  if  your  love  be  founded  upon  the  very  person  of  Christ, 


16  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  fSEB.    1. 

and  drawn  out  to  the  person  of  Christ,  then  will  your  love 
continue  and  never  die. 

9.  Lastly  as  to  this :  If  your  heart  be  drawn  out  in  love 
to  the  very  person  of  Christ,  to  Christ  himself,  then  you 
have  "  gained  the  heart  of  God  the  Father  for  ever."  Look 
into  John  xvi.,  saith  Christ  at  the  27th  verse :  "  For  the 
Father  himself  loveth  you,  because  ye  have  loved  me."  Not 
because  ye  have  loved  my  benefits,  but  because  ye  have  loved 
me ;  ye  have  gotten  the  heart  of  my  Father,  saith  he. 
Therefore  doth  my  Father  love  you,  because  ye  have  loved 
me,  because  ye  love  my  person.  Now  is  it  not  a  blessed 
thing,  friends,  (e  to  have  the  heart  of  God  the  Father  ? " 
Why,  if  your  heart  be  drawn  out  in  love  to  the  very  person 
of  Christ,  you  have  gained  the  heart  of  the  Father  for  ever. 
Aye,  and  the  Father  loves  you,  and  the  Son  loves  you,  and 
"they  will  come  and  make  their  abode  with  you."  Oh, 
what  a  blessed  thing  is  it  then,  for  to  have  one's  heart  drawn 
out  in  love  to  the  very  person  of  Christ !  Certainly  it  is 
infinitely  better  to  have  one's  heart  drawn  out  in  love  to  the 
person  of  Christ,  than  to  have  a  love  to  Christ  upon 
the  account  of  benefits,  although  the  benefits  be  spiritual 
benefits. 

And  if  these  things  be  so,  why  should  we  not  all  labour 
for  this  love  to  the  person  of  Christ  ?  To  love  Christ  not 
upon  the  account  of  benefits,  but  for  himself.  Oh,  that  I 
could  persuade  people  to  fix  upon  the  person  of  Christ  in 
their  love.  Oh,  that  this  day  I  could  persuade  you  to  this 
divine  fixation  of  your  love  upon  the  person  of  Christ.  I 
fear  our  love  is  not  rightly  placed  ;  I  fear  we  have  love  for 
Christ  beneath  Christ  himself.  It  is  the  great  work  of  a 
minister  to  woo  for  Christ.  A  minister's  work  is  to  come 
a  wooing  for  Christ ;  can  a  soul  be  wooed  over  unto  Christ, 
and  won  over  unto  Christ,  and  not  love  the  person  of  Christ  ? 
Now  then,  as  ever  you  do  desire  that  you  may  be  espoused 
to  Jesus  Christ,  that  you  may  be  married  to  Jesus  Christ, 
set  not  your  affections  upon  benefits,  set  not  your  affections 
upon  your  own  concernments  in  your  love  to  Christ ;  be 
more  raised  Christians.  Oh,  that  your  love  were  rightly 
placed,  fixed  upon  Christ  himself,  not  on  the  benefits,  but 
on  the  person  of  Christ  himself.  But 

Sixthly,  You  will  say,  What   shall  we  do  ?    we  have  heard 


.  1.]        CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  17 

what  an  excellent  thing  it  is  to  have  love  to  the  person  of 
Christ,  beyond  all  love  to  his  benefits,  though  they  be  spi- 
ritual benefits,  what  shall  we  do  that  our  hearts  may  be 
drawn  out  to  the  person  of  Christ,  that  so  we  may  be  able 
to  rejoice  in  the  personal  exaltment  of  Christ,  though  to  our 
own  debasement  ? 

What  shall  we  do  ?  It  is  a  great  and  a  good  question. 
What  shall  we  do  that  our  hearts  may  be  drawn  out  in  love 
to  the  very  person  of  Christ  ? 

Be  sure  that  you  be  really,  conjugally  united  unto  Christ. 
There  is  a  double  union  ;  there  is  a  union  by  way  of  juxta- 
position, laying  one  thing  to  another;  so  a  man's  arm  is 
united  unto  bread,  when  the  bread  is  bound  to  his  arm. 
There  is  a  union  by  way  of  intus-susception,  by  taking  in ; 
and  so  a  man  is  united  to  his  bread  and  his  bread  to  him 
when  he  eats  it,  they  are  made  one. 

So  there  is  a  double  union,  as  I  may  so  speak,  to  Christ ; 
one  whereby  men  are  united  to  Christ  by  the  external  liga- 
ments of  the  gospel,  concerning  whom  our  Saviour  may 
speak  in  John  xv. :  "Every  branch  in  me  that  beareth  not 
fruit,  shall  be  cast  out."  And  then  there  is  another  union 
with  Christ,  which  is  that  he  speaks  of,  "  He  that  eateth  my 
flesh  and  drinketh  my  blood,  shall  live,"  that  is  another  kind 
of  union,  a  closer  union.  Now  if  you  be  really,  conjugally 
united  to  Christ,  you  will  love  not  only  his  benefits,  but  you 
will  love  his  person.  Rest  not  therefore,  I  pray  you,  in  this 
external  union  with  Christ  by  the  ligaments  of  the  gospel, 
but  labour  more  and  more  to  be  conjugally  united  to  Jesus 
Christ.  But 

If  you  would  have  your  heart  drawn  out  in  love  to  Christ 
himself  and  the  person  of  Christ,  then  study  much  the 
personal  excellency  and  goodness  that  is  in  Christ's  person. 
Good  is  the  object  of  love.  The  more  excellent  the  good  is, 
the  more  suitable  the  good  is,  and  universal  and  obtainable, 
the  more  lovely  and  commanding  is  that  good.  Christ  is 
good,  an  excellent  good,  goodness  itself;  a  suitable  good, 
suitable  unto  all  our  wants.  If  you  be  poor,  he  is  rich ;  if 
you  be  foolish,  he  is  wise  ;  if  you  be  out  of  the  way,  "  I 
am  the  way,"  saith  he ;  if  you  want  a  director  in  the  way, 
"  I  am  the  truth  ;"  if  you  be  in  the  dark,  "  I  am  the  light;" 
a  suitable  good  and  an  universal  good  he  is.  As  all  the 

VOL.  in.  c 


18  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  [SER.  1. 

sweetnesses  that  are  in  the  flowers  of  the  field  and  in  the 
garden,  are  brought  in  by  the  bee  into  the  hive  ;  and  all  the 
sweetnesses  of  the  flowers  are  there  embodied  in  one  hive  ; 
so  all  the  attributes  of  God  and  the  sweetness  of  them  all 
are  hived  in  Christ,  in  whom  all  the  fulness  of  the  Godhead 
dwells  bodily.  And  he  is  an  obtainable  good ;  called  the 
Rose  of  Sharon,  the  rose  of  the  field,  not  of  the  garden, 
but  of  the  field,  that  every  one  may  come  at ;  called  the 
desire  of  all  nations.  Do  you  then  desire  that  your  hearts 
may  be  drawn  out  in  love  to  the  person  of  Christ,  study 
much  the  personal  goodness  and  excellency  of  Christ. 

If  you  do  desire  that  your  hearts  may  be  drawn  out  in  love 
to  Christ  himself,  to  the  very  person  of  Christ,  why  should 
you  not  now  stand  still  a  little  with  me,  and  behold  how 
Christ  hath  loved  you  and  your  persons  ?  Shall  Christ  love 
you  and  your  persons  and  will  not  you  love  him  and  his  per- 
son ?  Consider  a  little  with  me, 

The  more  impediments  that  any  love  doth  break  through, 
the  more  it  calls  for  love  again.  What  impediments  hath  not 
Christ's  love  broke  through  to  come  to  us  ?  Broke  through 
all  our  unworthiness ;  broke  through  the  law ;  broke  through 
the  justice  of  God ;  broke  through  the  wrath  of  God  ;  broke 
through  the  grave ;  broke  through  hell ;  broke  through  all 
our  unbelief. 

And  the  more  free  any  love  is,  the  more  it  calls  for  love 
again.  Three  things  there  are  that  call  for  love — likeness, 
benefit,  love ;  and  where  none  of  these  are,  the  love  is  most 
free. 

Now  Christ  hath  loved  you,  but  you  were  not  like  unto 
him  when  he  loved  you. 

You  could  do  him  no  kindness ;  you  had  no  benefits  to 
bestow  upon  him. 

And  you  had  no  love  for  him.  In  the  day  when  he  said, 
"  Now  is  the  time  of  love ;"  there  was  no  love  in  your  hearts 
for  him  :  and  therefore  his  love  must  needs  be  most  free. 

But  the  more  patient  that  love  is,  the  more  it  calls  for  love 
again,  the  more  taking  it  is.  Now  our  Saviour  Christ  stands 
knocking  at  your  door.  Give  me  leave  to  say  to  you,  had 
Christ  come  riding  post  through  your  city,  and  knocked  only 
at  your  door,  and  said,  Hasten  after  me  or  you  are  damned 
for  ever ;  it  had  been  much :  but  to  stand  at  your  door  and 


.   1.]  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  19 

knock,  day  after  day,  and  year  after  year,  with  the  unwearied 
hand  of  his  love  j  oh,  unspeakable  patience,  unexpressible  love  ! 
Yet  thus  hath  Christ  done  for  you,  and  thus  hath  Christ  loved 
you,  and  loved  your  persons ;  and  shall  Christ  love  you,  and 
love  your  persons,  and  shall  your  love  rest  any  where  but  in 
the  person  of  Christ  ?  Do  but  consider  how  he  hath  loved 
you  and  your  persons,  and  then  your  heart  will  be  drawn  out 
to  love  the  person  of  Christ. 

But  if  you  do  desire  that  your  hearts  may  be  drawn  out  in 
love  unto  Christ ;  if  you  do  desire,  I  say,  that  your  hearts 
should  be  drawn  out  in  love  to  Christ,  the  person  of  Christ, 
then  use  Christ  much.  In  any  good  thing  you  have,  the 
more  you  use  it  the  more  you  prize  it,  and  the  more  you  prize 
it  the  more  you  love  it.  If  you  have  a  good  friend,  the  more 
you  use  him  the  more  you  prize  him,  and  the  more  you  prize 
him  the  more  you  love  him.  If  you  have  a  good  horse,  the 
more  you  use  him  the  more  you  prize  him,  and  the  more  you 
prize  him  the  more  you  love  him.  If  you  have  but  a  good 
knife,  the  more  you  use  it  the  more  you  prize  it,  and  the 
more  you  prize  it  the  more  you  will  love  it.  Would  you  love 
Christ,  use  him  much,  and  then  the  more  you  will  prize  him, 
and  the  more  you  will  love  him.  Indeed  we  do  not  use 
Christ  enough :  and  what  is  the  reason  we  do  not  love  him  ? 
but  because  we  do  not  use  him.  Either  your  sins  be  great, 
or  else  they  be  small.  If  your  sins  be  great,  you  are  afraid 
to  use  Christ  for  them ;  if  your  sins  be  small,  you  think  you 
need  not  use  Christ  for  them.  Either  your  wants  be  great, 
or  else  they  be  small.  If  they  be  great  you  dare  not  use 
Christ  for  them,  and  if  your  wants  be  small  you  will  not,  you 
think  it  not  worth  your  time  to  use  Christ  for  them.  Indeed 
we  do  not  use  Christ  enough.  Use  Christ  much,  and  then 
you  will  prize  him  much ;  and  if  you  prize  him  much  you 
love  him  much. 

If  you  would  have  your  hearts  drawn  out  in  love  to  the 
very  person  of  Christ,  go  then  to  God,  and  beseech  the  Lord 
to  circumcise  your  hearts  for  to  love  him.  Mark  how  the 
promise  runs  :  the  Lord  hath  promised  to  unite  our  hearts  to 
fear  him,  and  he  hath  promised  to  circumcise  our  hearts  to 
love  him.  Why,  then,  would  you  fear  the  Lord  ?  go  to  God 
to  unite  your  hearts  unto  him  to  fear  him.  Would  you  love 
him  ?  go  to  God  and  beseech  him  to  circumcise  your  hearts 
c2 


20  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SER.    2. 

to  love  the  Lord  and  to  love  himself.  And,  oh,  that  the  love 
that  now  1  have  been  speaking  of,  unto  the  very  person  of 
Christ,  might  this  day  be  begotten  in  any  one  heart,  or  in- 
creased where  it  is  wanting.  I  fear  we  are  wanting  in  our 
love  to  Christ's  person  ;  wherefore  think  on  these  things,  and 
the  Lord  bless  them  to  you. 


SERMON    II. 

CHRIST  CRUCIFIED    THE   OBJECT  OF   OUR   FAITH. 

"  For  I  determined  not  to  know  any  thing  among  you,  save  Jesus 
Christ,  and  him  crucified." — 1  COR.  n.  2. 

HAVING  spoken  of  the  personal  excellencies  of  Christ,  the 
object  of  your  love,  there  is  a  necessity  upon  me  of  speaking 
something  concerning  Christ  crucified,  the  object  of  your 
faith,  that  your  love  and  faith  may  go  together ;  and  therefore 
have  made  choice  of  these  words  only  for  this  time. 

Wherein  the  apostle  Paul  doth  give  an  account  of  the  rea- 
son of  the  plainness  of  his  preaching  :  "  And  I,  brethren, 
when  I  came  to  you,  came  not  with  excellency  of  speech  or 
of  wisdom ;"  for,  saith  he,  I  am  to  preach  Christ  crucified. 
A  gallant,  eloquent  speech,  excellency  of  words,  and  plaited 
sentences  do  not  become  a  crucified  Christ.  If  I  should 
speak  at  that  rate,  my  speech  would  not  be  suited  unto  the 
subject  that  I  have  in  hand,  for  I  preach  Christ  crucified : 
saith  he,  "  For  I  determined  not  to  know  any  thing  among 
you,  save  Jesus  Christ  and  him  crucified/'  Some  books  read 
it,  "  I  desire  not  to  know  any  thing  among  you ;"  but  rather, 
"  I  judge  it;  I  decreed,  I  determined  not  to  know  any  thing 
among  you." 

"  Not  to  know  any  thing  among  you."  Not  to  make  any 
thing  known  unto  you.  I  would  preach  as  if  I  knew  nothing 
else  but  Christ  and  him  crucified.  Christ  and  him  crucified 
is  the  great  thing  I  desire  to  make  known  and  that  ye  should 
know.  So  that  plainly  then  the  observation  is  this : 

The  knowledge  of  Christ  .crucified  is  the  most  desirable 
thing  in  the  world.  The  knowledge  of  Christ  crucified  is  the 


SER.  2.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  21 

most  desirable  knowledge  and  the  most  desirable  thing  in  the 
world. 

That  which  the  apostles  taught  and  the  churches  learned, 
must  needs  be  the  most  desirable.  Now  this  is  that  the 
apostles  taught,  and  this  is  that  the  churches  learned,  and 
therefore  this  knowledge  of  Christ  crucified  is  the  most  de- 
sirable. But  for  the  opening  and  prosecuting  hereof, 

First,  We  must  a  little  inquire  what  it  is  to  know  Christ 
crucified,  and  when  a  man  may  be  said  to  know  Christ  cru- 
cified. 

Secondly,  That  it  is  our  great  work  and  business  in  the 
world  to  know  Christ  crucified. 

Thirdly,  What  there  is  in  Christ  crucified  that  is  so  desi- 
rable to  be  known. 

Fourthly,  Whether  a  man  may  live  under  the  gospel  and 
not  know  Christ  crucified. 

Fifthly,  What  are  the  benefits  that  we  do  get  or  gain  by  the 
knowledge  of  Christ  crucified.  And  then, 

Sixthly,  Wnat  we  should  do  that  we  may  know  Christ  cru- 
cified in  a  right  manner.  And, 

Seventhly,  In  case  we  do  know  him,  what  is  our  duty  that 
flows  from  hence. 

First  of  all,  If  you  ask  what  it  is  to  know  Christ  crucified, 
or  when  a  man  may  be  said  to  know  Christ  crucified, 

I  answer  shortly,  A  man  is  said  to  know  a  thing  nakedly 
and  barely,  or  else  effectually  and  truly.  Barely  and  nakedly 
a  man  knows  God  and  Christ,  when  he  doth  understand  that 
there  is  a  God,  and  Christ  a  Saviour  of  the  world.  So  the 
devil  said :  "  I  know  thee  whom  thou  art,  the  Holy  One  of 
Israel." 

But  truly  and  effectually  a  man  is  said  to  know  Christ  cru- 
cified, when  he  doth  know  the  mind  and  will  of  God  the 
Father  in  Christ  crucified,  having  a  disposition  and  affections 
suitable  thereunto.  Words  of  knowledge  note  an  affection, 
and  words  of  affection  in  Scripture  note  an  effect ;  accordingly 
therefore  in  Scripture  phrase,  a  man  is  said  tc  know,  when 
he  doth  go  round  about  a  business,  doth  consider  of  it  and 
look  well  into  it;  and  so  Christ  saith,  "  Behold  me  !  behold 
me!"  and  saith  the  apostle,  "Consider  the  High  Priest  of 
your  profession." 

This  knowledge  of  Christ  crucified  is  not  a  bare  knowledge 


22  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SfiR.  2. 

of  Christ  crucified  in  the  history,  but  it  is  a  serious  looking  into 
the  mystery  thereof.  In  Scripture  phrase  a  man  is  said  to  know 
when  he  doth  approve ;  approbation  is  put  for  knowledge : 
so  at  the  last,  Christ  shall  say,  "  Depart  from  me,  for  I  never 
knew  you ;"  that  is,  I  never  approved  of  you ;  knowledge 
being  put  for  approbation.  And  so  a  man  is  said  to  know 
Christ  crucified  when  he  doth  understand  and  know  the  mind 
and  will  of  God  the  Father  in  that  great  mystery,  and  doth 
approve  thereof. 

In  Scripture  phrase,  again,  a  man  is  said  to  know  God,  or 
know  Christ,  when  he  doth  believe  or  repose  in  Christ:  so, 
"  This  is  life  eternal,  to  know  thee,  and  him  whom  thou  hast 
sent '"  that  is,  to  believe,  knowing  being  put  for  believing. 

And  in  Scripture  phrase  a  man  is  said  to  know,  and  to 
know  Christ,  when  the  power  and  the  efficacy  of  the  death  of 
Christ  is  shed  abroad  into  his  heart,  and  upon  his  life ;  and 
so  Paul  speaking  to  the  Philippians  saith, "  I  count  all  things 
dross  for  the  excellency  of  the  knowledge  of  Christ,  that  I 
may  be  conformed  to  his  sufferings."  So  that  1  say,  look 
when  a  man  doth  not  only  understand,  but  seriously  look 
into,  and  consider  this  great  mystery  of  Christ  crucified,  ap- 
prove thereof,  rest  and  repose  upon  this  crucified  Christ, 
having  the  power  and  efficacy  of  his  death  shed  abroad  into 
his  heart  and  life,  then  he  is  said  for  to  know  Christ  crucified 
truly  and  effectually.  But  then 

Secondly,  How  may  it  appear,  that  it  is  our  work,  our  great 
work,  to  know  Christ  crucified  ? 

Why,  if  it  be  the  work,  and  great  work  of  preachers  of  the 
gospel,  to  preach  Christ  crucified ;  then  it  is  our  work,  our 
great  work,  to  know  Christ  crucified.  Now,  saith  the  apostle, 
in  1  Cor.  i.,  "  We  preach  Christ  crucified,  (that  is  our  work, 
saith  he,)  the  power  of  God,  and  the  wisdom  of  God/'  When 
our  Saviour  Christ  wrought  any  miracle,  he  said  unto  them, 
"  Go,  and  see  thou  tellest  no  man ;"  but  when  he  died 
and  rose  again,  "  Go,  preach  the  gospel/'  saith  he.  And 
what  doth  the  gospel  hold  forth  but  Christ  crucified^  What 
is  the  gospel  but  a  dead  Christ  ?  and  what  is  Christ  but  a  liv- 
ing gospel  ?  Now  I  say,  that  if  it  be  the  work  of  the  preach- 
ers, their  great  work,  to  preach  Christ  crucified,  then  it  is  our 
work,  and  our  great  work,  to  know  Christ  crucified. 

Look  what  that  is,  that  all  the  ceremonies,  sacrifices,  and 


SER.  2.]     CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.         23 

types  of  the  Old  Testament,  and  all  the  ordinances  of  the 
New  Testament  do  hold  forth,  that  are  we  to  know  especially. 
Now  what  do  all  the  sacrifices,  all  the  types  of  the  Old  Tes- 
tament hold  forth,  but  Christ  crucified  ;  and  what  do  all  the 
ordinances  of  the  New;  what  doth  baptism;  what  doth 
preaching;  what  doth  the  Lord's  Supper  hold  forth,  but 
Christ  crucified  ?  Surely  therefore  this  is  our  great  work  to 
know.  But 

If  Christ  crucified  be  the  great  and  proper,  and  next  ob- 
ject of  our  faith,  then  certainly  it  must  needs  be  our  special 
work  and  duty  for  to  know  Christ,  and  him  crucified.  Now 
Christ  crucified  is  the  proper  object  of  our  faith,  and  being 
opened  and  preached,  will  both  beget  and  increase  our  faith. 
It  is  the  object  of  our  faith,  and  therefore,  saith  the  apostle, 
Rom.  iii.  25,  "  Whom  God  hath  set  forth  to  be  a  propitia- 
tion through  faith  in  his  blood  :"  the  blood  and  death  and 
sufferings  of  Christ,  is  the  next  and  immediate  object  of  our 
faith.  Four  things  there  are  that  do  bid  for  our  faith,  which 
men  do  ordinarily  think  we  are  to  trust  unto  :  the  power  of 
God,  the  promise  of  God,  the  personal  excellencies  and  ful- 
ness of  Christ,  and  their  own  graces.  But  though  we  do 
rest  upon  the  power  and  all  sufficiency  of  God,  yet  if  you 
look  into  Scripture,  you  shall  find  that  the  immediate  object 
of  our  faith  is  Christ  crucified  ?  God  is  the  ultimate,  Christ 
the  immediate  object,  "  Ye  believe  in  God,  believe  also  in 
me,"  John.  xiv.  1.,  in  me  nextly  and  immediately,  and  in  God 
ultimately :  and  though  we  may  and  do  rest  on  the  promise 
or  word  of  God,  yet  we  do  so  far  rest  on  it,  as  we  do  close 
with  Christ  therein :  the  promises  are  but  the  veins  of 
Christ,  whereby  his  blood  is  carried  into  all  his  body :  it  is 
with  the  promises  as  it  is  with  the  seals,  or  sacraments ;  for 
what  are  the  sacraments,  but  so  many  real  promises  made  to 
the  eye  ?  Now  you  do  not  rest  on  the  sacrament  itself,  but 
you  rest  on  Christ  which  the  sacrament  doth  exhibit :  so  for 
the  promise,  though  it  stay  up  your  heart,  as  it  is  the  word 
of  God  ;  and  though  it  be  objectum  quo,  the  object  by  which 
you  do  it,  yet  Christ,  and  a  crucified  Christ  is  the  objectum 
quod,  the  object  which  you  do  rest  upon.  And  as  for  the 
personal  excellencies,  and  fulness  of  Christ,  though  those  ex- 
cellencies do  draw  out  your  love  unto  Christ,  yet  it  is  a  cru- 
cified Christ  that  doth  draw  out  your  faith.  The  personal 


24  CHRIST    AND    THE   COVENANT.  [SsR,  2. 

excellency  of  Christ  makes  him  a  fit  subject  for  you  to  rest 
on,  but  it  is  Christ  crucified  that  you  build  and  lay  the  weight 
of  your  soul  upon.  The  brazen  serpent  did  not  cure  the  Is- 
raelites by  virtue  of  its  excellent  metal,  but  as  lifted  up  ;  so, 
saith  Christ,  shall  the  Son  of  man  be  lifted  up  on  the  cross, 
and  as  lifted  up  on  the  cross  he  is  the  object  of  our  faith :  and 
though  our  graces  are,  and  may  be  a  good  help  to  confirm  our 
faith  of  assurance,  yet  they  are  not  the  object  of  our  faith  of 
reliance  :  for  God  doth  therefore  sometimes  put  the  sentence 
of  death  upon  our  graces,  that  we  may  not  trust  to  or  rest  on 
them  :  Christ  and  Christ  alone,  and  that  as  dying  and  cru- 
cified, is  the  object  of  our  faith.  And  it  is  not  with  this  ob- 
ject as  it  is  with  other  objects :  take  another  object,  and 
though  it  be  never  so  clearly  spread  before  the  organ  or  fa- 
culty, yet  it  cannot  cause  or  beget  the  act.  Suppose  the  most 
excellent  colour  be  laid  before  the  eye,  will  that  cause  the 
blind  eye  to  see  ?  No.  Or  suppose  the  most  excellent 
sound,  or  noise  of  music  be  laid  before  the  ear,  can  that  cause 
the  deaf  ear  to  hear  ?  No.  Yet  sound  is  the  object  of  the 
ear  hearing ;  and  colour  the  object  of  the  eye  seeing  ;  but  if 
the  true  object  of  faith,  Christ  crucified,  be  opened  and  laid 
before  an  unbelieving  heart,  it  will  cause  it  to  believe :  yea, 
and  it  will  increase  faith  ;  and  therefore  if  you  look  into  the 
book  of  the  Hebrews,  you  shall  find,  that  the  great  design  of 
that  book,  is  to  raise  and  increase  faith,  as  appears  by  the 
therefores  that  are  in  that  book,  "  Wherefore  let  us  draw 
near  with  full  assurance  of  faith,"  &c.  But  how  doth  the 
apostle  labour  to  raise  and  increase  our  faith  ?  He  doth  it 
by  opening  the  priesthood  and  sufferings  of  Christ ;  and 
without  doubt  there  is  no  such  way  to  raise,  beget  and  in- 
crease our  faith,  as  to  open  and  spread  Christ  crucified  be- 
fore the  soul.  Now  it  is  the  great  work  of  a  minister  to  be 
serviceable  to  the  faith  of  God's  people ;  surely  therefore  it 
is  his  work,  and  great  work  to  make  known  Christ  crucified : 
and  accordingly  Paul  saith  here,  "  I  determined  to  know  no- 
thing among  you,  but  Christ,  and  him  crucified." 

But  the  apostle  saith,  "  Henceforth  know  we  no  man  af- 
ter the  flesh,  no,  not  Christ  himself:  and  though  we  have 
known  him  after  the  flesh,  yet  henceforth  know  we  him  no 
more,"  2  Cor.  v.  16,  and  if  we  are  not  to  know  Christ  after 


SEB.  2.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  25 

the  flesh,  how  is  this  true,  that  it  is  our  great  work  to  know, 
and  make  known  Christ  crucified. 

Yes,  very  well  ;  for  the  apostle  doth  not  there  speak  of  the 
knowledge  of  Christ  crucified,  neither  doth  he  say,  that  we 
should  not  know  the  body  and  flesh  of  Christ  still :  there 
have  been  indeed  a  generation  of  men,  and  still  are,  who 
thought,  that  when  Christ  died,  rose,  and  ascended,  his  body 
was  swallowed  up  of  his  Deity,  and  that  he  hath  now  no 
body,  but  is  all  spirit :  but  the  apostle  speaks  the  contrary ; 
for,  says  he  to  the  Philippians,  "  Who  shall  change  our  vile 
body,  that  it  shall  be  like  to  his  glorious  body  ;"  Christ  then, 
though  in  heaven,  hath  a  body  still,  and  this  we  are  stiU  to 
know.  And  in  this  verse  he  saith,  "  Henceforth  know  we 
no  man  after  the  flesh,"  are  we  therefore  to  think,  that  men 
have  no  bodies  of  flesh  here  on  earth  ?  The  same  is  said  of 
Christ,  that  therefore  cannot  be  the  meaning  of  these  words  : 
but  we  are  not  to  know  Christ  after  the  flesh,  that  is,  say 
some,  upon  any  fleshly  or  carnal  account,  or  in  any 
fleshly  or  carnal  manner ;  but  I  rather  think,  that  the  apostle 
here  speaketh  in  reference  to  the  Jews:  times  where  when 
we  thought,  that  the  Messiah,  and  salvation  were  by  him,  did 
belong  to  the  Jews  only;  but  now,  saith  he,  we  know  that 
"  God  was  in  Christ  reconciling  the  world  to  himself,"  not 
the  Jews  only,  but  the  gentiles  also,  verse  19,  and  that  Christ 
did  not  die  only  for  the  Jews,  but  for  the  gentiles ;  and  "  he 
died  for  all,  that  they  which  live  should  not  live  unto  them- 
selves, but  unto  him  that  died  for  them,  and  rose  again ; 
wherefore  (see  how  it  comes  in)  henceforth  know  we  no  man 
after  the  flesh  ;  though  we  have  known  Christ  after  the  flesh, 
yet  now  henceforth  know  we  him  no  more,  therefore  if  any 
man  be  in  Christ  he  is  a  new  creature,"  whether  he  be  a  Jew 
or  a  gentile,  it  is  all  one  to  us  whatsoever  he  be,  if  he  be  in 
Christ  lie  is  a  new  creature,  "  wherefore  now  know  we  no 
man  after  the  flesh,  no  not  Christ  himself,"  upon  any  such 
Jewish  and  restrained  account,  for  "  he  died  for  all,"  one  as 
well  as  another,  "  wherefore  henceforth  know  we  no  man  af- 
ter the  flesh,  no,  not  Christ  himself,"  upon  any  such  Jewish 
arid  restrained  account,  for  "  he  died  for  all,"  one  as  well  as 
another,  "  wherefore  henceforth  know  we  no  man  after 
the  flesh,  no  not  Christ  himself."  And  thus  this  Scrip- 
ture being  opened,  the  one  place  is  not  contrary,  but  a  light  to 


26  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  [SfiR.  2. 

the  other.  And  so  much  in  answer  to  that  objection,  and  for 
the  second  thing,  namely,  that  it  is  our  great  work  and  busi- 
ness, to  know  Christ  crucified. 

The  third  thing  is,  What  is  there  in  Christ  crucified  that 
is  so  desirable  to  be  known  ? 

I  answer,  1.  There  is  the  conjunction  of  all  the  attributes  of 
God.  The  power,  the  wisdom,  the  justice,  the  mercy,  and 
righteousness  of  God.  In  the  day  that  you  know  Christ 
crucified,  that  day  do  all  the  attributes  of  God  pass  before 
you,  which  is  the  glory  of  God. 

2.  There  also,  in  Christ  crucified,  you  may  see  the  wealth 
and  riches,  not  only  of  the  saints,  but  of  the  world.  Christ's 
sepulchre  is  our  treasury ;  "  And  have  made  his  grave  with 
the  rich,"  Isa.  liii.     Glassius  reads  it,  He  hath  placed  riches 
in  his  grave.     For  the  wealth  and  riches  of  the  saints  lie  in 
the  grave  and  sufferings  of  Christ. 

3.  There,  in  Christ  crucified,  you  see  the  condescending  love 
of  God  in  the  height    thereof;  the  greatest  condescension 
of  divine  love.     There   are  two  travails  of  Christ  that  we 
read   of:   Christ   once   "travailing  in   the  greatness  of  his 
strength,"  Isa.  Ixiii.,  and  that  is  for  the  destruction  of  his 
enemies  and  the  deliverance  of  the  churches.  Another  travail 
which  you  read  of  in  Isa.  liii.,  "  He  shall  see  the  travail  of 
his  soul  and  be  satisfied,"  and  that  is,  Christ  travailing  in 
the  "  greatness  of  his  affections/'  in  the  day  of  his  sufferings. 
So  that  when  you  know  Christ  crucified,  then  you  see  him  and 
know  the  greatest  condescension  of  divine  love  that  ever  was. 

4.  There  also  you  may  see  the  greatness,  and  the  vileness, 
and  the  misery  of  sin  j  for  which  Christ  the  Lord  of  life 
and  glory  died. 

5.  There  you  may  see  the  greatest  sacrifice  for  sin  that 
ever  the  world  did  see.     Four  things,  saith  Austin,  concur  to 
a  sacrifice :   the  thing  sacrificed,  the  sacrificer,  the  person 
sacrificed  unto,  and  those  that  he  sacrifices  for ;  I  will  add 
a  fifth,  the  altar.     And  all  these  meet  in  one  in  Christ  upon 
the  cross.     He  himself  the  sacrifice,  the  sacrificer,  the  person 
sacrificed  to,  as  God ;  and  as  man,  the  person  for  whom  was 
the  sacrifice,  and  the  altar.     So  that  here  is  the  greatest 
sacrifice  that  ever  the  world  saw. 

6.  There  you  may  see  our  great  High  Priest  in  all  his  robes 
and  garments  rolled  in  blood. 


SER.  2.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  27 

7.  There,  in  Christ  crucified,  you  may  behold  and  see  the 
covenant  sealed,  and  all  the  promises  confirmed,  all  the  pro- 
mises being  yea  and  amen  in  Christ. 

8.  There  you  may  see  your  reconciliation  with  God  begun, 
and   the   day-break   of  your   eternal  happiness.     "  This   is 
ethrnal  life  to  know  thee,  and  him  whom  thou  hast  sent." 

9.  There  you  may  see  your  right  and  title  unto  all  your 
privileges,  and  the  root   of  all   your   enjoyments.     As  the 
man  being  shewn  a  table  full  of  silver,  still  had  his  eye  under 
the   table  to  see  the  root  of  it ;  and  being  led  to  another 
table  of  gold,  still  he  looked  under  the  table  to  see  the  root 
of  it.     So  here,  see  but  Christ  crucified,  and  you  see  your 
title  to  all  the  ordinances  and  the  root  of  all  your  enjoyments. 

10.  There  you  may  see  all  your  afflictions  sanctified,  all 
your  curses  turned  into  blessings  upon  the  cross  of  Christ. 

11  There  you  may  see  the  gates  of  Paradise  opened  afresh. 
"  This  day  shalt  thou  be  with  me  in  Paradise,"  said  Christ 
upon  the  cross. 

12.  There  you  may  see  the  ladder  that  the  angels  ascend 
and  descend  upon  for  your  ministry,  as  in  the  first  of  John 
and  the  last. 

13.  There  you  may  see  your  desire  upon  all  your  spiritual 
enemies,  law,  sin,  and  Satan.     It  is  not  only  a  promise  that 
you  shall  have  your  desire  upon  your  enemies,  but  you  shall 
see  your  desire  upon  your  enemies ;  look  upon  Christ  cruci- 
fied, and  you  see  your  desire  upon  all  these  enemies. 

14.  There  you  may  see  the  foundation  of  your  union  and 
communion  with  God  the  Father. 

15.  There  you  may  see  again,  the  accomplishment  of  that 
great  contrivance  between  God  the  Father  and  Christ,  in  refer- 
ence to  our  salvation. 

What  shall  I  say,  there,  in  Christ  crucified,  you  may 
see  a  full  answer  to  all  your  wants,  to  all  your  fears,  to  all 
your  doubts.  What  do  you  want,  but  you  may  see  it  in 
Christ  crucified  ?  Do  you  complain  of  your  own  un worthi- 
ness ?  Oh,  I  am  a  poor  unworthy  creature ;  do  but  look 
on  Christ  crucified,  you  see  him  suffering  without  the  gates ; 
Why,  saith  Austin,  did  he  suffer  without  the  gates  ?  not 
only  to  fulfil  the  scripture,  "  He  was  numbered  among  trans- 
gressors :"  but  he  suffered  without  the  gates,  not  in  the  holy 
city,  because  he  suffered  for  the  gentiles  as  well  as  the  Jews  ; 


28  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [§ER.  2. 

he  suffered  for  the  ungodly,  for  the  unworthy.  Now  look 
upon  Christ  crucified,  and  there  you  see  him  suffering  with- 
out the  gates  for  the  most  unworthy. 

Or  will  you  instance  in  your  own  sin  and  guilt  ?  why,  do 
but  look  upon  Christ  crucified,  and  you  see  that  sacrifice  for 
sin  that  the  world  never  saw  the  like,  and  that  before  your 
sin  was  committed. 

Will  you  instance  in  the  dominion  of  sin  and  your  bond- 
age under  it  ?  Look  but  upon  Christ  crucified  and  there  you 
see  your  ransom  :  "  Who  gave  himself  a  ransom  for  many," 
in  whom  we  have  redemption  through  his  blood. 

Will  you  instance  still  in  your  own  misery  and  ruins  ?  Oh, 
we  lie  like  the  ruins  of  London  at  this  day,  in  regard  of  our 
state  by  nature  :  yet  do  but  look  upon  Christ  crucified,  and 
there  you  shall  see  the  repairer  of  the  breaches,  and  the  res- 
torer of  paths  to  dwell  in.  Oh,  what  a  blessed  thing  is 
it  then  to  have  the  knowledge  of  this  Christ  crucified  ?  Who 
would  not  know  Christ  crucified. 

Fourthly,  But  you  will  say  whether  may  a  man  live 
under  the  gospel,  and  not  know  Christ  crucified.  We  all 
know  Christ  crucified  we  hope,  for,  is  it  possible  that  a 
man  should  live  under  the  gospel,  and  not  know  Christ  cruci- 
cified  ? 

Surely  it  is  possible  a  man  may  live  under  the  gospel,  and 
not  know  Christ  crucified,  as  he  ought  to  know ;  for  as  in 
times  of  the  law,  some  that  were  in  the  highest  forms  did 
not  know  God.  It  is  said  of  the  sons  of  Eli,  they  were  chil- 
dren of  Belial,  that  knew  not  God,  yet  priests,  men  of  the 
highest  form,  and  yet  they  knew  not  God.  So  now  in  the 
times  of  the  gospel,  men  may  sit  upon  the  highest  form  of 
profession,  and  yet  not  know  Christ  crucified  aright  as  they 
ought  to  know.  You  know  how  ignorant  Nicodemus  was, 
"  Art  thou  a  doctor  in  Israel,  and  knowest  not  these  things  ?" 
How  unacquainted  was  he  with  Christ  crucified  ?  yea,  Christ's 
own  disciples  before  Christ's  death,  how  ignorant  were  they  of 
a  crucified  Christ  ?  when  he  said,  "  Destroy  this  temple/'  in 
John  ii.,  they  understood  it  not.  So  that  possibly  men  may 
live  under  the  gospel,  and  be  in  a  very  high  form  of  profes- 
sion, and  yet  not  know  Christ  crucified  as  they  ought  to 
know. 

And  to  clear  it  to  vou.     If  we  did  know  Christ  crucified  as 


SER.  2.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  29 

we  ought  to  know,  why  are  we  not  more  sensible  of  our  igno- 
rance of  Christ  crucified.  It  is  both  recorded  and  reported 
of  Bishop  Usher,  a  learned  and  holy  man,  that  in  the  midst 
of  all  his  learning,  still  he  would  cry  out  of  his  ignorance  of 
Christ.  And  that  we  know  by  experience,  grace  will  make 
one  sensible  of  the  sin  that  is  contrary  unto  that  grace.  Faith 
will  make  one  sensible  of  one's  unbelief,  humility  will  make  one 
sensible  of  one's  pride,  sincerity  will  make  one  sensible  of 
one's  hypocrisy,  the  knowledge  of  Christ  crucified,  will  make 
one  sensible  of  one's  ignorance  of  Christ;  yet  how  many  are 
there  that  were  never  sensible  of  their  ignorance  of  Christ 
crucified  ;  Why  ?  But  because  they  do  not  know  this  cru- 
cified Christ,  as  they  ought  to  know. 

If  we  did  indeed  know  Christ  crucified  as  we  ought  to 
know,  why  are  we  not  more  crucified  to  the  world,  and  the 
things  thereof  ?  Gal.  vi.  You  know  what  Paul  saith,  "  God 
forbid  that  I  should  glory  in  any  thing  save  in  the  cross  of  our 
Saviour  Jesus  Christ,  by  whom  the  world  is  crucified  unto 
me,  and  I  unto  the  world."  Did  we  know  Christ  crucified 
as  we  ought  to  know,  certainly  we  should  be  more  crucified 
to  the  world  and  the  things  thereof;  but  how  few  even 
among  professors,  are  crucified  to  the  fashions,  ways  and 
manners  of  the  world?  And  why  so?  But  because  few 
there  be  that  do  know  Christ  crucified  in  a  right  manner. 

If  we  did  know  Christ  crucified  as  we  ought  to  know,  then 
why  do  we  prefer  other  things  before  Christ,  when  they  come 
in  competition  with  Christ  ?  In  the  general  we  do  choose 
for  Chnst,  but  in  time  of  competition  how  often  do  men 
prefer  other  things  before  Christ,  and  the  knowledge  of  other 
things  before  the  knowledge  of  Christ  ?  Truly,  saith  Paul, 
"  I  account  all  things  but  loss ;"  I  did  account  and  I  do 
account  all  things  loss  and  dross  and  dung,  for  the  excellency 
of  the  knowledge  of  Christ ;  not  only  loss  and  dross,  but  I 
account  them  dung,  unsavoury.  Time  was  when  I  gloried  in 
my  parts  and  in  my  privileges,  but  now  how  unsavoury  are 
all  these  things  unto  me,  in  regard  of  the  knowledge  of 
Christ.  So  Moses  chose  affliction  with  the  people  of  God 
in  time  of  competition.  Why  ?  Because  he  esteemed  the 
reproach  of  Christ  greater  riches  than  all  the  treasures  of 
Egypt. 

And  if  we  did  know  Christ  crucified  as  we  ought  to  know, 


30  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SfiR.  2. 

why  do  we  boggle,  startle  at,  and  go  back  so  often  from  the 
cross  and  persecution  for  the  name  of  Christ,  and  not  rather 
glory  in  the  excellencies  of  Christ  when  they  lie  under  the 
greatest  reproach  ?  The  wise  men  worshipped  Christ  in  a 
manger.  The  disciples  and  children  cried  Hosannah,  to 
Christ  riding  upon  an  ass.  Many  will  honour  Christ  in  a 
coach,  but  will  not  honour  Christ  upon  an  ass.  Many  cry 
up  the  kingdom  and  the  government  of  Christ  when  he  is 
upon  the  throne,  but  not  when  a  crown  of  thorns  is  upon  his 
head.  Friends,  it  is  one  thing  to  glory  in  the  kingdom  and 
government  of  Christ  when  it  is  under  glory,  and  another 
thing  when  it  is  under  reproach.  Many  there  are  that  glory 
in  the  kingdom  and  government  of  Christ  when  it  lies  under 
excellency  and  glory,  few  that  do  glory  in  the  government  of 
Christ  lying  under  reproach ;  and  why,  but  because  they  do 
not  know  this  crucified  Christ  in  a  right  manner. 

If  we  did  know  Christ  crucified  as  we  ought  to  know,  why 
are  we  not  willing  to  take  and  receive  all  our  mercies  and 
blessings  in  the  way  that  this  crucified  Christ  hath  purchased 
and  bought  for  us  ?  What  way  is  that  ?  Why  Christ  hath 
bought  them  for  us  in  a  way  of  contraries :  heaven  by  the 
way  of  hell,  mercy  by  the  way  of  misery ;  glory  and  honour 
by  the  way  of  reproach,  victory  over  enemies  by  being  over- 
come by  enemies ;  Christ  overcame  the  world  by  being  over- 
come by  the  world.  This  is  the  way  that  the  crucified  Christ 
went ;  and  if  in  truth  we  were  acquainted  with  Christ  cruci- 
fied, and  did  know  Christ  crucified  as  we  ought  to  know  him, 
why  should  we  not  be  contented  to  take  our  mercies  and 
blessings  in  the  way  that  this  crucified  Christ  hath  bought 
them  for  us  ?  Joy  by  grief,  hope  by  fear,  mercy  by 
misery,  and  overcoming  by  being  overcome.  But  oh,  how 
many  are  there  that  are  unwilling  to  take  these  things  thus  : 
why  ?  because  few  there  are  that  do  know  Christ  crucified  as 
they  ought  to  know.  But,  O  friends,  shall  we  live  thus  long 
under  the  gospel,  and  not  know  Christ  crucified  as  we  ought 
to  know  ? 

But,  fifthly,  you  will  say  Suppose  yet  that  we  do  know 
Christ  crucified  as  we  ought  to  know,  what  shall  we  gain 
or  what  shall  we  get  thereby  ?  What  are  the  great  benefits 
that  we  shall  obtain  or  get  by  knowing  Christ  crucified  in  a 
right  manner  ?  Those  are  many. 


SER.  2.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  31 

Thereby  you  shall  know  God,  you  shall  know  yourselves, 
and  you  shall  know  men. 

You  shall  know  God.  God  is  best  known  in  Christ ;  the 
sun  is  not  seen  but  by  the  light  of  the  sun.  Christ  (as  one 
speaks)  came  from  heaven  with  a  Bible  under  his  arm,  to  make 
known  the  will  of  God  the  Father  to  the  children  of  men  ; 
and,  without  Christ,  there  is  no  knowledge  of  God  the 
Father ;  he  doth  reveal  the  Father,  thereby  you  know  the 
Father. 

And  thereby  also  you  know  yourselves  :  for  three  things 
are  required  to  the  knowledge  of  ourselves ;  we  must  know 
our  sins,  our  misery  thereby,  and  our  inability  for  to  help 
ourselves.  Know  but  Christ  crucified,  you  know  your  sins, 
you  know  your  misery  thereby,  and  you  know  your  inability 
to  help  yourselves. 

And  thereby  you  shall  know  men  :  for  the  more  I  know 
the  worth  of  a  man,  the  more  I  know  him  ;  and  the  more  I 
know  the  difference  between  man  and  man,  the  more  I  know 
men :  know  but  Christ  crucified,  and  you  know  the  worth  of 
a  man ;  and  you  never  know  the  worth  of  a  soul,  or  of  a 
man,  but  by  knowing  Christ  crucified.  Thereby  you  know, 
I  say,  God,  and  you  know  yourselves,  and  you  know  men. 

Thereby  you  shall  have  your  hearts  drawn  out  and  engagxl 
to  Jesus  Christ :  "  When  I  am  lifted  up,  I  will  draw  all  men 
after  me."  One  would  think  that  the  scandal  of  the  cross 
should  drive  men  from  Christ,  but  there  is  wisdom  and  power 
in  Christ  crucified  which  draws  men  unto  Christ.  Wisdom 
draws ;  it  drew  the  queen  of  Sheba  to  behold  Solomon :  a 
greater  than  Solomon  is  here.  Love  draws ;  it  drew  Rebecca 
unto  Isaac.  Here  is  love  indeed  in  Christ  crucified.  Christ 
crucified  is  the  most  drawing  thing  in  the  world  ;  where  love 
and  wisdom  and  power  and  strength  and  all  meet ;  thereby, 
I  say,  your  hearts  shall  be  drawn  out  and  engaged  to  Jesus 
Christ. 

Thereby  also  your  lusts  and  temptations  shall  be  fully 
mortified  and  subdued.  There  are  three  sorts  of  lusts,  (( the 
lusts  of  the  eye,  the  lusts  of  the  flesh,  and  the  pride  of 
life,"  that  John  speaks  of.  The  devil  tempted  Adam  and 
Eve  by  all  these,  by  the  lust  of  the  eye  they  saw  the  apple 
that  it  was  fair  to  look  otf;  by  the  lust  of  the  flesh  that  the 
apple  was  good  to  eat ;  and  by  the  pride  of  life  the  devil 


32  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  [SfiR.  2. 

told  them,  that  if  they  ate,  they  should  be  "  like  unto  God," 
and  he  prevailed  witn  Adam  and  with  Eve.  And  accordingly 
he  sets  upon  the  second  Adam,  and  thought  to  have  carried 
him  too,  he  tempted  him  by  all  these.  He  tempted  him  by 
the  lusts  of  the  flesh,  "  Turn  these  stones  into  bread ; " 
By  the  lusts  of  the  eye,  "  He  shewed  him  all  the  glory  of 
the  world;"  he  tempted  him  by  the  pride  of  life,  "  All  this 
will  I  give  thee,  if  thou  wilt  fall  down  and  worship  me ;"  but 
here  he  missed  his  prize,  and  so  shall  he  do  when  he  comes 
and  tempts  you,  if  you  do  but  keep  close  to  a  crucified 
Christ  in  the  time  of  your  temptations,  "for  by  faith  we 
quench  all  the  fiery  darts  of  the  devil  •"  and  where  are  they 
quenched  but  in  the  blood  of  Jesus  ?  You  blow  out  a 
candle  and  it  is  easily  lighted  again ;  but  if  you  quench  it  in 
blood,  it  is  not  so  easily  lighted  again ;  if  you  blow  out  a 
temptation  or  a  sin  by  a  resolution,  it  is  easily  lighted  again, 
but  quench  it  in  the  blood  of  Jesus,  and  it  is  not  so  easily 
lighted  again. 

Thereby  also  you  shall  die  unto  all  your  own  righteousness. 
There  is  no  such  way  in  the  world  to  die  unto  our  own 
righteousness  as  by  the  knowledge  of  a  crucified  Christ,  as  in 
that  place  of  the  Philippians,  "  I  account  all  things  loss.  &c." 

Thereby  also  you  shall  be  able  to  deny  yourselves  in  all 
things,  in  one  thing  as  well  as  another.  Possibly  a  man  may 
deny  himself  in  one  thing,  that  he  may  seek  himself  in 
another.  I  may  deny  myself  in  meats  and  drinks,  that  I 
may  have  the  more  money ;  deny  myself  in  prodigality,  that 
I  may  seek  myself  in  covetousness.  It  is  possible  that  a 
man  may  deny  himself  in  one  thing,  that  he  may  seek  him- 
self in  another;  a  man  may  deny  his  pride  in  one  thing,  that 
he  may  be  proud  in  another.  But  now  the  sight  of  a  cruci- 
fied Christ  will  teach  us  to  deny  ourselves  in  everything. 
And  therefore  the  apostle  Paul,  pressing  the  Philippians  unto 
humility  and  self-denial,  he  opens  before  them  the  sufferings 
of  Christ. 

By  your  knowledge  of  Christ  crucified,  you  shall  grow  in 
grace,  in  one  grace  as  well  as  in  another,  grow  in  assurance 
and  yet  in  repentance  ;  grow  in  repentance,  and  yet  in  assur- 
ance. The  sight  of  Christ  crucified  is  a  friend  unto  your 
repentance,  and  a  friend  unto  your  assurance.  Saith  the 
apostle,  "  Grow  in  grace,"  not  in  this  or  that  grace,  but  grace 


SER.  2.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  33 

in  the  general ;  "  Grow  in  grace  and  in  the  knowledge  of 
Christ :"  so  that  the  knowledge  of  Christ  crucified  is  that 
whereby  you  shall  grow  in  one  grace  as  well  as  in  another. 

Thereby  also  your  hearts  shall  be  established  in  opposition 
to  all  sufferings  and  afflictions.  It  will  encourage  you  to  suf- 
fer, and  it  will  enable  you  to  suffer.  Nicodemus  came  by 
night  when  he  first  came  to  Christ ;  but  after  he  had  seen 
Christ  upon  the  cross,  and  seen  the  sufferings  of  Christ,  how 
boldly  did  he  own  Christ  then.  The  sight  of  a  suffering 
Christ  will  both  encourage  to  suffer  and  enable  to  suffer.  All 
our  sufferings  are  either  outward  or  inward  :  if  my  sufferings 
and  afflictions  be  outward,  the  sight  of  a  suffering  Christ  will 
make  me  suffer ;  if  my  afflictions  be  inward  and  spiritual, 
what  is  there  that  will  quiet  the  conscience  of  a  poor  trem- 
bling soul  but  Christ  crucified  ?  Thereby,  I  say,  you  shall  be 
established  in  opposition  unto  all  your  sufferings  and  afflic- 
tions, inward  and  outward. 

Thereby  also  you  shall  have  boldness  in  all  your  addresses 
unto  God  the  Father.  "  Wherefore  (saith  the  apostle)  let  us 
come  with  boldness  to  the  throne  of  grace."  Why  ?  "  For 
we  have  an  High  Priest."  An  High  Priest,  there  is  the  suffer- 
ings of  Christ.  Thereby  you  have  boldness  in  all  your  ad- 
dresses to  God  the  Father. 

Thereby,  even  by  the  knowledge  of  Christ  crucified,  you 
shall  be  possessed  of  Christ.  You  know  many  things,  and 
yet  you  do  not  possess  them  by  your  knowledge  of  them : 
but  know  Christ  crucified,  and  you  are  possessed  of  Christ. 
Saith  the  apostle,  "  My  little  children,  of  whom  I  travail  in 
birth  again,  until  Christ  be  formed  in  you."  Christ  formed 
in  you ;  that  is,  till  the  knowledge  of  Christ  be  formed  in 
you.  The  knowledge  of  Christ  brings  one  into  the  possession 
of  Christ. 

Yea,  thereby  you  shall  be  furnished  and  prepared  for  every 
good  word  and  work.  For  what  is  the  death  and  suffering  of 
Christ,  but  officina  virtutum,  the  shop  of  virtues  ?  Do  you 
want  faith  ?  Christ  crucified  is  the  object  of  your  faith,  and 
the  cause  of  it,  as  you  have  heard.  Are  you  full  of  fears ; 
are  you  afraid  because  of  the  law  and  the  avenger  of  blood 
that  is  following  you  at  the  heels  ?  Do  but  look  upon  Christ 
crucified,  and  there  you  see  the  city  of  refuge.  So  many 
wounds  in  Christ,  so  many  cities  of  refuge.  Are  you  impa- 

VOL.  III.  D 


34  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SfiR.   2. 

tient  and  frovvard  ?  Why  the  sight  of  a  patient  Christ  will 
make  you  patient.  Are  you  proud  ?  The  sight  of  a  humble 
Christ,  a  crucified  Christ,  will  make  you  humble.  If  I  have 
gallant  and  brave  clothes  on,  and  go  abroad  and  swagger  with 
them,  and  a  man  comes  and  tells  me,  Sir,  you  owe  for  these 
clothes ;  it  is  enough  to  take  down  my  plumes.  So  now, 
though  a  man  be  proud  of  this  or  that  good  thing,  yet  if  he 
do  but  see  Christ  crucified,  he  shall  there  be  told  that  Christ 
hath  paid  for  all ;  and  this  will  take  down  his  pride.  Do  you 
complain  of  a  hard  heart  ?  The  sight  of  a  broken  Christ  will 
break  your  heart,  or  nothing  will.  So  that  the  knowledge  of 
Christ  crucified  is  that  that  will  furnish  you  and  prepare  you 
to  every  good  word  and  work.  And  therefore,  O  friends, 
who  would  not  labour  to  know  Christ  crucified  !  Let  me 
speak  a  little  more. 

This  is  the  knowledge  that  is  the  soul  humbling  knowledge. 
Other  knowledge  puffs  up ;  but  if  you  know  Christ  crucified, 
you  may  glory  in  your  knowledge  without  pride.  fe  Let  not 
the  wise  man  glory  in  his  wisdom,  nor  the  strong  man  in  his 
strength,  nor  the  learned  man  glory  in  his  learning/'  If  I 
glory  in  my  wisdom,  I  am  proud ;  if  I  glory  in  my  strength, 
I  am  proud ;  but  if  I  glory  in  that  I  know  Christ  cru- 
cified, the  more  I  glory  in  Christ  crucified,  the  more  humble 
I  am.  That  is  a  soul-humbling  knowledge. 

This  is  that  knowledge  which  is  the  highest  experimental 
knowledge  in  the  world.  A  man  may  have  the  experience  of 
his  own  sins,  yet  be  a  wicked  man.  Oh,  I  have  such  a  proud 
heart,  such  a  vain  heart,  may  he  say.  Why  ?  For  his  sins 
are  within  him ;  and  he  may  easily,  though  a  wicked  man,  have 
experience  of  what  is  within  him  by  nature :  but  to  have  ex- 
perience of  a  crucified  Christ  is  not  by  nature.  This  is  the 
highest  experience  in  the  world — Christ  in  me  the  hope  of 
glory  ;  this  is  the  most  true  experimental  knowledge. 

This  is  that  knowledge  that  will  make  a  man  wise  indeed. 
Other  knowledge  may  make  a  man  wise,  quo  ad  hoc,  to  this 
or  that  thing,  but  the  knowledge  of  Christ  crucified  doth  make 
a  man  wise  at  large. 

And  therefore,  I  say,  oh,  what  a  blessed  thing  is  it  to  know 
Christ  crucified  ;  and  who  would  not  labour  to  know  Christ 
crucified  in  a  right  manner  ? 

Sixthly.     You  will  say  then,  in  the  sixth  place,  What  shall 


SER.  2.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  35 

we  do  to  know  Christ  crucified  in  a  right  manner ;  for  we  have 
heard  men  may  live  under  the  gospel,  sit  upon  the  highest 
form  of  profession,  and  yet  not  know  Christ  crucified  in  a 
right  manner :  what  shall  we  do  then  that  we  may  know  Christ 
crucified  in  a  right  manner  ?  Something  I  shall  speak  to  the 
manner,  and  something  to  the  means. 

As  to  the  manner.  If  you  would  know  Christ  crucified  in 
a  right  manner,  you  must  look  upon  him  as  the  great  institu- 
tion and  appointment  of  the  Father.  When  God  doth  deal 
with  us  in  a  way  of  institutions,  he  hath  not  respect  unto  the 
strength  of  the  means  or  the  worth  of  the  persons.  When 
God  deals  with  us  in  a  way  of  nature  there  is  respect  had  to 
the  strength  of  the  means  or  the  worth  of  the  person.  As  in 
physic  God  deals  in  a  way  of  nature,  there  respect  is  had  to 
the  strength  of  the  means.  But  when  God  deals  with  us  in 
a  way  of  institution,  there  he  hath  neither  respect  to  the 
strength  of  means  nor  to  the  worth  of  persons.  Now  Jesus 
Christ  is  the  great  institution  of  God  the  Father,  and  so  if 
we  would  know  him  rightly  we  must  look  upon  him.  For 
though  the  stung  Israelite  was  cured  by  the  brazen  serpent, 
yet  he  was  not  cured  by  the  brazen  serpent  in  regard  of  the 
metal  of  the  serpent,  but  as  it  was  an  appointment,  and  as 
an  institution.  So  if  a  man  would  know  Christ  to  purpose, 
he  must  know  him  and  look  upon  him  as  the  great  institution 
and  appointment  of  the  Father ;  Him  hath  God  the  Father 
sealed.  And  what  is  the  reason  that  many  go  to  and  get  no 
good  by  a  crucified  Christ,  but  because  they  never  did  to  this 
day  look  upon  Christ  crucified  as  the  great  institution  of  the 
Father. 

If  you  would  know  Christ  crucified  in  a  right  manner,  you 
must  then  look  upon  him  as  sent,  you  must  look  upon  this 
crucified  Christ  under  the  mission  of  the  Father.  There  are 
three  great  missions  that  you  read  of  in  the  New  Testament. 
There  is  the  mission  of  ministers :  they  are  sent  out  to  preach. 
There  is  the  mission  of  the  Highest :  "  I  will  send  the  Com- 
forter." There  is  the  mission  of  the  Son  sent  from  the  Fa- 
ther. Now  the  mission  of  Christ  from  the  Father  is  the 
original  of  all  the  other  missions  ;  and  you  cannot  know  the 
other  missions  rightly,  if  you  do  not  know  this  original  mis- 
sion. If  you  would  know  Christ  crucified  in  a  right  manner, 
you  must  know  him  as  sent.  In  the  xviith  of  John,  saith 
n  2 


36  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  [SfiR.  2. 

Christ  in  his  prayer  to  the  Father,  "  But  I  have  known  thee, 
and  these  have  known  that  thou  hast  sent  me."  So  that  if 
you  would  know  Christ  crucified  in  a  right  manner,  you  must 
know  him  arid  look  upon  him  as  under  a  mission  from  the 
Father. 

If  you  would  know  Christ  crucified  in  a  right  manner,  you 
must  look  well  unto  the  design,  drift  and  scope  of  the  Father 
in  the  sufferings  of  Christ.  Then  you  know  Christ  when 
you  know  the  Father,  and  you  know  the  Father  when  you 
know  the  Father's  design.  What  is  the  great  design  of  the 
Father  in  sending  Christ  to  die,  but  to  magnify  his  love,  to 
save  poor  sinners,  to  justify  the  ungodly  ?  Would  you  know 
Christ  crucified  aright  ?  be  sure  you  have  an  eye  to  the  design 
of  the  Father  in  the  matter  of  a  crucified  Christ. 

Be  sure  of  this,  That  you  look  as  well  upon  the  testamen- 
talness  cf  Christ's  sufferings,  as  the  greatness  of  his  sufferings. 
Some  look  much  at  the  greatness  of  the  sufferings  of  Christ, 
as  the  friars  and  monks,  and  never  look  at  the  testament al- 
ness  of  Christ's  sufferings.  Oh,  say  they,  Christ's  death 
was  a  painful,  reproachful,  and  a  lingering  death,  and  thus 
they  aggravate,  as  truly  they  may,  the  sufferings  of  Christ; 
but  not  one  word  of  the  testamentalness  of  his  sufferings. 
But  Christ's  death  was  to  seal  the  covenant ;  therefore  if 
you  would  know  Christ  crucified  rightly,  you  must  as  well 
look  upon  the  testamentalness  of  his  sufferings,  as  the  great- 
ness of  his  sufferings.  Thus  in  regard  of  the  manner,  if 
you  would  know  Christ  rightly. 

And  for  the  means,  I  shall  speak  two  or  three  things. 
If  you  would  know  Christ  crucified  in  a  right  manner  for 
means,  then  go  unto  God  the  Father  to  create  this  knowledge 
of  Christ  crucified  in  you.  All  light  was  at  the  first  by  a  word 
of  creation,  Cf  Let  there  be  light."  And  as  in  the  old  crea- 
tion, the  creation  of  the  world,  so  in  the  new  creation,  Let 
there  be  light,  let  there  be  knowledge :  "  God  that  com- 
manded the  light  to  shine  out  of  darkness,  hath  shined  in 
our  hearts,  to  give  the  light  of  the  knowledge  of  the  glory 
of  God,  in  the  face  of  Jesus  Christ."  This  light  comes 
into  the  soul  in  a  way  of  creation  ;  go  then  to  God  to  create 
this  light. 

And  be  sure  that  you  set  open  all  your  windows  that  the 
light  may  come  in.     There  are  some  sickly  and  weak  who 


S  ER.  2.]       CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  37 

would  fain  have  the  light  to  come  into  their  chambers,  but 
they  are  afraid  of  the  cold  air,  and  so  dare  not  open  their 
windows.  So  here,  some  would  fain  have  more  light  and 
knowledge  of  Christ,  but  they  are  afraid  of  the  cold,  and 
so  dare  not  open  their  windows  to  receive  the  light.  But 
pray,  friends,  why  should  we  be  afraid  of  new  lights  ?  for 
why  should  there  not  be  new  lights  found  out  in  the  firma- 
ment of  the  scripture,  as  well  as  the  astrologers  find  out  new 
stars  in  heaven  ?  Be  not  afraid  to  set  open  your  windows 
for  any  light  that  God  shall  make  known  unto  you. 

If  you  would  know  Christ  crucified  in  a  right  way  and 
manner,  then  study  much,  think  much  upon  this  crucified 
Christ :  meditate  much,  insist  and  dwell  much  upon  Christ 
crucified.  It  is  not  slight  and  superficial  thinking  of  Christ 
crucified  that  will  bring  in  this  knowledge.  If  I  would  know 
a  man,  I  must  be  conversant  with  him.  So  if  you  would 
know  Christ  crucified,  you  must  be  conversant  with  him, 
you  must  sit  down  and  consider  and  dwell  upon  Christ  cru- 
cified in  your  thoughts  and  meditations.  Now  there  are 
four  times  wherein  it  will  be  good  for  you  especially  to  think 
of  Christ  crucified  much.  Four  cases :  In  case  of  some 
revelation  or  vision  that  you  may  be  under.  When  Christ 
was  transfigured,  and  Peter  said,  "It  is  good  to  be  here," 
Christ  turns  him  off  and  reads  a  lecture  to  him  about  his 
sufferings ;  why,  but  to  shew  that  in  such  times  of  raptures 
and  revelations  is  a  fit  season  to  think  of  Christ  crucified. 
Another  time  or  season  is,  The  time  and  case  of  spiritual 
pride.  In  case  your  heart  be  lifted  up  within  you  in  refer- 
ence unto  any  privilege,  gift,  or  performance,  then  is  a  fit 
time  to  think  on  a  crucified  Christ.  The  disciples  were 
speaking  who  should  be  greatest,  "that  one  might  sit  on 
Christ's  right  hand,  and  the  other  at  his  left  hand ;"  then 
said  Christ,  "  Are  ye  able  to  be  baptized  with  the  baptism 
that  I  am  baptized  with,  and  to  drink  of  the  cup  that  I  shall 
drink  of?"  "The  son  of  man  must  suffer,"  saith  he.  He 
turns  them  about  from  those  thoughts  to  a  crucified  Christ; 
why?  but  to  shew  thus  much,  that  when  at  any  time  our 
hearts  are  lifted  up  upon  any  account,  then  is  a  fit  time  and 
season  to  think  on  a  Christ  crucified.  The  time  of  dissen- 
tion  and  difference  among  professors  and  brethren  is  a  fit 
time  and  season  to  think  on  a  crucified  Christ.  When  one 


"38  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SfiB.  2. 

disciple  desired  to  sit  at  Christ's  right  hand  and  the  other  at 
his  left,  the  rest  of  the  disciples  took  it  ill,  and  all  quarrelled 
one  with  another.  Christ  now  tells  them  of  his  sufferings  ; 
Is  this  a  fit  time  for  you  to  have  differences  among  you  ? 
think  of  my  sufferings.  Never  more  seasonable  time  to 
think  of  a  crucified  Christ  than  when  professors  are  at 
variance.  Times  of  dissension  call  for  thoughts  of  a  crucified 
Christ.  Again,  In  case  that  a  man  be  in  any  great  affliction, 
or  danger,  or  fear  thereof,  then  is  a  good  time  to  think  of 
the  sufferings  of  Christ.  Nicodemus  comes  by  night  unto 
Christ  out  of  fear,  and  Christ  first  preaches  to  him  the 
doctrine  of  regeneration,  and  when  he  had  done  so,  saith  he 
in  John  iii.  14,  ff  As  Moses  lifted  up  the  serpent  in  the  wil- 
derness, even  so  must  the  Son  of  man  be  lifted  up/'  Nico- 
demus was  afraid  to  suffer  for  Christ,  now  Christ  turns  him 
over  to  his  sufferings.  The  Son  of  man  must  be  lifted  up ; 
why  ?  but  to  shew  thus  much,  that  when  we  are  afraid  of 
sufferings,  when  we  meet  with  afflictions  and  troubles,  and 
are  in  fear  thereof,  then  is  a  fit  time  for  us  to  think  of  Christ's 
sufferings.  It  is  a  good  thing  to  think  of  Christ  crucified 
at  all  times;  but  when  you  have  revelations  and  visions, 
when  your  hearts  are  lifted  up,  when  you  are  in  any  dissen- 
tion,  when  you  are  under  any  any  affliction,  trouble,  or  in 
fear  thereof,  then  is  a  good  time,  especially  when  you  are 
under  spiritual  temptations.  And  thus  now  you  see  the  second 
thing;  if  you  would  know  Christ  crucified  in  a  right  manner, 
study  and  meditate  much  on  him,  and  insist  much  thereon. 
But  then, 

If  you  would  know  Christ  crucified  in  a  right  manner, 
make  it  your  work  and  your  business  to  know  Christ  crucified. 
Solomon  gives  you  a  promise  in  Prov.  ii.  3,  "If  thou 
criest  after  knowledge,  and  liftest  up  thy  voice  for  under- 
standing ;  if  thou  seekest  her  as  silver,  and  searchest  for  her 
as  for  hid  treasure,  then  shalt  thou  understand  the  fear  of 
the  Lord,  and  find  the  knowledge  of  God,"  verse  5. 
How  do  men  seek  for  hidden  treasure ;  how  do  men  seek  for 
gold  and  silver  ?  They  dig  into  the  bowels  of  the  earth 
and  spare  for  no  pains.  So,  saith  the  Lord,  If  you  dig  and 
search  for  it,  you  shall  have  this  knowledge.  And  you  know 
how  it  is  with  those  that  do  dig  for  gold  and  silver ;  though 
they  do  not  meet  with  a  mine  presently,  possibly  they  may 


SER.  2.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  39 

meet  with  several  springs  of  water  that  may  stand  them  in 
more  stead  than  the  mine.  So  digging  in  the  Scripture, 
though  a  man  do  not  presently  reach  the  mine,  yet  he  may 
meet  with  such  springs  of  comfort  in  the  way,  as  may  be  a 
a  refreshment  to  him  all  his  days.  Now  therefore,  friends, 
do  you  desire  to  know  Christ  and  him  crucified  ?  then  re- 
member these  three  things :  Go  unto  God  the  Father  to 
create  this  light  in  you.  Dwell  and  insist  much  upon  Christ 
crucified  in  your  thoughts  and  at  some  times  especially. 
And  then  make  it  your  work  and  business  to  know  Christ 
crucified.  Dig  in  the  mines  for  this  knowledge. 

But  suppose  I  do  know  Christ  crucified,  what  is  my  duty 
then? 

Why  then  if  you  do  know  Christ  crucified,  certainly  it 
doth  not  become  you  to  conform  unto  the  world,  and  to  be 
uncrucified  in  your  affections  to  the  world  ? 

It  doth  not  become  you  to  be  the  servants  of  men,  espe- 
cially in  the  worship  of  God.  Ye  are  bought  with  a  price, 
be  ye  not  the  servants  of  men. 

Certainly  it  doth  not  become  you  to  walk  proudly.     What, 
shall  Christ  humble  himself,  and  shall  we  be  proud  ?     Cer- 
tainly it  doth  not  become  you  to  walk  proudly. 
But  what  shall  I  do  then  ? 

Go  and  resign  and  give  up  yourselves  to  Christ.  Shall 
Christ  give  down  himself  unto  us,  and  shall  not  we  give  up 
ourselves  unto  him  ?  Resign  and  give  up  yourselves  unto 
him. 

And  then  if  indeed  you  do  know  Christ  crucified,  take 
heed  that  you  do  not  doubt  of  your  interest  in  God,  or  sal- 
vation by  Christ.  What,  know  Christ  crucified  and  yet 
doubt  ?  Why,  saith  the  apostle,  "  If  when  we  were  enemies 
we  were  reconciled  by  the  death  of  his  Son,  much  more  being 
reconciled  we  shall  be  saved  by  his  life,"  Rom.  v.  And,  viii. 
32,  "  He  that  spared  not  his  own  Son,  but  delivered  him  up 
for  us  all,  how  shall  he  not  with  hirn  also  freely  give  us  all 
things  ?  "  If  God  the  Father  did  give  his  Son  to  death  for 
you,  will  he  deny  you  other  things  ? 

Go  away  and  look  no  more  sorrowful,  let  it  appear  that 
you  know  Christ,  and  that  you  know  Christ  crucified. 

In  case  at  any  time  any  temptation  doth  arise  upon  you, 
presently  turn  and  look  wishly  upon  Christ  crucified,  and 


40  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SfiR.    2. 

there  fix.  If  a  man  be  in  a  great  temptation,  possibly  the 
temptation  may  be  put  by  by  way  of  divertisernent,  turning 
to  another  object ;  but  if  that  other  object  be  engaging,  then 
he  is  helped  thereby,  not  only  by  way  of  divertancy,  but  by 
way  of  assistance.  Now  if  a  temptation  do  arise  at  any 
time  upon  any  of  you,  presently  turn  your  eye,  fix  it  upon 
Christ  crucified,  there  stand  and  there  look,  and  thus  shall 
you  be  helped,  not  only  in  a  way  of  divertancy,  but  in  a  way 
of  assistance. 

If  you  do  indeed  know  Christ  crucified,  then  why  should 
you  not  hold  forth  the  virtues  of  this  Christ,  the  death  of 
Christ,  in  your  dying  unto  all  things  below,  and  say  with 
Paul  upon  all  occasions,  "  Henceforth  let  no  man  trouble 
me,  I  bear  about  in  my  body  the  marks  of  the  Lord  Jesus." 
You  come  to  tempt  me  to  such  a  sin,  do  not  trouble  me,  I 
know  Christ  crucified.  Henceforth  let  no  man  trouble  me,  I 
know  Christ  crucified.  Answer  all  your  temptations  thus, 
and  be  peremptory  and  resolute,  Let  no  man  trouble  me,  do 
not  trouble  me,  I  know  Christ  crucified. 

Go  away  and  communicate  that  knowledge  of  a  crucified 
Christ  unto  others ;  your  knowledge  is  nothing  unless  you 
make  others  to  know  what  you  know.  There  is  a  twofold 
revelation  of  Christ ;  Christ  revealed  to  men,  and  Christ 
revealed  in  men,  as  Paul  speaks,  "  When  it  pleased  the  Lord 
to  reveal  Christ  in  me."  When  a  man  hath  a  revelation  of 
Christ  within  him,  he  will  communicate  that  knowledge.  Ye 
see  how  it  is  with  the  sun  shining  upon  the  wall,  and  with  a 
candle  in  a  lanthorn ;  the  sun  shines  upon  the  wall,  and  the 
wall  enlightens  nobody,  why,  because  the  sun  is  not  in  it : 
but  there  is  a  candle  in  a  lanthorn,  and  that  enlightens  others, 
why  ?  because  the  candle  is  within  it.  So  when  a  man  hath 
a  revelation  of  Christ  upon  him,  it  falls  dead,  as  upon  a  mud 
wall,  and  he  communicates  not  that  light  unto  others ;  aye, 
but  if  Christ  be  in  me  the  hope  of  glory,  then  certainly  I 
shall  communicate  this  knowledge  of  Christ  unto  others 
also. 

And  to  end  all,  if  you  do  know  Christ  and  him  crucified, 
then  go  and  place  yourselves  before  the  Lord,  as  David  did, 
when  the  Lord  had  made  known  his  mind  unto  him  :  "  Then 
went  king  David  in  and  sat  before  the  Lord,  and  he  said, 
Who  am  I,  O  Lord  God,  and  what  is  my  house,  that  thou 


SER.  3.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  41 

hast  brought  me  hitherto  ? "  &c.  "  And  what  can  David  say 
more  unto  thee,  for  thou  Lord  God  knowest  thy  servant ;  for 
thy  word  sake,  and  according  to  thine  own  heart  hast  thou 
done  all  these  great  things,  to  make  thy  servant  know  them/' 
So  I  say,  go  you  and  place  yourselves  before  the  Lord  and 
say,  What  am  I,  Lord,  oh  what  am  I,  poor  ignorant  creature 
as  well  as  others,  that  Christ  crucified  should  be  made  known 
to  me  ?  Oh  the  riches  and  the  greatness  of  the  grace  of 
God ;  according  to  thine  own  heart,  Lord,  hast  thou  done 
this,  to  make  these  things  known  unto  thy  poor  servant: 
wherefore  glory  and  honour  unto  God  the  Father,  and  unto 
the  Lamb  that  sitteth  upon  the  throne  for  ever. 

And  thus  now  I  have  spoken  something  concerning  a  cru- 
cified Christ,  as  the  object  of  your  faith ;  the  former  time 
concerning  the  excellency  of  Christ  to  draw  out  your  love : 
now  then  let  your  faith  and  love  meet  together ;  and  may 
your  love  be  quickened  and  your  faith  strengthened,  I  have 
enough. 


SERMON  III. 

THE  NEW  COVENANT  OF  GRACE  OPENED. 

"  And  to  Jesus  the  Mediator  of  the  new  covenant,  and  to  the  blood 
of  sprinkling,  that  speaketh  better  things  than  that  of  Abel." — HEB. 
xii.  24. 

IN  this  scripture  you  have  the  difference  between  the  law 
and  the  gospel ;  the  excellency  of  the  state  of  the  church 
under  the  new  testament,  above  the  state  of  the  church  under 
the  old  testament:  for,  saith  the  apostle  at  the  18th  verse, 
"  Ye  are  not  come  unto  the  mount  that  might  be  touched, 
and  that  burned  with  fire,  nor  unto  blackness  and  darkness 
and  tempest,  and  the  sound  of  a  trumpet,  and  the  voice  of 
words  :  but  ye  are  come  unto  Mount  Sion,  (verse  22,)  and 
unto  the  city  of  the  living  God,  the  heavenly  Jerusalem,  and 
to  an  innumerable  company  of  angels,"  &c. 

So  that  first,  look  how  much  mount  Sion  doth  excel  mount 
Sinai ;  the  city  of  the  living  God  doth  excel  the  wilderness  ; 
and  the  heavenly  Jerusalem  doth  excel  the  mountain  that 


42  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SfiR.  3. 

might  be  touched,  from  whence  the  law  was  given :  so  much 
doth  our  state  now  exceed  and  excel  that  of  the  Jews. 

And,  saith  he,  ye  are  also  come  "  to  an  innumerable  com- 
pany of  angels."  The  law  was  given  at  mount  Sinai  by  the 
ministration  of  angels.  Look  therefore,  how  much  our  com- 
munion now  with  an  innumerable  company  of  angels,  doth 
exceed  that  ministration  which  was  by  the  ministration  of 
angels  then,  so  much  doth  our  gospel  state  now  exceed 
their's. 

And,  ye  are  also  come  "  to  the  general  assembly  and 
church  of  the  first-born."  Look  how  much  the  catholic 
church,  drawn  out  of  all  nations,  doth  exceed  the  Jewish 
synagogue ;  so  much  doth  our  gospel,  church  state  now  exceed 
their's. 

And,  "  Ye  are  come  unto  God  the  Judge  of  all."  Look, 
therefore,  how  much  the  manifestation  of  God,  as  the  Judge 
of  all  the  world,  doth  exceed  the  manifestation  of  God  as  a 
Lawgiver  upon  mount  Sinai  unto  the  nation  of  the  Jews 
only ;  so  much  doth  our  gospel  state  and  church  exceed 
their's. 

And,  "  Ye  are  come  to  the  spirits  of  just  men  made 
perfect."  It  is  true  in  regard  of  the  saints  in  heaven,  for  we 
are  fellow  citizens  with  the  saints  there.  Or  if  you  under- 
stand it  of  the  spirits  of  just  men  made  perfect  with  gospel 
perfection,  by  the  imputation  of  the  righteousness  of  Christ, 
it  is  true.  So  that  look  as  the  state  of  heaven  doth  exceed 
the  state  of  earth,  and  as  gospel  perfection  doth  exceed  the 
imperfect  state  of  the  law,  so  doth  the  state  of  the  church 
and  gospel  now  exceed  that  of  the  Jews. 

And  "  ye  are  come  to  Jesus  the  Mediator  of  the  new  cove- 
nant, and  to  the  blood  of  sprinkling,  that  speaketh  better 
things  than  that  of  Abel."  Look  therefore  as  Jesus  Christ 
the  Mediator  of  the  new  covenant  exceeds  Moses  the  media- 
tor of  the  old ;  and  as  the  blood  of  Christ,  the  blood  of 
sprinkling,  doth  excel  and  exceed  the  blood  of  all  sacrifices  in 
the  time  of  the  old  testament,  so  doth  our  gospel  church  state 
now  exceed  that  of  theirs. 

I  shall  not  run  through  all  these  differences,  or  privileges, 
only  fall  in  with  this  verse  24. 

"  And  to  Jesus/'  that  is,  ye  are  come  to  Jesus  the  Media- 
tor of  the  new  covenant,  and  "  to  the  blood  of  sprinkling/' 


SER.  3.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  43 

that  is,  ye  are  come  "  to  the  blood  of  sprinkling  that  speak- 
eth  better  things  than  that  of  Abel."  From  which  two  privi- 
leges with  their  connection,  I  take  up  these  observations. 

Observation  I.  That  there  is  a  new  covenant  stricken  with 
the  children  of  men. 

II.  That  Jesus  is  the  Mediator  of  the  new  covenant. 

III.  That  now  in  these  gospel  times,  we  are  not  come  to 
Moses  the  mediator  of  the  old,  but  unto  Jesus  the  Mediator 
of  the  new  covenant.     And 

IV.  That  thus  coming  unto  Jesus  the  Mediator  of  the  new 
covenant,  we  are  also  come  unto  the  blood  of  sprinkling,  that 
speaketh  better  things  than  that  of  Abel. 

I  shall  begin  with  the  first ;  there  is  a  new  covenant 
stricken  with  the  children  of  men. 

It  was  always  God's  way  to  deal  with  man  in  the  way  of  a 
covenant ;  that  is  the  most  suitable  to  man,  the  most  hon- 
ourable for  man,  and  the  most  amicable  and  friendly :  from 
the  beginning  therefore  so  it  was ;  no  sooner  was  man  made, 
but  God  entered  into  covenant  with  him,  "  In  the  day  that 
thou  eatest  thereof,  thou  shalt  die  the  death ;"  and  then  a 
covenant  he  made  with  the  world  by  Noah ;  and  then  a  cove- 
nant he  made  with  Abraham ;  and  then  a  covenant  he  made 
with  the  Jews  at  mount  Sinai.  It  hath  always  been  God's 
way  to  deal  with  man  in  the  way  of  a  covenant,  but  now  in 
these  latter  days  he  hath  stricken  a  new  covenant  with  the 
children  of  men  :  "  A  new  covenant  will  I  make  with  the 
house  of  Israel,  saith  the  Lord,"  by  way  of  promise,  Jer.  xxxi. 
A  new  covenant  hath  the  Lord  made  with  the  house  of  Israel 
by  way  of  fulfilrrent  and  accomplishment,  Heb.  viii.  So  that 
there  is  a  new  covenant  stricken  with  the  children  of  men. 

For  the  opening  of  which  argument : 

First,  We  must  inquire  what  this  covenant  is. 

Secondly,  Why,  and  upon  what  account  it  is  called  a  new 
covenant.  And 

Thirdly,  What  are  the  ways  and  properties  of  this  new 
covenant. 

Fourthly,  Who  are  the  subjects  of  this  covenant,  and  per- 
sons that  God  doth  strike  this  covenant  with. 

Fifthly,  We  will  a  little  inquire  into  the  benefits  thereof. 

Sixthly,  Labour  to  show  you,  what  a  man  should  do  to  get 
into  covenant  with  God:  and  in  case  he  be  in  covenant  with 


44  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SfiR.  3. 

God,  how  he  should  walk  as  becometh  one  that  is  in  cove- 
nant with  the  great  God.  Here  is  matter  enough  to  discourse 
on  many  exercises ;  but,  though  with  difficulty,  I  shall  dis- 
patch all  in  this  one. 

And  First  of  all,  if  you  ask  me  what  this  covenant  is,  take 
this  description  of  the  covenant  that  now  we  are  in. 

It  is  that  mutual  agreement  between  God  and  man, 
whereby  God  the  Father  doth  engage  himself  to  shew  mercy, 
love  and  kindness,  to  Christ  and  to  his  seed  ;  Christ  engaging 
both  for  himself  and  for  his  seed,  to  be  obedient  unto  God 
the  Father. 

I  say,  it  is  a  mutual  agreement,  and  herein  a  covenant  dif- 
fers from  a  law.  A  law  properly  is  a  commandment  with  pe- 
nalty. No  sooner  was  man  made,  but  he  was  under  a  law, 
to  be  obedient  unto  God  his  Maker :  and  in  case  he  broke  it, 
God  by  the  law  of  nature  might  punish  him :  but  then  when 
God  said  unto  him,  "  In  the  day  that  thou  eatest  thereof, 
thou  shalt  die  the  death,"  then  God  entered  into  covenant, 
man  accepting  thereof.  The  child  is  obliged  by  the  law  of 
nature  to  obey  his  parents ;  yet  this  is  no  covenant,  but  a 
law  of  nature,  for  here  is  no  agreement.  But  the  wife  is 
obliged  to  obey  her  husband,  and  this  is  a  covenant ;  Why  ? 
Because  it  is  a  mutual  agreement ;  so  that  I  say,  this  cove- 
nant, first,  is  a  mutual  agreement  between  God  and  man. 
But 

It  is  that  agreement  whereby  God  the  Father  doth  engage 
himself  to  shew  kindness,  grace  and  mercy,  to  Christ  and  to 
his  seed. 

Unto  Christ  himself  he  doth  engage,  Isa.  xlii.,  "  I  the 
Lord  have  called  thee  in  righteousness,  and  will  hold  thine 
hand,  and  will  keep  thee,  and  give  thee  for  a  covenant  of  the 
people,  for  a  light  of  the  gentiles/3  If  thou  wilt  undertake 
the  work  of  the  Mediator,  I  do  engage  and  promise  to  thee, 
"  I  the  Lord  have  called  thee  in  righteousness,  and  I  will 
hold  thine  hand,  and  I  will  keep  thee." 

And  the  Father  doth  engage  unto  Christ,  and  his  seed  too  ; 
for  saith  he  unto  Christ,  "  If  thy  children  forsake  my  law, 
and  walk  not  in  my  judgments  ;  if  they  break  my  statutes, 
and  keep  not  my  commando: ents,  then  will  I  visit  their 
transgression  with  the  rod,  and  their  iniquity  with  stripes : 
nevertheless,  my  loving  kindness  will  I  not  utterly  take 


SER.  3.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  45 

away :"  which  is  plainly  spoken  unto  Christ,  as  you  read  in 
Psalm  Ixxxix.  26 — 30.  So  that  I  say,  it  is  that  agreement 
whereby  God  the  Father  doth  engage  himself  to  shew  kind- 
ness, grace  and  mercy,  unto  Christ  and  his  seed. 

On  the  other  side,  Christ  engages  both  for  himself  and  for 
his  seed,  to  be  obedient  unto  God  the  Father. 

Christ  engages  for  himself,  and  therefore,  saith  he  in  Psalm 
xl.  6.  "  Sacrifice  and  offering  thou  didst  not  desire,  &c. 
Then  said  I,  Lo  I  come,  in  the  volume  of  the  book  it  is  writ- 
ten of  me,  I  delight  to  do  thy  will,  O  my  God,  yea,  thy  law 
is  within  my  heart."  They  are  the  words  of  Christ ;  "  then 
said  I,"  that  is,  then  promised  I.  Paulus  Fagius  observes, 
that  the  Hebrew  hath  no  one  proper  word  for  promise ;  but 
where  God  is  said  to  promise,  the  word  in  the  Hebrew  is 
only  so,  God  said,  God  spake ;  and  indeed  if  any  man  will 
take  the  pains  to  consult  the  Hebrew,  and  our  English  trans- 
lation together,  he  shall  find  it  true.  I  will  give  you  some 
instances,  and  so  pass  over,  Deut.  i.  11.,  "  The  Lord  God  of 
your  fathers  make  you  a  thousand  times  so  many  more  as  ye 
are,  and  bless  you  as  he  hath  promised  you,"  (Hebrew,  as  he 
hath  said).  So  in  Kings  viii.  56.,  "  Blessed  be  the  Lord 
that  hath  given  rest  unto  his  people  Israel,  according  to  all 
that  he  hath  promised,"  (Hebrew,  according  to  all  that  he 
hath  said).  So  in  2  Chron.  vi.  10.,  "  The  Lord  therefore 
hath  performed  his  word,  that  he  hath  spoken,  for  I  am 
risen  up  in  the  room  of  David  my  father,  and  am  set  on  the 
throne  of  Israel,  as  the  Lord  hath  promised,"  (Hebrew,  as  the 
Lord  hath  said).  So  at  verse  16,  "  Now  therefore  O  Lord 
God  of  Israel,  keep  with  thy  servant  David  my  father  that 
which  thou  hast  promised  him,"  (Hebrew,  that  which  thou  hast 
said  to  him).  So  here  in  Psalm  xl.,  "  Then  said  I,"  that  is, 
then  promised  I,  then  engaged  I  unto  the  Father,  saying, 
"  Lo  I  come,  in  the  volume  of  the  book,  it  is  written  of  me ;" 
here  Christ  engages  for  himself. 

And  he  engaged  also  for  his  seed  ;  therefore  Psalm  xvi., 
"  O  my  soul,  thou  hast  said  unto  the  Lord,  (said,  by  way  of 
promise,)  O  my  Lord,  my  goodness  is  not  for  thee,  but  for 
the  saints  that  are  in  the  earth,  and  in  the  excellent  in  whom 
is  all  my  delight."  And  so  our  Saviour  Christ  promises  to 
the  Father  in  John  xvii.,  "  Therefore  do  I  sanctify  myself^ 
that  they  also  may  be  sanctified."  And  if  you  look  into  the 


46  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SER.  3. 

Hebrews,  you  shall  find  that  Christ  is  called  the  "  Surety  of 
the  covenant ;"  Why  ?  Because  he  doth  engage  for  God 
the  Father  to  perform  to  us,  and  he  doth  engage  for  us,  that 
we  shall  perform  to  God :  so  that,  do  you  ask  what  the  cove- 
nant is,  plainly  then  it  is,  That  mutual  agreement  between 
God  and  man,  whereby  God  the  Father  doth  engage  himself 
to  shew  kindness,  love  and  mercy  to  Christ  and  his  seed, 
Christ  engaging  both  for  himself,  and  for  his  seed  to  be  obe- 
dient unto  God  the  Father. 

Secondly,  But  then  why  is  this  covenant  called  a  new  cove- 
nant ? 

Not  only  because  it  is  an  excellent  covenant,  as  in  Scrip- 
ture phrase,  excellent  things  are  called  new  ;  a  new  song  &c. 

Nor  only  because  it  brings  a  new  heart,  which  is  pro- 
mised in  the  covenant. 

Nor  only  because  it  is  always  fresh  and  green  and  new, 
upon  which  account  Austin  thinks,  that  the  commandment 
of  love  is  called  a  new  commandment. 

Nor  is  it  called  new  only  because  there  is  no  other  cove- 
nant to  succeed  and  follow,  which  is  the  reason  in  Heb.  viii. 

But  it  is  called  a  new  covenant  in  opposition  to  the  cove- 
nant that  was  made  with  Adam,  and  with  us  in  the  state  of 
innocency;  and  in  opposition  to  the  covenant  which  was 
made  with  the  Jews  in  the  time  of  the  Old  Testament. 

New  in  opposition  to  the  covenant  that  was  made  with 
Adam  in  the  state  of  innocency ;  for  then,  though  God  out 
of  free  love  and  grace  was  pleased  to  condescend  to  enter 
into  covenant  with  man,  yet  then  God  did  deal  with  us  in 
a  way  of  supremacy  and  of  righteousness :  and  therefore  there 
is  mention  made  only  of  the  threatening,  "  In  the  day  that 
thou  eatest  thereof,  thou  shalt  die  the  death."  But  now 
God  deals  with  us  in  this  covenant  in  a  way  of  grace,  and  of 
great  compaision ;  and  therefore  in  this  covenant  there  is 
mention  made  only  of  the  promise. 

Though  God  did  enter  into  covenant  with  Adam,  and  so 
with  us,  and  promised  eternal  life  in  heaven ;  not  eternal 
life  in  this  world  only,  as  some  would.  For  hell  was  threat- 
ened in  these  words,  "  In  the  day  that  thou  eatest  thereof 
thou  shalt  die  the  death,"  and  therefore  heaven  and  salvation 
was  promised  on  the  contrary ;  yet  I  say  (although  God 
when  he  entered  into  covenant  with  us  then,  did  promise 


SER.  3.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  47 

heaven  and  salvation)  it  was  upon  condition  of  our  personal 
and  perfect  obedience,  and  therefore  called  a  covenant  of 
works.  But  now  our  covenant  runs  upon  no  such  terms. 

Then  in  that  covenant,  acceptation  began  in  the  work,  and 
so  to  the  person,  and  therefore  saith  the  Lord  to  Cain,  "  If 
thou  doest  well,  shalt  thou  not  be  accepted  ? "  speaking  to 
him  as  belonging  to  the  covenant  of  works.  But  in  the 
covenant  now  made,  the  acceptation  begins  in  the  person, 
and  so  to  the  work,  and  therefore,  saith  the  Lord  concerning 
Abel,  the  Lord  accepted  Abel  (his  person)  and  then  his 
sacrifice. 

Then  also  the  Lord  gave  Adam  and  us  an  ability  to  stand, 
but  he  did  not  give  a  promise  of  perseverance  in  standing. 
But  now  the  Lord  doth,  "  I  will  put  my  fear  into  your  hearts, 
that  you  shall  not  depart  from  me,"  saith  the  Lord. 

Then  in  that  covenant  there  was  no  room  for  repentance, 
no  room  for  remission.  But  as  in  a  court  of  mere  justice 
the  question  is  not  whether  a  man  doth  repent  of  his  fact 
or  no,  but  whether,  aye  or  no,  hath  such  a  fact  been  done  ? 
So  by  the  covenant  of  works,  the  first  covenant,  there  is  no 
question  whether  a  man  doth  repent  or  no,  but  whether  the 
work  were  done,  whether  the  sin  were  done.  But  now  in 
this  covenant  there  is  room  both  for  repentance  and  for 
remission,  as  by  and  by  you  shall  hear.  And  then, 

Though  when  God  made  that  covenant  with  Adam  and 
with  us,  "  the  tree  of  Life  "  might  be  some  shadow  of  Christ, 
yet  "  then  there  was  no  Mediator,  for  there  was  no  need," 
God  and  man  was  not  at  variance,  and  so  no  need  of  a  Me- 
diator. But  in  this  covenant  that  is  now  stricken  there  is 
a  Mediator,  a  Mediator  of  the  new  covenant.  So  that  thus 
you  see  this  covenant  is  new,  in  opposition  to  the  covenant 
that  was  made  with  Adam  and  us  in  the  state  of  innocency. 

And  as  it  is  new  in  opposition  to  the  covenant  that  was 
made  with  Adam,  the  covenant  of  works  ;  so  it  is  new  also 
in  opposition  to  the  covenant  that  was  made  with  the  Jews 
in  the  time  of  the  Old  Testament.  For  the  clearing  of  this, 

First  of  all,  we  must  inquire  whether  there  be  any  differ- 
ence between  the  covenant  made  with  the  Jews  in  the  day 
of  the  Old  Testament,  and  the  covenant  made  with  us  now. 
And  in  case  there  be,  what  is  the  difference  and  wherein 
it  lies. 


48  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  [SER.  3. 

And  if  you  ask  whether  there  be  any  difference  ? 

If  I  should  answer,  with  divines  ordinarily  (wherein  they 
speak  the  truth),  I  must  say,  that  the  covenant  which  God 
made  with  the  Jews,  was  for  substance  the  same,  though 
different  in  administration  ;  but  give  me  leave  to  express  my 
own  sense  in  my  own  terms  thus, 

It  is  plain  and  clear  that  the  Jews  that  were  saved  in  the 
time  of  the  Old  Testament,  were  saved  by  the  same  covenant 
that  we  now  are  saved  by ;  for  they  were  saved  by  the  cove- 
nant that  God  made  with  Abraham,  so  are  we,  Luke  xi., 
Rom.  iv.,  Gal.  3.  Circumcision  then  was  the  seal  of  the 
covenant :  and  what  was  circumcision  but  a  seal  of  the 
righteousness  of  faith?  The  ceremonies,  types,  and  sacri- 
fices, did  not  belong  to  the  covenant  of  works,  they  were 
types  of  Christ,  and  therefore  it  must  needs  be  the  same 
covenant,  if  it  was  a  covenant  of  works  that  was  made  with 
the  Jews,  God  should  have  brought  them  from  better  to 
worse,  for  the  covenant  of  grace  was  made  with  Abraham ; 
"but  though  the  law  was  added  after  the  promise, it  could  not 
disannul  the  promise,"  saith  the  apostle,  Gal.  iii.  So  that  it 
is  plain  and  clear,  the  Jews  that  were  then  saved  were  saved 
by  the  same  covenant  that  we  now  are.  But, 

Though  those  Jews  that  were  saved  were  saved  by  the 
same  covenant  that  we  now  are  saved  by,  yet  notwithstanding 
the  covenant  of  works  was  declared  and  promulgated  among 
the  Jews ;  "  Wherefore  then  was  the  law  added  ? "  saith  the 
apostle.  Added  then  it  was.  As  Sarah  and  Hagar,  made 
types  of  the  two  testaments  by  the  apostle,  were  at  once  in 
Abraham's  house ;  so  the  old  covenant  of  works,  and  the 
new  covenant  of  grace  were  at  once  in  the  Jewish  church. 
But 

Though  both  these  covenants  were  at  once  in  the  Jewish 
church,  the  one  declared  and  the  other  made  with  them  ; 
though  Hagar  was  in  the  same  house,  yet  it  was  in  subservi- 
ency unto  Sarah ;  and  though  the  covenant  of  works  was 
declared  and  was  there  at  the  same  time,  yet  it  was  in  sub- 
serviency unto  the  covenant  of  grace  ;  u  It  was  added,  where- 
fore ?"  saith  the  apostle,  because  of  transgression,  to  be  a 
school  master  to  bring  to  Christ.  It  was  there  in  subser- 
viency, and  upon  a  gospel  design.  But  then, 

Though  both  these  covenants  were  thus  joined  together, 


SER.  3.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  49 

the  covenant  of  works  and  the  covenant  of  grace  both  joined 
together  in  one  state,  yet  both  together  did  not  make  a  third 
and  distinct  covenant ;  I  am  no  ways  of  Camero's  mind,  that 
there  were  three  covenants,  but  of  the  apostle's  mind  clearly, 
Gal.  iv.,  where  he  speaks  expressly  that  there  are  two  Tes- 
taments and  no  more ;  so  that  though  both  were  upon  the 
ground  together  (one  declared  then  to  make  them  sensible 
of  their  sins,  and  to  bring  them  to  the  other  covenant)  yet 
both  did  not  make  up  a  third  and  distinct  covenant.  But 

Because  the  commandment  lay  uppermost  the  whole  dis- 
pensation was  called  law,  although  the  promise  and  the  gospel 
lay  at  the  bottom  ;  as  now,  because  the  promise  lies  upper- 
most the  whole  of  the  covenant  is  called  the  promise,  though 
the  commandment  lies  at  the  bottom. 

Well  then,  if  these  things  be  so,  wherein  lies  the  difference 
between  that  of  the  Jews  and  ours  ? 

Thus,  although  the  Jews  that  were  saved,  were  saved  by 
the  same  covenant  that  we  now  are  saved  by  :  yet  then  the 
covenant  had  a  special  eye  unto  the  commandment,  and 
therefore  it  is  called  the  law.  Now  the  covenant  hath  a 
special  eye  to  the  promise,  and  therefore  it  is  called  the 
promise. 

Then,  though  the  covenant  of  grace  was  made  with  the 
Jews  that  were  saved,  yet  it  was  given  more  darkly  and 
obscurely ;  there  was  a  veil  upon  Moses  that  he  could  not 
see  to  the  end  of  things.  "  But  now  we  all  with  open  face 
behold  as  in  a  glass  the  glory  of  the  Lord,"  saith  the  apostle, 
as  speaking  of  the  difference  between  the  one  and  the  other, 
Cor.  ii.  3. 

Then  also  the  ministration  of  that  covenant  was  very 
burthensome,  now  more  easy  ;  "Take  my  yoke  upon  you,'' 
saith  Christ ;  it  is  spoken  in  opposition  to  Moses  too,  "  for 
my  yoke  is  easy,  and  my  burden  is  light,"  Matt.  xi. 

Then  also  the  covenant  was  made  with  that  nation  of  the 
Jews  only,  but  now  it  takes  in  all  the  world,  Jew  and  gen- 
tile. That  scripture,  Isa.  Ivi.,  is  spoken  in  regard  ot  gospel 
times,  "Let  not  the  eunuch  say,  &c.,  nor  the  son  of  a 
stranger,  that  I  am  separated  from  the  Lord,  only  let  him 
take  hold  of  my  covenant."  The  stranger  now  may  do  it, 
it  belongs  to  the  gentile  as  well  as  the  Jew.  And 

Then  the  dispensation  was  more  terrible  and  brought  forth 

VOL.  in.  E 


50  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SEB.  3. 

fear  and  bondage ;  but  now  we  are  not  come  unto  mount 
Sinai,  where  was  fear  and  trembling,  but  we  are  come  unto 
mount  Sion,  which  brings  forth  love  and  faith  and  sweet- 
ness and  thankfulness. 

Then  also  the  covenant  was  confirmed  by  promise,  and 
by  the  blood  of  bulls  and  goats ;  now  it  is  confirmed  by 
oath,  and  by  the  blood  of  Jesus. 

Then  also  the  mediator  was  Moses,  that  stood  between 
God  and  them ;  now  Jesus  the  Mediator. 

Then  the  law  was  a  schoolmaster  to  bring  to  Christ,  the 
covenant  of  works  was  upon  the  ground,  and  the  law  was  a 
schoolmaster,  it  is  not  so  now. 

Then  Christ  was  in  the  hand  of  Moses,  now  Moses  is  in 
the  hand  of  Christ.  Now  the  bond-woman  is  cast  out  of 
doors ;  there  was  a  time  when  the  bond-woman  and  Sarah 
were  in  the  house  together,  but  now  the  bond-woman  is 
gone. 

Then  the  commandments  were  more  carnal,  as  the  apostle 
speaks,  and  the  promises  worser,  but  now  the  commandment 
is  spiritual  and  the  covenant  founded  upon  better  promises, 
saith  the  apostle,  Heb.  vii. 

And,  to  say  no  more,  look  what  difference  there  is  between 
the  letter  and  the  Spirit  in  regard'of  efficacy,  for  that  is  the 
meaning  of  it,  such  a  difference  there  is  between  that  and 
this.  "We  are  not  ministers  of  the  letter/'  as  in  the  days 
of  Moses,  "but  we  are  ministers  of  the  Spirit,"  2  Cor.  iii. 
So  that  thus  you  see  why  this  covenant  is  called  a  new 
covenant.  New  in  opposition  to  the  covenant  that  was 
made  with  man  in  the  state  of  innocency,  and  new  in  oppo- 
sition to  the  covenant  that  was  made  with  the  Jews  in  the 
times  of  the  Old  Testament. 

Thirdly,  But  then  what  kind  of  covenant  is  this  ?  And 
what  are  the  properties  of  it  ? 

To  name  but  three, 

It  is  a  covenant  of  grace  in  opposition  to  works,  or  to  all 
our  own  worth  or  worthiness. 

A  covenant  of  grace,  for  it  is  made  with  sinners.  The 
covenant  that  was  made  with  Adam  in  the  state  of  innocency 
was  made  with  a  saint,  having  the  image  of  God  upon  him, 
and  therefore  a  covenant  of  friendship.  The  covenant  that 
God  makes  now,  he  makes  with  sinners,  and  it  is  a  covenant 


SEB.  3.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVILXAXT.  51 

of  reconciliation,  and  therefore  a  covenant  of  grace.  Then 
by  ttat  covenant  that  God  made  with  Adam,  there  was  no 
room  for  repentance,  or  for  remission,  now  room  for  both. 

For  repentance,  "  I  will  take  away  the  heart  of  stone,  and 
I  will  give  an  heart  of  flesh,"  saith  God. 

For  remission,  "I  will  remember  your  sins  no  more," 
saith  the  covenant ;  yea,  the  covenant  of  grace  doth  so  deeply 
engage  for  remission  of  sins ;  that  whereas  the  covenant  of 
works  would  own  no  such  things,  the  covenant  of  grace  doth 
so  deeply  engage  for  remission  of  sins,  that  it  is  made 
the  chief,  and  the  reason  of  all  the  other,  "  I  will  write  my 
law  in  your  hearts,  and  ye  shall  all  know  me  ;"  why  ?  "  for 
I  will  remember  your  sins  no  more,"  Heb.  viii.  By  that 
covenant,  if  we  had  sinned,  we  should  have  provoked  God 
thereby  to  damn  us  and  to  destroy  us.  By  this  covenant, 
when  a  man  that  is  in  covenant  sins,  he  doth  thereby  provoke 
God  to  pity  him  and  to  have  compassion  on  him.  In  the 
covenant  of  works  the  Lord  gave  a  man  strength  to  stand, 
and  left  him  to  himself ;  But  now  the  Lord  hath  promised 
in  this  covenant  to  cause  us  to  walk  in  his  ways.  When 
the  Israelites  had  to  do  with  the  Egyptians,  the  Egyptians 
enjoined  them  their  tale  of  brick,  and  gave  them  no  straw. 
Now  we  have  to  deal  with  so  good  a  Lord  in  this  covenant, 
that  our  tale  of  brick  is  lessened  ;  we  have  straw  and 
strength,  and  not  only  strength  but  God  himself  a  co-worker 
with  us.  Yea,  what  grace  is  there  that  you  want,  or  do 
complain  for  the  want  of,  but  it  is  promised  in  this  covenant? 

Do  you  complain  that  you  are  not  converted  ?  "  I  will 
write  my  law  in  your  hearts,"  saith  God  now. 

Do  you  complain  that  you  are  ignorant  ?  "  They  shall 
all  know  me,  from  the  least  unto  the  greatest  of  them/'  saith 
the  covenant. 

Do  you  complain  that  your  heart  is  hard  ?  "  I  will  (saith 
God)  take  away  the  heart  of  stone,  and  give  you  an  heart 
of  flesh."  Grace,  grace,  this  covenant  then  is  a  covenant  of 
grace,  it  is  a  gracious  covenant. 

As  it  is  a  gracious  covenant,  so  .it  is  a  free  and  incondi- 
tionate  covenant.  Free  in  opposition  to  all  conditions  to 
be  performed  by  us ;  pray  do  not  mistake  me,  I  do  not  say 
there  is  no  condition  in  the  new  covenant ;  but  the  condition 
is  performed  by  Christ  our  second  Adam. 


52  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SER.  3. 

Nor  do  I  say,  that  faith,  obedience  and  repentance  are  not 
required,  but  I  say,  faith,  obedience  and  repentance  are  re- 
quired in  the  new  covenant  as  duties,  but  not  as  conditions. 

This  I  say  then,  it  is  a  free  covenant,  in  opposition  to  all 
conditions  to  be  performed  by  us ;  for  when  the  covenant  of 
grace  is  mentioned  in  Scripture,  where  do  you  find  any  condi- 
tion annexed  to  any  thing  that  is  there  promised.  Saith  the 
Lord,  "  I  will  remember  your  sins  no  more :"  upon  what 
•  condition  ?  None  mentioned ;  "  I  will  write  my  law  in  your 
hearts ;"  upon  what  condition  ?  None  mentioned ;  "  You 
shall  all  know  me  from  the  greatest  to  the  least,"  &c.,  upon 
what  condition  ?  None  mentioned.  Where  do  you  ever  find 
the  covenant  mentioned  with  a  condition  ? 

And  plainly  thus ;  if  there  were  a  condition,  the  condition 
must  be  a  distinct  thing  from  the  thing  promised.  If  I  pro- 
mise to  go  a  journey  with  a  man  upon  condition  that  he 
shall  bear  my  charges ;  his  bearing  my  charges  and  my  go- 
ing the  journey  are  distinct  things.  Now  what  condition 
then  can  there  be  ?  What  faith  repentance  or  obedience  ? 
Why  ?  these  are  all  promised  in  the  covenant,  therefore  they 
cannot  be  the  condition ;  for  the  thing  promised  in  the  cove- 
nant, and  the  condition  that  \\e  are  to  perform,  must  be  dis- 
tinct. I  say,  if  there  be  a  condition,  it  must  be  distinct  from 
the  thing  promised ;  but  there  is  nothing  that  we  can  perform 
but  is  promised  in  the  covenant,  therefore  there  can  be  no 
condition.  The  prophet  Isaiah  tells  us,  that  this  covenant  is 
after  the  nature  of  that  covenant  that  God  made  with  Noah, 
lhat  the  world  should  be  drowned  no  more ;  and  that  is  ab- 
solute, and  upon  no  condition.  Junius  thinks,  that  upon 
this  account,  this  covenant  of  grace  is  called  a  testament,  for, 
saith  he,  a  testament  is  without  condition.  A  man  makes 
his  last  will  and  testament;  and  though  now  and  then 
a  man  may  hang  a  condition  upon  a  rebellious  child,  yet  or- 
dinarily, a  man  then  gives,  and  he  gives  freely,  without  all 
conditions ;  and  so  this  covenant  is  called  a  testament : 
Why  ?  Because  no  condition  is  to  be  performed  by  us. 
That  is  the  second  thing,  it  is  a  free  covenant  in  opposition 
to  all  conditions  to  be  performed  by  ourselves. 

As  it  is  a  free  covenant,  in  opposition  to  all  conditions  to 
be  performed  by  us,  so  it  is  an  everlasting  covenant,  a  cove- 
nant of  salt  that  cannot  be  broken,  "  which  my  covenant 


SER.  3.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  53 

they  brake,"  saith  God,  speaking  of  the  former  covenant ; 
and,  saith  he,  in  that  place  of  Zechariah,  "  I  took  my  staff  of 
beauty,  the  covenant,  and  brake  it."  God  brake  it,  that  is  the 
former  covenant.  But  now  this  covenant  of  grace  is  an  ever- 
lasting covenant,  "  ordered  in  all  things  and  sure,"  an  everlast- 
ing covenant  that  cannot  be  broken.  And  thus  you  see  what 
kind  of  covenant  it  is  ;  it  is  a  covenant  of  grace,  in  opposition 
to  all  works  and  worth  in  us ;  a  free  covenant  in  opposition 
to  all  conditions  to  be  performed  by  us :  and  an  everlasting 
covenant.  Lo,  this  is  the  covenant  that  is  stricken  with  the 
children  of  men. 

Fourthly,  But  then,  who  are  the  subjects  of  this  cove- 
nant, and  who  are  the  persons  that  God  doth  strike  or  make 
this  covenant  with  ? 

This  covenant  of  grace  is  not  made  or  stricken  with  all  the 
particular  men  in  the  world  ;  a  new  covenant  will  I  make 
with  the  house  of  Israel,  not  with  all  the  particular  men  in 
the  world.  If  this  new  covenant  of  grace  were  made  with  all 
the  particular  men  in  the  world,  then  all  the  particular  men 
in  the  world  should  have  the  law  of  God  written  in  their 
hearts,  and  should  all  know  God,  and  all  have  their  sins  par- 
doned, for  so  saith  the  covenant,  by  an  absolute  promise 
which  must  be  fulfilled. 

And  upon  this  account  it  follows,  that  Christ  did  not  die 
for  every  particular  man  in  the  world,  for  Christ  is  the  Me- 
diator of  the  new  covenant;  therefore  if  the  new  covenant  be 
not  made  with  every  particular  man,  Christ  did  not  die  for 
every  particular  man ;  but  the  new  covenant  is  not  made  with 
all  the  particular  men  in  the  world  as  you  have  heard. 

As  this  new  covenant  is  not  made  with  all  the  particular 
men  in  the  world,  so  neither  is  it  made  with  all  that  live  un- 
der the  gospel.  Though  Ishmael  lived  in  Abraham's  house, 
and  so  the  skirt  of  the  covenant  might  be  thrown  over  him, 
yet,  "  in  Isaac  shall  thy  seed  be  called,"  saith  God.  A  man 
may  be  be  in  a  church,  yet  not  of  the  church  ;  as  a  man  may 
be  in  a  house  and  yet  not  of  the  house.  This  covenant  is  not 
made  with  all  particular  men  that  live  under  the  gospel. 

But  who  is  it  stricken  with  ? 

Plainly  thus  ;  if  the  law  of  the  gospel  be  written  in  your 
hearts,  so  that  it  is  natural  for  you  to  do  the  work  of  the  gos- 
pel ;  as  it  is  natural  to  an  heathen  to  do  the  work  of  nature, 


54  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  [SER.  3. 

because  the  law  of  nature  is  written  in  his  heart ;  then  is 
this  covenant  made  with  you :  for  thus  runs  the  covanant,  I 
will  write  my  law  in  your  hearts. 

If  that  you  are  taught  of  God,  having  an  holy  instinct  unto 
what  is  good  As  the  bee  being  taught  of  God  finds  the  way 
home  to  the  hive  by  an  instinct ;  and  the  lamb  being  taught  of 
God  finds  out  his  dam  amongst  a  thousand  sheep.  So  I  say, 
If  you  be  taught  of  God,  having  an  holy  instinct  unto  what  is 
good,  then  are  you  in  covenant  with  God  ;  for  thus  runs  the 
covenant,  "  You  shall  all  know  me,  and  every  one  shall  be 
taught  of  God." 

If  an  heart  of  stone  be  taken  away  and  a  yielding  heart 
be  given  unto  you,  whereby  you  yield  to  God's  impressions, 
to  God's  instructions,  and  to  God's  corrections,  then  are  you 
in  covenant  with  God  ;  for  thus  runs  the  covenant,  "  I  will 
take  away  the  heart  of  stone,  and  give  an  heart  of  flesh ;"  a 
heart  of  flesh  is  a  yielding  heart. 

If  you  are  begotten  again  to  God  by  the  promise,  espe- 
cially the  absolute  promise,  then  are  vou  in  covenant  with 
God.  There  were  two  sons  of  Abraham,  the  child  of  the 
bond-woman,  and  the  child  of  the  free-woman,  saith  the 
apostle  these  were  types,  and  wherein  did  they  differ  ?  Why, 
the  child  of  the  bond  woman  was  born  after  the  flesh,  but  the 
child  of  the  free-woman  was  born  by  the  promise,  only  by 
the  promise,  an  absolute  promise  ;  and  therefore  I  say,  if  you 
be  born  again  by  the  promise,  the  absolute  promise,  then  are 
you  in  covenant  with  God. 

And  to  sav  no  more  in  it  but  this,  if  you  be  the  seed  of 
Christ,  then  is  this  covenant  made  with  you,  for  it  is  made 
with  Christ  and  his  seed ;  and  if  you  be  Abraham's  seed, 
then  are  you  the  seed  of  Christ ;  for  you  may  see  how  they 
go  together,  in  Galatians  in.,  "Now  to  Abraham  and  his  seed 
were  the  promises  made :  he  saith  not,  unto  seeds,  as  of 
many,  but  as  of  one,  and  to  seed,  which  is  Christ."  And  if 
you  do  believe  as  Abraham  did,  then  are  you  Abraham's 
seed.  So  that  thus  briefly  you  see,  who  this  covenant  is 
stricken  with,  and  who  are  the  subjects  of  it. 

Fifthly,  But  then  suppose  I  be  in  covenant  with  the  Lord, 
or  suppose  I  be  not ;  if  I  be  not,  is  there  any  great  hurt  ? 
suppose  I  be,  is  there  any  great  good  ? 


SER.  3.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  55 

Much  every  way ;  give  me  leave  to  give  you  a  little  taste 
of  it. 

If  you  be  not  in  covenant  with  God,  how  can  you  expect 
any  blessing,  mercy,  or  deliverance  from  God  ?  For  do  but 
look  into  the  Scripture,  and  you  shall  find,  that  all  blessings, 
mercies  and  deliverances  come  to  the  people  of  God  by  vir- 
tue of  the  covenant,  and  according  to  the  covenant.  Will 
you  instance  in  outward  deliverances,  the  world  is  not  drown- 
ed again  ?  Why  but  because  of  the  covenant.  Will  you  in- 
stance in  spiritual  deliverances  ?  Saith  the  Psalmist,  "  He 
commandeth  redemption,  he  remembereth  the  covenant."  He 
maketh  redemption  effectual  by  remembering  the  covenant. 
Or  will  you  instance  in  both  together  ?  see  what  is  said 
in  Zech.  ix.  11.,  "  As  for  thee  also,  by  the  blood  of  thy  cove- 
nant, I  have  sent  forth  thy  prisoners  out  of  the  pit,  wherein 
is  no  water."  It  includes  both  outward  and  spiritual  deliver- 
ances :  so  that  now  if  you  be  not  in  covenant  with  God, 
what  deliverance  can  you  expect,  or  what  mercy,  seeing 
they  all  come  by  virtue  of  the  covenant,  and  according  to  the 
covenant. 

But  on  the  other  side,  if  you  be  in  covenant  with  the 
Lord,  then  are  you  exalted  and  honoured,  yea  greatly  hon- 
oured. For  if  it  be  an  honour  to  be  in  a  league  and  cove- 
nant with  a  great  prince,  what  an  honour  is  it  to  be  in  cove- 
nant with  the  great  God  ?  When  God  did  speak  to  Abra- 
ham of  striking  a  covenant  with  him,  he  falls  down  upon  his 
face ;  as  if  he  should  say,  Who  am  I,  that  the  great  God 
should  be  in  covenant  with  me. 

Again,  if  God  be  in  covenant  with  you,  look  whatever  ex- 
cellency there  is  in  God,  that  is  made  over  to  you  for  your 
use.  And  as  that  king  said  to  him  that  was  in  a  league  with 
him,  My  horse  is  thine,  and  my  men  are  thine,  and  my  mo- 
ney is  thine ;  so  when  God  enters  into  a  covenant  with  a 
poor  soul,  he  saith,  My  wisdom  is  thine,  and  my  power  is 
thine,  and  my  love  and  mercy  is  thine  :  whatever  excel- 
lency there  is  in  God  is  made  over  to  you,  being  in  covenant 
with  him. 

And  if  that  you  be  in  covenant  with  the  Lord,  then  all  his 
retinue,  his  creatures,  and  his  servants  also  are  in  covenant 
with  you,  Hos.  ii.  21.,  "  It  shall  come  to  pass  in  that  day,  I 
will  hear,  saith  the  Lord,  I  will  hear  the  1-c-vens,  and  they 


56  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  [SfiR.    3. 

shall  hear  the  earth,  and  the  earth  shall  hear  the  corn  and  the 
wine,  and  the  oil,  and  they  shall  hear  Jezreel."  Why  ?  verse 
19.,  "  I  will  betroth  thee  unto  me  for  ever ;  yea,  I  will  be- 
troth thee  unto  me  in  righteousness,  and  in  judgment,  and  in 
loving  kindness  and  in  mercies ;  and  then  it  shall  come  to 
pass,  that  I  will  hear  the  heavens,  and  they  shall  hear  the 
earth,"  &c.  So  that  if  you  be  in  covenant  with  God,  then 
all  his  retinue,  all  his  creatures  and  all  his  servants  are  in 
covenant  with  you  too. 

And  if  you  be  in  covenant  with  the  Lord,  then  he  is  in 
covenant  with  you  and  your  soul  and  your  body  both ;  not 
only  with  your  body  but  with  your  soul,  and  not  only  with 
your  soul,  but  with  your  body,  with  your  whole  man  ;  and 
therefore  if  you  die,  the  covenant  is  not  dissolved  between 
God  and  you.  The  covenant  may  be  dissolved  between  a 
man  and  his  wife  at  death,  but  this  covenant  can  never  be  dis- 
solved, and  though  you  sin,  and  break  with  God,  God  will 
not  break  with  you ;  I  hate  putting  away,  saith  he. 

And  then,  you  may  go  to  God  as  upon  a  throne  of  grace, 
and  look  upon  God  as  sitting  in  a  rainbow.  Oh  what  a 
mercy,  what  a  blessing  is  it  to  be  in  covenant  with  the 
Lord? 

Sixthly,  But  in  case  I  be  not  in  covenant  with  God,  what 
shall  I  do  to  get  into  covenant  with  him  ?  And  in  case  I  be 
in  covenant  with  God,  how  shall  I  walk  so  as  becometh  one 
that  is  in  covenant  with  the  great  God  ?  Here  are  two  ques- 
tions, I  shall  speak  briefly  to  them  and  conclude. 

Do  you  ask  what  you  shall  do  to  get  into  covenant  ?  Are 
you  afraid  any  of  you,  that  you  are  not  yet  in  covenant  with 
the  Lord,  and  would  you  be  in  covenant  with  the  Lord  ? 

Why  then  be  sure  of  this,  that  upon  a  right  and  good  un- 
derstanding of  the  nature  of  this  covenant,  you  go  to  God, 
and  make  your  choice  of  this  covenant  of  grace,  to  stand  and 
fall  by.  The  word  Berith  in  the  Hebrew  for  covenant,  some 
think  comes  from  a  root  that  signifies  to  choose ;  a  man  is 
in  the  covenant  that  he  chooses,  and  every  man  is  indeed  as 
his  choice  is. 

But  then  go  and  renounce  the  other  covenant  of  works, 
&c.  As  the  way  to  have  a  part  in  Christ's  righteousness  is 
to  renounce  all  your  own  righteousness  ;  so  the  wray  to  have 


SEH.  3.]     CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.         57 

a  share  in  this  covenant  of  grace,  is  to  renounce  the  cove- 
nant of  works. 

Then  go  to  Christ  as  the  Mediator  of  the  covenant,  and 
desire  him  to  put  you  into  this  covenant ;  he  struck  the 
covenant  with  God  the  Father  at  the  first,  and  he  must  put 
you  into  this  covenant,  for  he  is  the  Mediator  of  the  cove- 
nant; go  then  to  him,  as  to  the  Mediator  of  the  covenant,  to 
put  you  into  covenant. 

Then  leave  the  weight  and  stress  of  your  guilty  soul  upon 
this  covenant  of  grace,  bear  upon  this  stream  of  grace,  here 
lay  the  weight  of  all,  for  the  promise  is  made  ours  by  resting 
on  it ;  and  what  is  this  covenant,  but  an  absolute  promise  ? 
there  then  rest,  and  leave  the  weight  of  your  souls. 

And  to  say  no  more  but  this ;  then  go  unto  the  Lord,  and 
give  your  hand  unto  God,  and  yourself  up  to  God,  as  one 
willing  to  be  led  by  him  into  all  the  things  that  the  covenant 
shall  require.  In  the  times  of  the  old  testament  when  they 
made  a  covenant,  they  struck  hands  together.  In  Ezra  x. 
19.,  it  is  said  they  "  gave  their  bands "  to  put  away  their 
wives ;  and  in  the  former  verse,  they  made  a  covenant  to  do 
it,  "  They  rose  and  made  a  covenant  to  put  away  their 
wives  :"  and  we  find  in  1  Chronicles,  that  when  David  was 
dead,  that  all  the  people  came  together,  (xxiv.  24.)  "  And 
all  the  princes,  and  the  mighty  men,  and  all  the  sons  like- 
wise of  king  David,  submitted  themselves  unto  Solomon  the 
king ;"  the  word  in  the  Hebrew  is,  They  gave  the  hand  under 
king  Solomon ;  they  gave  their  hand  by  way  of  covenant, 
and  they  gave  their  hand  under  king  Solomon  in  a  way  of 
submission.  So  when  we  enter  into  covenant  with  the  Lord, 
we  give  our  hand  under  God  and  therefore  if  you  desire  to 
get  into  covenant  do  these  things. 

Well,  but  suppose  I  be  in  covenant  with  God,  as  I  hope  I 
am,  what  should  I  do  that  I  may  walk  as  becometh  one  that 
is  in  covenant  with  the  great  God  ? 

I  answer,  If  you  be  in  covenant  indeed  with  the  Lord, 
then  God  hath  honoured  you,  he  hath  exalted  you,  and 
honoured  you  greatly  ;  arid  if  God  have  honoured  you,  why 
should  not  you  honour  God  ? 

Now  the  more  you  fall  down  at  the  feet  of  the  fulness  of 
Christ,  in  the  sense  of  your  own  unworthincss,  inability  and 
insufficiency,  the  more  you  honour  God  :  "  There  is  one 


58  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SER.  3. 

(saith  John)  who  is  mightier  than  I,  whose  shoe  latchet  I  am 
not  worthy  to  unloose." 

The  more  you  cry  up  those  ordinances  and  ways  of  God 
that  are  decried  by  the  world,  the  more  you  honour  God. 

The  more  you  keep  close  to  God  in  declining  times,  the 
more  you  honour  God. 

The  more  you  trust  God  at  a  dead  lift,  when  all  means 
fail,  and  when  a  sentence  of  death  is  upon  all  the  means,  the 
more  you  honour  God. 

The  more  you  serve  God,  contrary  to  your  own  disposi- 
tion, and  reach  the  services  of  God  over  the  head  of  your 
own  dispositions,  the  more  you  honour  God. 

And  the  more  that  you  do  prefer  the  things  of  God  in  time 
of  competition  above  other  things,  the  more  you  honour 
God. 

And  the  more  you  part  with  your  much  for  God's 
lesser,  the  more  you  honour  God.  What  is  honour  ?  Ho- 
nour is  a  testimony  of  another's  excellency.  Now  when  I 
can  part  with  my  much  for  God's  little,  his  little  truths  and 
things,  I  do  testify  an  excellency  in  God.  I  say,  the  more 
you  can  part  with  your  much  for  God's  little,  the  mere  you 
honour  God. 

And  the  more  you  do  keep  close  to  the  name  and  faith  of 
God  in  Christ,  even  where  Satan's  throne  is,  the  more  you 
honour  God.  Now  then  hath  the  Lord  honoured  you,  and 
taken  you  into  covenant  with  himself  ?  then  surely  it  is  your 
duty  for  to  honour  God,  and  by  these  several  particulars  you 
may  honour  God. 

If  the  Lord  have  made  and  stricken  a  covenant  with  you, 
then,  friends,  give  me  leave  to  say  to  you,  Why  should  you 
be  solicitous  for  your  own  things  ?  If  you  be  in  covenant 
with  the  Lord,  and  God  in  covenant  with  you,  God  will  take 
care  of  your  things ;  therefore  why  should  you  be  solicitous 
about  your  own  things  ?  God  is  in  covenant  with  you,  he 
will  take  care  of  yours. 

And  upon  this  account,  in  case  there  be  any  loss  upon  the 
things  of  God,  why  should  you  not  be  as  much  affected  for 
that  loss  as  for  your  own  losses  ?  For  if  you  be  in  covenant 
with  God,  and  God  with  you,  God's  things  are  your's,  and 
your  things  are  God's.  God's  things  are  your's  :  why  then 
should  you  not  be  as  much  touched  with  the  loss  of  any 


SER.  3.]     CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.          59 

thine;  that  concerns  God,  as  with  any  thing  that  concerns 
yourselves  ? 

Yea,  why  should  not  God  have  the  use  of  all  your's? 
God  is  in  covenant  with  you,  and  you  have  the  use  of  God's 
things,  his  wisdom,  his  power,  his  mercy ;  why  ?  because  he 
is  in  covenant  with  you,  and  you  are  in  covenant  with  him. 
Why  then  should  not  God  have  the  use  of  your  things  also, 
your  name  and  your  estate  and  your  body  and  your  time  ? 
If  you  be  in  covenant  with  God,  and  God  be  in  covenant 
with  you,  your's  are  God's  and  God's  are  your's  ;  why  should 
not  God  have  the  use  of  your's,  as  you  think  to  have  the 
use  of  God's. 

If  God  be  in  covenant  with  you,  and  you  be  in  covenant 
with  God,  then  why  should  you  not  live  at  an  higher  rate 
than  the  best  of  the  Jews  did  ?  You  are  in  a  better  covenant 
than  the  Jews  were,  though  for  substance  the  same,  as  you 
heard,  yet  you  are  in  a  better  covenant,  and  shall  not  your 
lives  be  better  ? 

You  have  a  better  Mediator,  and  shall  not  your  lives  be 
better  ? 

You  have  better  promises,  and  shall  not  your  lives  be 
better  ? 

Your  state  now  is  called  grace  to  that !  "  The  law  was 
given  by  Moses,  but  grace  and  truth  comes  by  Christ,"  John 
i.  Look  therefore  upon  the  Jews,  look  into  the  Old  Testa- 
ment, and  look  upon  the  best  of  them,  and  think  with  your- 
selves, Am  I  in  a  better  covenant  ?  oh  then,  how  am  I  en- 
gaged to  live  better.  Oh,  that  our  lives  were  more  exalted 
upon  this  account.  Why  should  not  our  lives  be  better,  and 
we  live  at  a  higher  rate  ? 

If  you  be  in  covenant  with  the  Lord,  and  the  Lord  in 
covenant  with  you,  then  be  sure  of  this,  that  you  be  true  to 
God,  be  true  to  God  in  the  matter  of  his  worship.  The 
covenant  stricken  between  God  and  you  is  a  conjugal  cove- 
nant. A  woman,  though  she  will  admit  another  man  into 
the  house  with  her  husband,  yet  she  will  not  admit  him  into 
the  bed,  that  is  a  breach  of  covenant.  Now  the  worship  of 
God  is  the  bed  wherein  Christ  doth  bed  with  a  soul ;  and 
therefore  if  you  look  into  the  Old  Testament,  you  shall  find 
that  idolatry  is  accounted  adultery  and  harlotry :  why  ?  be- 
cause they  took  idols  and  men  into  the  bed  with  God. 


60  CHRIST    AND   THE    COVENANT.  [SER.    3. 

Would  you  walk  then  as  those  that  are  in  covenant  with  the 
Lord,  away  with  every  thing  of  man's  out  of  Christ's  bed. 
Remember  it  is  a  conjugal  covenant.  Whatsoever  is  of  man's 
coming  unto  the  worship  of  the  Lord,  which  is  the  Lord's 
bed,  is  against  your  covenant.  When  God  speaks  of  a 
covenant,  he  saith,  "  Thou  shalt  be  for  me,  and  I  will  be  for 
thee,"  Hos.  iii. 

And  to  conclude  all,  if  you  be  in  covenant  with  the  Lord, 
and  the  Lord  with  you  indeed,  go  away  and  walk  humbly  and 
be  very  thankful.  When  the  Lord  made  a  covenant  with 
Abraham,  Abtaham,  saith  he,  go  throughout  the  land,  and 
behold  it  in  the  breadth  thereof,  and  in  the  length  thereof: 
so  say  I,  Hath  the  Lord  entered  into  covenant  with  you,  go 
into  the  land  of  the  covenant,  behold  the  length  thereof  and 
the  breadth  thereof;  and  what  God  hath  promised  in  that 
covenant,  behold  it  in  the  length  thereof  and  the  breadth 
thereof;  and  thus  will  your  heart  be  affected  and  raised  to 
thankfulness.  Thus  David's  heart  was  raised,  for,  saith  he, 
"  Lord,  though  thou  makest  not  my  house  to  grow,  this  is 
my  salvation ;"  I  am  in  covenant  with  thee.  And  so  you  may 
say,  Lord,  thou  makest  not  my  family  to  grow,  I  have  never 
a  child ;  this  is  my  salvation,  I  am  in  covenant  with  thee : 
though  thou  makest  not  my  house  to  grow,  but  I  am  poor, 
and  my  house  is  pulled  down  or  burnt  down ;  this  is  my 
salvation,  the  Lord  be  praised,  the  Lord  is  in  covenant  with 
me.  Thus  do  and  you  shall  be  thankful. 

And  this  is  the  last  thing,  If  you  be  in  covenant  with  the 
Lord,  go  away,  walk  humbly,  and  be  thankful  that  God 
should  ever  enter  into  this  great  covenant,  this  covenant  of 
grace  with  you,  even  with  you. 

And  so  now  I  have  done  with  the  first  argument,  that  there 
is  a  covenant  stricken  with  the  children  of  men  :  the  second 
follows,  Jesus  is  the  Mediator  of  this  covenant. 


SEN.  4.]  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT. 


SERMON  IV. 

CHRIST  THE  MEDIATOR  OF  THE   NEW  COVENANT. 

"  And  to  Jesus  the  Mediator  of  the  new  covenant,  and  to  the  blood 
of  sprinkling,  that  speaketh  better  things  than  that  of  Abel." — HEB. 
xii.  24. 

I  SHALL  now  come  unto  the  second  observation  raised 
from  the  words,  namely, 

Observation  II,  That  Jesus  is  the  Mediator  of  the  new 
covenant. 

For  the  opening  and  prosecuting  whereof, 
First,  We  must  inquire  what  is  the  proper  work  of  a  me- 
diator, that  is,  a  mediator  between  God  and  us. 

Secondly,  I  shall  labour  to  she  w  you  that  Jesus  was  and  is 
the  fittest  person  in  the  world  to  meditate  between  God  and  us. 
Thirdly,  That  Jesus   hath  undertaken  this  work   of  me- 
diation, and  will  certainly  carry  it  on  unto  due  perfection. 

Fourthly,  How  and  in  what  respects  Jesus  is  said  to  be 
the  Mediator  of  the  New  Covenant. 

Fifthly,  What  are  the  benefits  that  we  do  gain  by  Jesus  his 
being  Mediator  of  the  new  covenant. 

Sixthly,  Give  you  some  doctrinal  corollaries  and  practical 
duties  that  do  flow  from  hence. 

First.  If  you  ask  what  is  the  proper  work  of  a  Me- 
diator, that  is,  a  Mediator  between  God  and  us, 

I  answer,  It  is  to  make  peace  and  reconciliation  between 
God  and  us.  At  the  first,  in  the  state  of  innocency,  there 
was  peace  and  friendship  between  God  and  man,  there  was  no 
enmity  in  God's  heart  towards  his  creature,  nor  no  enmity 
in  man's  heart  towards  his  Creator;  but  upon  the  fall,  a 
breach  or  separation  was  made  between  God  and  us,  inso- 
much as  we  are  all  by  nature  the  children  of  wrath,  God  is 
angry,  and  an  enmity  is  in  us  towards  God.  "  The  wisdom 
of  the  flesh  is  enmity  against  God,"  saith  the  apostle.  Now, 
therefore,  the  work  of  a  Mediator  is  to  reconcile  God  to  us, 
and  to  reconcile  us  unto  God,  both  which  you  have  in  2  Cor. 
v.  18,  19.  "  All  things  are  of  God,  who  hath  reconciled  us  to 
himself  by  Jesus  Christ,  and  hath  given  to  us  the  ministry  of 
reconciliation,  to  wit,  that  God  was  in  Christ  reconciling  the 


62  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SER.  4. 

world  unto  himself."  There  is  reconciliation  on  God's  part, 
for  it  is  said,  "  He  was  in  Christ  reconciling  the  world  unto 
himself:  not  imputing  their  trespasses  unto  them."  Then, 
at  the  20th  verse,  you  have  reconciliation  on  our  part,  "  Now 
then  we  are  ambassadors  for  Christ,  as  though  God  did  be- 
seech you  by  us,  we  pray  you  in  Christ's  stead  be  ye  recon- 
ciled unto  God."  Here  is  both  reconciliations. 

Only  you  must  know,  that  we  do  not  find  in  express  terms 
in  Scripture,  that  God  is  said  to  be  reconciled  to  us,  but  we 
are  said  to  be  reconciled  to  him,  because  we  are  the  parties 
offending,  and  God  the  party  offended.  Now  the  Scripture  al- 
ways speak  so,  that  the  party  offending  is  to  reconcile  himself, 
or  to  be  reconciled,  as  in  the  vth  of  Matthew,  "  If  thy  brother 
hath  aught  against  thee,  leave  thy  gift,  and  first  be  reconciled 
to  thy  brother."  Thou  that  hast  offended  go  and  be  reconciled 
to  thy  brother.  And  so  we  say  in  ordinary  speech,  if  a  man 
hath  justly  provoked  another,  go  and  reconcile  yourself  unto 
him,  that  is,  do  that  whereby  he  may  be  pacified  and  satisfied. 
And  so  God  is  reconciled  unto  us,  when  we  do  that  whereby 
his  anger  may  be  turned  away,  and  he  pacified,  which  is  the 
work  of  a  Mediator. 

But  what  need  a  Mediator  for  this  work,  say  the  Socinians, 
for  God  was  always  willing  to  be  reconciled  to  us ;  "  God  so 
loved  the  world  that  he  gave  his  Son  :"  he  loved  them  first, 
before  Christ  j  what  need  a  Mediator  then  ?  say  they. 

And  say  the  Arminians,  to  invalidate  and  enervate  election, 
If  we  be  elected,  and  so  loved  from  all  eternity,  what  need  a 
Mediator  to  bring  about  actual  reconciliation  in  time. 

To  all  which  I  answer, 

Yes,  very  much.     For, 

1.  You  must  know  that  affections  are  given  to  God  in 
Scripture  according  to  effects  and  dispensations  sometimes. 

Sometimes  God  is  said  to  love  or  hate  in  reference  to  his 
eternal  decree.  So  Rom.  ix.,  "  Jacob  have  I  loved  and  Esau 
have  I  hated,"  before  they  had  done  good  or  evil. 

Sometimes  God  is  said  to  love,  or  to  be  angry,  or  to  hate 
in  reference  to  his  dispensations.  And  so  the  elect,  that  are 
loved  from  all  eternity,  are  born  the  children  of  wrath,  in  re- 
gard of  legal  dispensation.  Elect  we  are,  and  so  loved,  in 
regard  of  God's  eternal  good  will,  and  yet  under  wrath  when 
we  are  born,  in  regard  of  legal  dispensation. 


SER.  4.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  G3 

2.  You  must  know  that  this  reconciliation  with  God,  or 
God  being  reconciled  to  us,  doth  not  make  a  real  change  in 
the  inward  affection  of  God,  but  in  the  outward  dispensation 
of  God. 

3.  You  must  know  this,  that  God  may  be  willing  to  be  re- 
conciled unto  us,  in  regard  of  his  eternal  good  will,  and  yet  not 
be  actually  reconciled  in  regard  of  his  eternal  good  will.     As 
David  was  willing  to  be  reconciled  to  Absolom,  but  he  was 
not  actually  reconciled,  and  therefore  Joab  comes  as  a  me- 
diator between  them,  to  bring  about  the  actual  reconciliation. 
And  if  you  look  into  the  last  of  Job,  you  will  find,  as  Maco- 
vius  doth  well  observe  to  the  purpose  in  hand,  that  when  God 
was  very  angry  with  Eliphaz  and  his  friends,  insomuch  as  the 
Lord  said  to  Eliphaz,  at  the  7th  verse,  "  My  wrath  is  kindled 
against  thee,  and  thy  two  friends  -"  that  yet  notwithstanding 
then  God  puts  them   upon  a  means  of  taking  away  his  dis- 
pleasure :  "  Therefore  take  unto  you  now  seven  bullocks  and 
seven  rams,  and  go  to  my  servant  Job,  and  offer  up  for  your- 
selves a  burnt  offering,  and  my  servant  Job  shall  pray  for 
you/'  and  mediate  for  you.     So  that  God  was  angry,  and  his 
wrath  kindled,  yet  he  was  willing  to  be  reconciled,  and  finds 
out  a  mediator  to  bring  about  this  actual  reconciliation.    And 
so  here,  although  God  be  angry  with  his  own  elect,  in  regard 
of  the  dispensation,  yet  notwithstanding  he  may  be  willing  to 
be  reconciled  in  regard  of  his  eternal  good  will.     But, 

4.  You  must  know  this  also,  that  God  may  and  doth  will 
this  for  that  sometimes,  and  yet  not  for  this  will  that,  as 
Aquinas  speaks. 

For  example :  God  doth  will  rain  for  corn,  and  rain  is  the 
cause  of  corn  willed  ;  he  doth  will  rain  for  corn,  yet  corn  is  not 
the  cause  of  his  will  willing  the  corn.  So  here,  God  doth  will 
Christ's  mediation  for  reconciliation,  and  the  mediation  of 
Christ  is  the  cause  of  reconciliation,  but  yet,  notwithstanding, 
the  mediation  of  Christ  is  not  the  cause  of  God's  will  willing 
reconciliation.  So  that  thus  now  you  see  what  the  proper  work 
of  a  Mediator  is,  that  is,  to  mediate  between  God  and  us  ;  it 
is  to  reconcile  God  to  us,  and  to  reconcile  us  unto  God.  That 
is  the  first. 

Secondly,  Jesus  was  and  is  the  fittest  person  in  the  world 
to  mediate  between  God  and  us.  There  was  no  creature  fit 
to  umpire  the  business  between  God  and  us  ;  and  therefore 


64  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SfiR.  4. 

Job  saith  well,  "  Neither  is  there  any  days-man  betwixt  us, 
that  might  lay  his  hand  upon  us  both,"  chap.  ix.  33.  Man 
was  not  fit  to  mediate,  because  man  is  the  persou  offending ; 
angels  not  fit  to  mediate,  for  the  shoulder  of  an  angel  could 
not  bear  the  weight  of  mediation  work,  neither  could  an  angel 
satisfy ;  God  the  Father  not  fit  for  this  work,  the  first  person 
in  the  Trinity,  for  he  was  the  person  offended ;  the  Holy 
Ghost  not  fit  for  this  work,  for  it  is  his  work  to  apply  the  blood 
of  this  mediation ;  so  then  there  is  none  other  fit,  but  Christ 
is  fit,  Jesus  is  fit,  the  fittest  person. 

For,  first  of  all,  he  is  the  person  appointed  by  the  Father. 
If  a  man  will  undertake  to  mediate  between  two,  and  be  not 
chosen  thereunto,  he  is  not  fit  for  it ;  but  if  chosen,  then  he 
is  fit.  Why,  Jesus  is  the  person  chosen  ;  "  Mine  elect  servant 
(saith  the  Father)  whom  I  have  chosen,  I  have  given  him  for 
a  covenant  unto  the  people,"  Isa.  xlii. 

He  was  and  is  the  fittest  person  to  mediate  between  God 
and  us,  for  he  is  a  middle  person,  partaking  of  God's  nature 
and  of  man's.  Extremes  are  joined  together  by  a  middle. 
Who  more  fit  to  mediate  between  two,  than  he  that  is  a  mid- 
dle between  them  ? 

He  is  the  fittest  person,  for  he  is  the  fittest  to  make  recon- 
ciliation between  God  and  us,  to  reconcile  God  to  us  and  us 
unto  God. 

He  is  the  fittest  to  reconcile  God  to  us ;  for  that  God  might 
be  reconciled  he  must  be  satisfied,  his  justice  satisfied  and 
his  anger  satisfied.  Now  Jesus  Christ  was  God  and  Man  ; 
as  man  he  ought  to  satisfy  but  could  not,  as  God  he  could 
satisfy  but  he  ought  not,  but  as  God-man  he  both  could  and 
ought,  and  so  the  fittest.  And  again, 

Who  more  fit  to  reconcile  God  unto  us,  than  he  that  was 
the  most  fit  to  intercede,  that  had  credit  and  favour  and  love 
with  the  Father  ?  Now  Jesus  lay  in  the  bosom  of  the  Father ; 
"This  is  my  beloved  Son  ;"  and,  « I  was  the  Father's  delight," 
saith  he,  in  the  viiith  of  Proverbs.  Therefore  the  most  fit  to 
intercede  and  so  to  reconcile  God  unto  us. 

Who  more  fit  to  reconcile  God  to  us,  than  he  that  was  fit 
to  be  a  surety  to  undertake  for  us.  If  a  man  come  to  mediate 
with  a  person  offended  for  another ;  saith  the  person  offended, 
But  will  you  undertake  he  shall  do  so  no  more  ?  Yes.  Why, 
then  I  am  willing.  Now  Jesus  is  called  our  Surety  in  the 


SER.  4.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  65 

viiith  of  Hebrews.  He  undertakes  that  though  we  have 
broken  with  God  already  we  shall  break  no  more ;  and  there- 
fore the  fittest  person  to  reconcile  God  to  us. 

But,  again,  the  fittest  person  also  to  reconcile  us  to  God. 

Who  more  fit  to  reconcile  us  to  God  than  he  that  can 
change  our  natures  ?  Now  Jesus  is  able  to  change  our  na- 
ture. "  I  find  (saith  Paul)  a  law  in  my  members  rebelling 
against  the  law  of  my  mind,  and  bringing  me  into  captivity 
unto  the  law  of  sin  which  is  in  my  members :  oh,  wretched 
man  that  I  am,  who  shall  deliver  me  from  the  body  of  this 
death  ?"  then,  "  I  thank  God  through  Jesus  Christ/'  And, 
Rom.  viii.  2,  "  The  law  of  the  Spirit  of  life,  in  Christ  Jesus, 
hath  made  me  free  from  the  law  of  sin  and  death/'  And, 

Who  more  fit  to  reconcile  us  to  God  than  he  that  can  be- 
get good  thoughts  in  us  concerning  God  ?  So  long  as  a  man 
hath  hard  thoughts  of  God  he  will  never  be  reconciled  to 
God.  Now  Jesus  Christ  lay  in  the  bosom  of  his  Father,  and 
can  tell  the  soul  what  volumes  of  love  there  were  and  are  in 
the  bosom  of  the  Father  for  it,  from  all  eternity,  and  so  can 
beget  love  in  the  soul  towards  God,  and  so  able  to  reconcile 
the  soul  to  God.  You  have  it  clearly  in  John  i.  18,  he  lay  in 
the  bosom  of  the  Father,  &c. 

And  then,  to  say  no  more  but  this,  who  more  fit  to  recon- 
cile us  to  God  than  he  that  can  give  the  Holy  Ghost  into  our 
souls  ?  For  as  God  is  reconciled  to  us  by  the  blood  of  Christ, 
so  we  are  reconciled  to  God  by  the  Spirit  of  Christ.  Now 
Jesus  gives  the  Spirit:  "  I  will  send  the  Comforter,"  saith 
Christ.  So  that  he,  he  is  the  fittest  person  in  all  the  world 
to  reconcile  God  to  us,  and  to  reconcile  us  to  God,  and  so  the 
fittest  person  in  all  the  world  to  mediate  between  God  and  us. 
And  so  you  have  the  second  thing. 

Thirdly.  But  then,  as  Jesus  is  the  fittest  person  to  medi- 
ate between  God  and  us,  so  he  hath  undertaken  this  work  of 
mediation,  and  he  will  certainly  carry  it  on  unto  due  perfec- 
tion. 

I  say,  he  hath  undertaken  it,  and  therefore  he  is  called  the 
Mediator :  "  For  there  is  one  God,  and  one  Mediator  between 
God  and  man,  the  Man  Christ  Jesus,"  1  Tim.  ii.  5,  and  he 
alone  is  the  Mediator.  I  confess,  indeed,  the  word  /x^tr^c  is 
given  to  Moses,  and  Moses  in  the  iiird  of  Galatians  is  called 
a  mediator :  "  The  law  was  ordained  by  angels  in  the  hand  of 


66  CHRIST    AND    THE   COVENANT.  [SER.  4. 

a  mediator,"  verse  19  ;  that  is  not  Christ.  But  the  law  was 
ordained  by  angels  in  the  hand,  that  is,  by  the  ministry  of  a 
mediator.  Christ  was  not  the  minister  of  angels,  Moses  was, 
and  therefore  Moses  is  to  be  understood  here.  The  same 
word  that  is  used  concerning  Christ  is  used  here. 

But  now,  although  Moses  was  a  mediator,  a  typical  media- 
tor, and  did  stand  between  God  and  the  people,  as  in  Deut. 
V.,  to  deliver  out  the  law  unto  them ;  "  I  stood  between  the 
Lord  and  you  at  that  time  to  shew  you  the  word  of  the 
Lord/3  verse  5 ;  though,  I  say,  Moses  is  called  a  mediator, 
because  he  stood  between  God  and  the  people,  to  give  and 
deliver  out  the  law  to  them ;  yet  you  never  find  that  Moses 
is  called  a  mediator  in  a  way  of  redemption,  or  satisfaction, 
or  paying  of  any  ransom.  So  Jesus  only  is.  "  There  is  one 
God,  and  one  Mediator  between  God  and  man,  the  Man 
Christ  Jesus,  who  gave  himself  a  ransom  for  all,"  1  Tim.  ii. 
And  so  also  in  the  ixth  of  Hebrews :  "  For  this  cause  he  is 
the  Mediator  of  the  new  testament."  For  what  cause  ?  Why, 
verse  14,  "  How  much  more  shall  the  blood  of  Christ,  who 
through  the  eternal  Spirit  offered  up  himself  without  spot  to 
God,  purge  your  conscience  from  dead  works  to  serve  the 
living  God."  And  for  this  cause  is  he  the  Mediator.  It  is 
never  said  so  of  Moses ;  no,  but  Christ  the  Mediator,  and  he 
only  the  Mediator  in  a  way  of  satisfaction,  and  redemption, 
and  paying  of  a  price.  Well,  thus  he  hath  undertaken  the 
work. 

And  certainly  he  will  carry  on  his  work  of  mediation  unto 
due  perfection ;  for,  saith  the  apostle,  he  is  faithful  in  all  his 
house,  as  Moses  was :  Moses  as  a  servant,  he  as  a  Son.  Moses 
the  mediator  was  faithful  in  all  the  house  of  God  to  a  pin ; 
surely  Jesus  the  Son  will  be  faithful  in  this  work  of  media- 
tion, and  carry  it  on  to  the  uttermost. 

But  then  you  will  say,  What  assurance  have  we  that  Jesus 
will  carry  on  this  work  of  mediation  unto  the  uttermost,  unto 
due  perfection. 

First  of  all  you  have  the  assurance  of  the  first  great  pro- 
mise that  was  made,  "  The  seed  of  the  woman  shall  break 
the  serpent's  head."  Gen.  iii.  Saith  the  Lord  to  the  serpent, 
"  I  will  put  enmity  between  thee  and  the  woman,  and  between 
thy  seed  and  her  seed."  If  there  be  enmity  between  Satan 
and  us,  there  will  be  peace  between  God  and  us ;  where  God 


SER.  4.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  07 

saith,  he  will  put  enmity  between  the  devil  and  us,  he  doth 
there  promise  that  there  shall  be  peace  and  reconciliation  be- 
tween God  and  us.  Now  this  here  he  saith,  and  how  shall  this 
be  done  ?  "  It  shall  bruise  thy  head,  and  thou  shalt  bruise  his 
heel."  It  shall  be  done  by  him  whose  heel  in  his  sufferings 
is  bruised  by  Satan  and  his  instruments.  It  shall  be  done  by 
Christ. 

As  you  have  the  assurance  of  the  first  promise,  so  you  have 
the  assurance  of  what  Christ  hath  done  already ;  he  will  not 
lose  what  he  hath  done,  he  will  not  lose  his  work.  If  Jesus 
Christ  did  not  boggle,  nor  start  at,  nor  fly  back  from  the 
hardest  piece  of  mediation,  which  was  to  satisfy  for  our  sins, 
surely  he  will  not  give  in  and  start  back  from  the  easier  part, 
which  is,  to  intercede  in  heaven  :  "  Seeing  he  ever  lives  to 
make  intercession  for  us." 

As  you  have  the  assurance  of  what  he  hath  done,  so  you 
have  the  assurance  also  of  his  delight  in  this  work  of  media- 
tion. If  a  man  undertake  a  work,  be  able  to  carry  it  through, 
and  take  delight  therein,  he  will  certainly  carry  it  on.  Now 
our  Lord  Jesus  Christ  hath  undertaken  this  work  ;  he  is  able, 
God  and  man ;  and  he  hath  a  delight  in  this  work :  "  I  de- 
light to  do  thy  will,"  saith  he,  in  the  viiith  of  Proverbs.  "  I 
was  by  him  as  one  brought  up  with  him,  and  I  was  daily  his 
delight,  rejoicing  always  before  him,  rejoicing  in  the  habitable 
part  of  his  earth,  and  my  delights  were  with  the  sons  of 
men."  Christ's  heart  was  much  in  this  work  of  mediation, 
insomuch  as  if  you  look  into  the  iiird  of  Malachi,  you  shall 
find  he  sits  by  it ;  "  And  he  shall  sit  as  a  refiner  and  purifier 
of  silver,  and  he  shall  purify  the  sons  of  Levi."  Why? 
"That  they  may  offer  unto  the  Lord  an  offering  in  righteous- 
ness :  then  shall  the  offerings  of  Judah  and  Jerusalem  be 
pleasant  unto  the  Lord,  as  in  the  days  of  old,  and  as  in  former 
years."  Who  is  this  that  sits  thus  at  it  ?  Why  in  the  former 
verse  it  is  said,  <•  even  the  Messenger  of  the  covenant,"  that 
is,  Christ  Jesus.  "  Behold  I  will  send  my  messenger,  and  he 
shall  prepare  the  way  before  me ;"  there  is  John  the  Baptist. 
"  And  the  Lord  whom  ye  seek  shall  suddenly  come  to  his 
temple,  even  the  Messenger  of  the  covenant,  (here  is  Christ) 
whom  ye  delight  in."  Behold  he  shall  come.  And  what 
shall  he  do  ?  Why  he  shall  sit  at  this  work  ;  his  heart  is 


68  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  [SER.  4. 

much  in  this  work,  his  delight  is  in  it ;  and  therefore  you 
have  the  assurance  of  his  delight,  that  he  will  carry  it  on. 

As  you  have  the  assurance  of  his  delight,  so  you  have  the 
assurance  of  his  name  and  title — Jesus,  Jesus  the  Mediator 
of  the  covenant.  Why  Jesus  ?  Why  not  Christ  ?  Why  not 
Jesus  Christ,  as  in  other  scriptures  ? 

Look  into  the  book  of  the  Hebrews  and  you  will  find 
frequently  that  Christ  is  called  Jesus,  why  ?  because  this  title 
was  more  suitable  to  the  priestly  office  of  Christ,  which  the 
apostle  is  opening  in  the  book  of  the  Hebrews.  It  notes 
also  the  Deity  of  Christ ;  Jesus  signifies  Saviour ;  they  go 
here  together,  Jesus  the  Mediator,  why  ?  because  as  he  is  a 
Mediator  in  order  to  our  salvation,  so  he  is  a  Saviour  in  the 
way  of  mediation ;  therefore  they  go  here  together.  And 
therefore  as  Jesus  is  able  to  save  to  the  uttermost,  so  as 
Mediator  he  will  perform  this  work  of  mediation  to  the 
uttermost.  And  thus  now  I  have  done  with  the  third  thing, 
namely,  [that  Jesus  hath  undertaken  this  work  to  mediate 
between  God  and  us,  and  he  will  certainly  carry  it  on  unto 
due  perfection. 

Fourthly,  How,  and  in  what  respects  is  Jesus  said  to  be 
the  Mediator  of  the  new  covenant. 

Upon  a  threefold  account. 

Upon  the  account  of  stipulation.  Upon  the  account  of 
confirmation.  Upon  the  account  of  suretiship. 

He  is  the  Mediator  of  the  new  covenant  upon  the  account 
of  stipulation,  for  he  it  was  that  did  strike  the  covenant  for  us 
with  God  the  Father.  See  what  is  said  in  2  Tim.  i.,  "  Who 
hath  saved  us  (saith  the  apostle)  and  called  us  with  an  holy 
calling,  not  according  to  our  works,  but  according  to  his  own 
purpose  and  grace,  which  was  given  us  in  Christ  Jesus 
before  the  world  began."  So  that  there  was  a  treatment 
between  God  the  Father  and  Christ  concerning  us ;  and 
Christ  received  grace  for  us  before  the  world  began.  And  as 
the  first  Adam  did  strike  the  covenant  of  works  with  God 
the  Father  for  his  seed,  so  Jesus  did  strike  the  covenant  of 
grace  for  his  seed  with  God  the  Father,  and  so  called  the 
second  Adam.  A  Mediator  therefore  of  the  new  covenant 
he  is,  in  regard  of  stipulation,  he  it  was  that  struck  up  the 
covenant  first  with  the  Father. 

As  he  is  a  Mediator  of  the  new  covenant  upon  the  account 


SER.  4.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  69 

of  stipulation,  so  upon  the  account  of  confirmation ;  for  he 
hath  confirmed  the  covenant.  He  confirmed  the  covenant 
by  his  active  obedience  while  he  lived,  and  by  his  passive 
obedience  when  he  died. 

By  his  active  obedience  while  he  lived,  Dan.  ix.  27,  "  He 
shall  confirm  the  covenant  with  many  for  one  week."  La- 
rabbim,  you  read  it  with  many,  but  rather  he  shall  confirm 
the  covenant/or  many  ;  not  for  all,  but  he  shall  confirm  the 
covenant  for  many  for  one  week. 

And  he  did  confirm  the  covenant  also  by  his  passive  obe- 
dience in  his  death,  Heb.  ix.  a  For  this  cause  he  is  the  Me- 
diator of  the  New  Testament,  that  by  means  of  death  for 
the  redemption  of  the  transgressions  that  were  under  the 
first  testament,  they  which  are  called  might  receive  the 
promise.  For  (the  apostle  explains  it  by  a  similitude)  where 
a  testament  is,  there  must  also  of  necessity  be  the  death  of 
the  testator.  For  a  testament  is  of  force  after  men  are  dead ; 
otherwise  it  is  of  no  strength  at  all,  whilst  the  testator  liveth." 
So  that  plainly  then,  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ  did  confirm  the 
covenant  by  his  death. 

Only  the  question  is,  how  Christ  did  confirm  the  covenant 
by  his  death  ? 

The  Socinians  would  make  the  world  believe  that  Christ 
did  confirm  the  covenant  by  his  death,  in  the  way  of  testi- 
mony and  witness-bearing  only;  for  say  they,  Christ  preached 
the  gospel  while  he  lived,  and  when  he  died,  he  did  by  his 
death  seal  it  and  confirm  the  truth  thereof.  Thus  they  say, 
that  Christ  did  confirm  the  covenant  by  his  death  only  in  a 
way  of  witness-bearing,  in  a  way  of  testimony. 

But  surely  this  cannot  be  it,  for  if  Christ  did  confirm  the 
covenant  by  his  death ;  he  confirmed  not  the  covenant  only 
by  witness-bearing  to  the  truth,  for  so  the  apostles  might  be 
said  to  confirm  the  covenant,  for  in  Heb.  ii.  3  :  "  How  shall 
we  escape  if  we  neglect  so  great  salvation,  which  at  the  first 
began  to  be  spoken  by  the  Lord,  and  was  confirmed  unto  us 
by  them  that  heard  him." 

And  if  our  Lord  and  Saviour  should  only  confirm  the 
covenant  by  his  death  in  a  way  of  witness-bearing,  then  the 
martyrs  that  died  for  the  truth,  should  confirm  the  covenant 
by  their  death  too,  for  they  by  their  death  did  seal  to  the 
truth,  and  did  bear  witness  to  the  truth,  and  so  they  should 


70  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SfiR.  4. 

be  said  to  confirm  the  covenant ;  but  far  be  it  from  us  to 
think  any  such  thing. 

But  Jesus  Christ  did  confirm  the  covenant  by  his  death 
thus,  by  performing  the  condition  of  the  covenant,  and  by 
laying  down  his  blood  a  price  for  the  mercies  and  blessings 
promised  in  the  covenant. 

He  did  confirm  the  covenant  by  his  death,  I  say,  by  per- 
forming the  condition  of  the  covenant.  If  a  man  be  in 
captivity,  and  he  that  hath  him  in  captivity  promises  upon 
the  payment  of  so  much  money  that  he  shall  be  delivered ; 
when  the  money  is  paid  down  the  condition  is  performed ; 
why  now  Jesus  when  he  died,  he  gave  himself  a  ransom  for 
many,  \VT%OV  yea,  am\vrpov  and  upon  this  account  he  is  called 
a  Mediator,  1  Tim.  ii.  5,  "  There  is  one  God,  and  one  Me- 
diator between  God  and  man,  the  man  Christ  Jesus,  who 
gave  himself  a  ransom,"  avriXv-rpov,  a  ransom  in  the  room,  a 
ransom  for,  or  in  the  room  of  us. 

As  the  first  Adam  should  have  confirmed  the  covenant 
and  did  not,  so  the  second  Adam  did  confirm  the  covenant. 
How  should  the  first  Adam  have  confirmed  the  covenant  ? 
Why,  the  first  Adam  should  have  confirmed  the  covenant 
by  performing  the  condition  thereof.  So  now  our  Lord  and 
Saviour  Christ,  being  the  second  Adam,  did  confirm  the 
covenant.  How  ?  By  performing  the  condition  of  the  co- 
venant. Thus  he  is  the  Mediator  of  the  new  covenant,  upon 
the  account  of  confirmation. 

He  is  the  Mediator  of  the  new  covenant  upon  the  account 
of  suretyship,  by  being  bound  unto  God  the  Father  that  we 
shall  perform  to  him,  by  being  bound  to  us  that  God  the 
Father  shall  perform  to  us.  In  Heb.  vii.  22,  you  shall  find 
he  is  called  our  Surety  j  by  so  much  was  Jesus  made  a  Surety 
of  a  better  testament.  And  why  so  ?  but  to  shew  that  where 
he  is  Mediator,  he  is  Surety.  You  knew  what  a  surety  is  ? 
he  is  bound  for  the  debtor  to  perform.  Saith  Judah  unto  his 
father  Jacob,  Gen.  xliii.  9,  when  he  would  have  Benjamin 
down  with  him  to  Egypt,  "  I  will  be  surety  for  him,  of  my 
hand  shalt  thou  require  him."  So  Christ  saith  unto  the 
Father,  I  will  be  Surety  for  these  men  and  of  my  hand  shalt 
thou  require  their  performance ;  and  saith  he  to  them  again, 
I  will  be  Surety  for  God  the  Father,  and  of  my  hand  shall 
you  require  his  mercies.  So  that  thus  now  he  is  a  Mediator 


SKB.  4.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  71 

of  the  new  covenant  upon  an  account  of  suretiship,  upon  a 
threefold  account;  upon  the  account  of  stipulation,  upon 
the  account  of  confirmation,  upon  the  account  of  suretiship. 

Fifthly,  But  what  are  the  benefits  that  we  do  gain  or  get 
by  Jesus  being  the  Mediator  of  the  new  Covenant  ? 

Much  every  way.  First  of  all  is  it  not  a  great  matter  that 
God  the  Father  should  be  reconciled  unto  us  ?  If  God  be  re- 
conciled, you  are  brought  near  unto  him,  into  oneness  with 
him.  Union  is  the  ground  of  communion,  and  communion 
is  the  ground  of  communication ;  surely  therefore  it  is  no 
small  matter.  Now  I  say,  if  Jesus  be  the  Mediator  of  the 
new  covenant,  God  is  reconciled  to  us. 

If  Jesus  be  the  Mediator  of  the  new  covenant,  then  you 
may  go  with  boldness,  and  look  the  justice  of  God  in  the 
face.  With  boldness,  for  your  debt  is  satisfied.  So  long  as 
a  man  is  in  debt,  he  steals  by  the  prison  door  in  the  dark ; 
but  if  his  Surety  have  paid  the  debt,  he  dares  come,  as  you 
say,  and  whet  his  knife  at  the  Compter  door.  Now  Christ 
being  your  Mediator,  the  Mediator  of  the  new  covenant,  he 
is  your  Surety,  the  debt  is  paid,  and  you  may  go  with  bold- 
ness and  look  justice  in  the  face,  and  the  devil,  and  all  those 
sergeants  of  hell. 

But  is  it  not  a  great  matter  for  Christ  to  be  your  King, 
Priest  and  Prophet  ?  Consider  it  a  little.  If  you  observe  it, 
you  shall  find  that  all  the  blessings  that  came  to  the  Jews  or 
Israelites  in  the  time  of  the  old  testament,  came  through 
these  three  offices,  king, priest,  prophet;  why?  but  as  a  type, 
to  shew  that  all  our  spiritual  mercies  must  come  through  the 
hand  of  these  three  offices  in  Christ.  Now  if  Christ  be  the 
Mediator  of  the  new  covenant,  then  he  is  your  King,  your 
Priest,  your  Prophet,  for  all  these  three  offices  of  Christ  grow 
upon  the  mediation  of  Christ. 

For  if  he  be  your  Mediator,  then  he  will  be  a  Prophet ;  a 
Prophet  to  declare  the  mind  and  will  of  the  Father  to  you. 

If  he  be  your  Mediator,  he  will  be  your  Priest,  to  satisfy 
the  Father's  anger  for  you. 

If  he  be  your  Mediator,  he  will  be  a  King  to  subdue  all 
your  enemies,  for  he  is  a  Priest  after  the  order  of  Melchize- 
dek,  King  of  Salem.  Now  is  it  not  a  great  matter  to  have 
Christ  our  King,  our  Priest,  our  Prophet  ?  surely  it  is.  But, 

Is  it  not  a  great  matter  that  all  the  blessings  and  mercies 


72  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  [SER.  4. 

of  the  new  covenant  should  belong  unto  you  ?  Friends,  have 
you  duly  considered  what  are  the  blessings  of  the  new  cove- 
nant ?  I  will  tell  you  briefly  : 

They  are  all  those  spiritual  blessings  which  you  want,  and 
complain  for  the  want  of.  There  are  seven  or  eight  spiritual 
blessings  that  a  poor  drooping  soul  doth  complain  for  the 
want  of. 

Oh,  saith  he,  I  am  afraid  I  am  not  the  child  of  God  j  or  I 
fear  my  sin  is  not  pardoned ;  and  I  do  not  find  an  inward 
constant  frame  of  soul  to  what  is  good;  and  I  am  a  poor 
ignorant  creature  ;  and  I  have  a  hard  heart ;  and  I  want  the 
Spirit  of  the  Lord  within  me ;  and  I  cannot  walk  with  God 
as  I  ought  to  do ;  and  I  fear  I  shall  fall  away,  and  go  to  hell 
at  last.  Why  now  in  the  covenant  of  grace  there  is  supply 
promised  against  all  these  fears. 

Dost  thou  say,  I  am  afraid  I  am  not  the  child  of  God  ? 
Why,  saith  the  Lord  here  in  the  covenant,  "  I  will  be  a  God 
unto  you,  and  you  shall  be  my  people,"  There  is  adoption 
for  you.  Heb.  viii. 

Do  you  say,  I  am  afraid  my  sin  is  not  pardoned  ?  Then 
saith  the  Lord  in  the  covenant,  tf  Your  sin  and  your  iniquity 
will  I  remember  no  more,"  Heb.  viii. 

Do  you  say,  Oh,  but  I  do  not  find  that  constant  frame  of 
heart  unto  what  is  good  ?  Why,  saith  the  Lord  in  the  cove- 
nant, "  I  will  write  my  law  in  your  heart." 

Do  you  say,  Oh,  but  I  am  a  poor  ignorant  creature  ? 
Why,  saith  the  Lord  in  the,  covenant,  u  You  shall  all  know 
me  from  the  greatest  to  the  least,  and  you  shall  be  taught  of 
God." 

Do  you  say,  Oh,  but  my  heart  is  hard  ?  Why,  saith  the 
Lord  in  the  covenant,  "  I  will  take  away  the  heart  of  stone, 
and  give  an  heart  of  flesh." 

Do  you  say,  Oh,  but  I  want  the  Spirit  of  God  within  me  ? 
Why,  saith  the  Lord,  "  I  will  put  my  Spirit  within  you." 

Do  you  say,  J  cannot  walk  with  God  as  I  ought  ?  Why, 
saith  the  Lord  in  the  covenant,  "  I  will  cause  you  to  walk  in 
my  ways." 

Do  you  say,  I  fear  I  shall  fall  away,  and  go  to  hell  at  last? 
Why,  saith  the  Lord  in  the  covenant,  "  I  will  put  my  fear 
into  your  hearts,  and  you  shall  not  depart  from  me."  These, 
even  these,  besides  heaven,  and  besides  the  blessings  of  this 


SSR.  4.]  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  73 

earth,  so  all  these  blessings  are  promised  in  the  covenant  of 
grace ;  and  if  Christ  be  the  Mediator  of  the  new  covenant, 
then  do  these  blessings  belong  to  you,  for  he  is  Surety  as 
well  as  Mediator.  But, 

Is  it  not  a  great  matter  to  have  the  Lord  Jesus  to  interpose 
between  God  the  Father  and  you,  to  take  up  all  differences 
as  they  may  arise  ?  Why,  if  Jesus  be  the  Mediator  of  the 
covenant,  so  it  is :  "  If  any  man  sin,  we  have  an  Advocate 
with  the  Father,  Jesus  Christ  the  righteous,  who  is  the  pro- 
pitiation for  our  sins." 

Is  it  not  a  great  matter  for  you  to  enter  into  the  holy  of 
holiest,  and  to  have  all  your  duties  carried  in  to  God  the  Fa- 
ther by  the  hand  of  Jesus  ?  If  he  be  your  Mediator,  so  it  is, 
Rev.  viii. 

Is  it  not  a  great  matter  in  case  that  you  have  to  deal  with 
enemies,  either  for  soul  or  body  to  have  one  by,  that  can  and 
will  interpose  and  rebuke  them  ?  Why,  if  Jesus  be  the 
Mediator  of  the  covenant,  thus  shall  it  be.  He  interposed 
between  Laban  and  Jacob ;  when  Laban  followed  Jacob,  he 
rebuked  Laban.  He  interposed  in  the  case  of  Joshua,  when 
"  Satan  stood  up  at  his  right  hand  :  the  Lord  rebuke  thee," 
as  in  Zechariah  iii.  The  same  word  in  the  Hebrew,  that  Job 
useth  for  days-man,  conies  from  a  root  that  signifies  to  re- 
buke. 

And  then  to  say  no  more  in  it  but  this,  Is  it  not  a  great 
matter  for  one  that  is  in  trouble,  or  affliction  of  spirit,  to 
have  Christ  to  interpose  between  God  the  Father  and  him, 
when  he  lies  under  the  sense  of  God's  wrath  and  displeasure  ? 
Why,  if  Christ  be  the  Mediator  of  the  new  covenant,  then 
thus  it  is  ;  look  into  Job  xxxiii.,  and  see  what  a  scheme  and 
mould  of  conversion- work  there  is,  verse  14,  u  God  speaketh 
once,  yea  twice,  yet  man  perceiveth  it  not :"  here  is  man  in 
his  natural  state  and  condition,  going  on  in  the  way  of  his 
sin,  living  nnder  the  means  ;  and  God  speaking  once  and 
twice,  and  he  perceives  it  not.  Well  then  verse  15.,  "  In  a 
dream,  in  a  vision  of  the  night,  when  deep  sleep  falleth  upon 
men,  in  slumberings  upon  the  bed,  then  he  openeth  the  ears 
of  men,  and  sealeth  their  instruction."  Here  comes  a  work 
of  conviction  and  conversion,  suddenly,  unexpectedly,  and 
what  then  ?  then  trouble  of  conscience,  at  verse  19.,  "  He  is 
chastened  also  with  pain  upon  his  bed,  and  the  multitude  of 


74  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SfiR.  4. 

his  bones  with  strong  pain,  so  that  his  life  abhorreth  bread, 
and  his  soul  dainty  meat ;  his  flesh  is  consumed  away  that  it 
cannot  be  seen,  and  his  bones  that  were  not  seen  stick  out ; 
his  soul  draweth  nigh  unto  the  grave,  and  his  life  to  the  des- 
troyers :"  what  then  ?  why  then  at  verse  23.,  "  If  there  be  a 
messenger;  (Christ  is  the  messenger  of  the  covenant,)  if 
there  be  a  messenger  with  him,  an  interpreter,  (an  advocate) 
if  there  be  a  messenger  with  him,  (or  an  advocate  by  him,) 
one  of  a  thousand,  (as  Christ  is,)  to  shew  unto  man  his  righ- 
teousness," where  his  righteousness  lies ;  what  then  ?  why 
"  then  he  is  gracious  unto  him,  and  saith,  Deliver  him  from 
going  down  to  the  pit,  I  have  found  a  ransom."  And  then, 
"  his  flesh  shall  be  fresher  than  a  child's,  he  shall  return  to 
the  days  of  his  youth,  he  shall  pray  unto  God,  and  he  will  be 
favourable  unto  him,  and  he  shall  see  his  face  with  joy,  for 
he  will  render  unto  man  his  righteousness."  Thus  now  it 
shall  be,  if  Jesus  be  the  Mediator  of  the  new  covenant.  Oh, 
what  a  comfortable  thing  therefore  it  is,  for  Jesus  to  be  this 
Mediator  of  the  covenant.  And  thus  you  see  in  the  fifth 
place  what  those  benefits  are  that  we  do  gain  thereby. 

Sixthly,  But  then  what  are  those  doctrinal  corollaries,  or 
practical  duties,  that  do  flow  from  hence  ? 

If  Jesus  be  the  Mediator  of  the  new  covenant,  what  an  evil 
thing  is  it,  and  unreasonable,  for  men  to  think,  or  speak,  or 
do  any  thing  that  may  reflect  upon  this  Mediator  of  the  new 
covenant,  or  to  sin  against  this  new  covenant  ?  There  are 
some  opinions  that  do  reflect  and  cast  a  black  reflection  upon 
Jesus  the  Mediator  of  the  covenant. 

The  Socinian  tells  us,  that  Jesus  is  a  Mediator  such  a  one 
as  Moses  was  to  declare  the  mind  of  God  unto  us ;  but  not  a 
Mediator  in  a  way  of  satisfaction,  to  satisfy  God's  wrath. 

They  say  he  is  a  Mediator,  but  not  a  Surety,  to  merit  for 
us,  or  to  pay  our  debt  for  us. 

They  say  he  is  a  Mediator,  but  deny  the  Deity  of  Christ, 
and  so  root  up  the  very  mediation  of  Christ ;  they  cast  a  very- 
black  reflection  upon  this  Mediator. 

The  Papists  they  say,  that  Christ  is  a  Mediator,  and  our 
only  Mediator  in  a  way  of  redemption,  but  we  have  many 
mediators  in  a  way  of  intercession,  saints  and  angels. 

They  say  that  Christ  is  Mediator,  but  according  to  his 
human  nature  only,  whereas  the  apostle  saith  expressly,  that 


SER.  4.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  75 

"  he  offered  up  himself  through  the  eternal  Spirit :"  thus  they 
reflect  upon  this  Mediator. 

And  for  practice,  is  it  not  a  great  reflection  upon  this  Me- 
diator for  us  to  think,  that  we  ourselves  by  our  own  tears  and 
fastings,  and  humiliations,  can  reconcile  God  unto  us,  or  pa- 
cify God's  anger,  or  make  an  atonement  for  a  nation. 

Is  it  not  a  very  great  reflection  upon  this  Mediator  to  say, 
Oh,  my  sins  are  greater  than  can  be  forgiven  ?  Is  not  this  a 
very  blameable  reflection  upon  this  Mediator  of  the  new 
covenant  ? 

But  there  are  four  or  five  ways  especially  wherein  we  do 
sin  against  the  covenant. 

By  not  looking  into  it,  not  studying  it,  not  being  acquaint- 
ed with  it.  Shall  the  Lord  Jesus  be  such  a  Mediator  of  such 
a  covenant,  and  shall  we  not  look  into  the  covenant,  and  be 
acquainted  with  it.  Yet  Lord,  how  many  poor  souls  are 
there  that  are  ignorant  of  this  covenant  ?  What  unthankful- 
ness  is  this,  what  a  sin  against  the  covenant  is  this,  that  Je- 
sus should  be  the  Mediator  of  the  covenant,  and  men  should 
not  look  into  it,  not  study  it,  not  be  acquainted  with  it  ? 

Sometimes  we  sin  against  the  covenant,  by  altering  the 
mould  and  the  frame  of  the  covenant,  by  hanging  our  condi- 
tions upon  God's  covenant,  our  padlock  upon  God's  door. 

Sometimes  we  sin  against  the  covenant,  by  slighting  that 
great  ordinance  of  the  Lord's  supper  concerning  which  Christ 
hath  said ,  "  This  cup  is  the  New  Testament  in  my  blood  :" 
to  slight  it,  saying,  these  are  low  things,  we  are  above  ordi- 
nances, and  these  are  carnal  things,  now  thus  to  slight  it  is 
to  sin  directly  against  the  covenant. 

Sometimes  we  sin  against  the  covenant  by  our  unbelief  and 
doubting. 

But  sometimes  we  sin  against  the  covenant  by  turning  the 
grace  of  this  covenant  into  wantonness.  Is  this  true,  that  the 
Lord  hath  promised  mercy  upon  no  condition  to  be  performed 
by  us ;  then  why  may  we  not  live  as  we  list  ?  say  men  :  thus 
turning  this  grace  of  God  in  the  covenant  into  wantonness. 
But  is  this  true,  that  Jesus  is  the  Mediator  of  the  new  cove- 
nant ?  Why  then  should  we  think,  speak,  or  do  any  thing 
that  may  reflect  against  this  Mediator,  or  sin  against  this  co- 
venant ? 

If  Jesus  be  the  Mediator  of  the  new  covenant,  why,  then, 


76  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SfiR.  4. 

why  should  you  not  trust  in  the  Lord  for  ever,  build  upon 
him,  and  be  secure  as  to  the  mercies  and  blessings  promised 
in  the  covenant  ?  If  you  come  to  a  chamber  to  lodge  in, 
and  you  see  that  it  is  laid  upon  weak,  or  lathy  props,  that 
the  foundation  be  not  sure,  you  say,  I  will  not  venture  to 
lodge  here ;  but  if  you  come  to  a  chamber  that  is  laid  upon 
a  good  foundation,  you  say  then,  I  durst  venture  to  lodge 
here.  Why  this  new  covenant  is  founded  upon  the  blood  of 
Christ.  The  blood  of  Christ  is  the  foundation  of  the  new 
covenant ;  And  therefore  why  should  you  not  rest  and  be  se- 
cure, confident,  as  concerning  the  mercies  and  blessings  pro- 
mised in  the  covenant  ? 

Oh,  but  you  will  say,  I  cannot  be  persuaded  that 
Christ  is  my  Mediator;  I  know  that  Christ  is  a  Mediator  of 
the  new  covenant,  but  I  cannot  think  that  he  doth  mediate 
for  me.  If  indeed  I  were  persuaded  that  Jesus  were  my 
Mediator,  or  that  he  did  mediate  for  me  in  particular,  Ah, 
then  I  should  trust  in  the  Lord  indeed  for  the  blessings  of 
the  covenant.  But  I  cannot  be  persuaded  that  Christ  is  my 
Mediator ;  I  grant  he  is  the  Mediator  of  the  new  covenant, 
but  I  cannot  say  that  he  is  my  Mediator,  or  that  he  doth 
mediate  for  me,  and  therefore  I  cannot  be  satisfied. 

No,  what,  the  Father  satisfied,  who  is  the  person  offended, 
and  you  not  satisfied,  who  are  the  person  offending  ? 

No,  Why  if  the  Jew  had  sinned,  and  the  high  priest  had 
offered  an  offering,  or  a  sacrifice  for  him,  the  sinning  Jew 
would  not  say,  this  was  not  for  me,  and  therefore  I  am  not 
satisfied,  for  the  sacrifice  was  not  for  me ;  He  would  not  say 
so,  but  he  would  say  that  he  was  satisfied.  And  shall  Jesus 
be  our  great  High  Priest,  and  shall  He  make  an  offering  of 
himself  for  us,  and  will  you  say,  it  is  not  for  me  ? 

But  to  come  a  little  nearer  to  your  objection,  that  I  may 
bring  this  great  doctrine  home  unto  our  hearts. 

The  apostle  hath  said,  ff  If  any  man  sin  we  have  an  Advo- 
cate with  the  Father,  Jesus  Christ  the  righteous ;"  what  think 
you,  are  you  not  within  the  compass  of  those  words,  "  if  any 
man  sin,"  will  not  those  words  reach  you  ? 

But  if  God  be  reconciled  unto  you,  then  Christ  hath 
mediated  for  you;  now  God  the  Father  is  reconciled  to  you  ; 
for  if  you  be  reconciled  to  God  and  the  things  of  God,  then 
God  is  reconciled  to  you.  Pray  tell  me,  were  you  not  an 


SER.  4.J  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  77 

enemy  once  to  the  good  ways  of  God  and  the  things  of  God  ? 
Yes;  And  are  you  not  reconciled  now  to  the  things  of  God? 
Yes,  I  confess  I  am.  Well,  if  you  be  reconciled  to  the 
things  of  God,  God  is  reconciled  to  you;  and  if  God  be 
reconciled  to  you,  I  am  sure  Christ  hath  mediated  for  you. 
Luther  was  wont  to  say,  The  only  way  to  make  God  our 
friend,  is  to  cast  ourselves  into  his  arms  when  he  seems  to 
be  our  enemy.  Thus  have  you  done,  poor  soul  ?  When  God 
have  seemed  to  be  our  enemy,  then  have  you  cast  yourselves 
into  the  arms  of  God  ?  Surely  then  God  is  reconciled 
unto  you,  and  Christ  is  your  Mediator. 

Again,  if  you  be  the  seed  of  Christ,  then  Christ  is  your 
Mediator,  and  Christ  hath,  and  doth  mediate  for  you ;  for  he 
is  a  Mediator  for  his  seed.  Now  mark  it,  there  are  but  two 
seeds,  the  seed  of  the  woman  and  the  seed  of  the  serpent ; 
"  I  will  put  enemity  between  thy  seed  and  the  seed  of  the 
woman."  There  are  but  two  seeds :  how  think  you,  are  you 
the  seed  of  the  serpent?  Either  you  are  Christ's  seed,  or 
the  seed  of  the  serpent,  and  that  is  an  hissing  seed,  an 
opposing  seed.  Do  you  think  you  are  the  seed  of  the 
serpent?  No,  I  hope  I  am  not  the  seed  of  the  serpent; 
why,  then  you  are  the  seec  of  Christ,  and  Christ  doth 
mediate  for  you.  Now  then  humble  yourselves  for  all  your 
unbelief,  and  lay  the  wait  of  your  guilty  soul  upon  this  sweet 
covenant  of  grace,  for  Jesus  is  the  Mediator  of  it. 

This  doctrine  methinks  looks  very  wishly  upon  all  sorts ; 
It  looks  wishly  upon  those  that  are  good,  and  upon  those 
that  are  bad;  It  looks  wishly  upon  those  that  are  godly, 
and  upon  those  that  are  ungodly ;  upon  those  that  are  con- 
verted, and  upon  those  that  are  not  converted. 

Upon  those  that  are  bad,  wicked,  ungodly,  unconverted, 
and  to  them  it  saith,  why  should  not  you,  even  you  come 
unto  God  for  the  grace  of  this  new  covenant,  which  is  con- 
firmed by  Christ  the  Mediator  ?  Why  should  not  you,  you 
that  are  unconverted,  go  unto  God  the  Father,  and  press 
him  to  give  out  the  grace  of  this  covenant  to  you  ?  Hath 
not  the  Lord  said,  "  Let  not  the  eunuch  say,  I  am  a  dry 
tree ;  only  let  him  take  hold  of  my  covenant.  Neither  let 
the  son  of  the  stranger,  that  hath  joined  himself  to  the 
Lord,  speak,  saying,  The  Lord  hath  utterly  separated  me 


78  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SfiR.  4. 

from  his  people ;  Only  let  him  take  hold  of  ray  covenant, 
and  do  the  things  that  please  me." 

This  new  covenant  confirmed  by  Christ  Jesus  the  Mediator, 
either  it  is  confirmed  for  saints  only,  or  for  sinners  also,  that 
are  sinners  for  the  present. 

If  for  saints  only,  why  doth  the  Lord  say,  "  I  will  write  my 
law  in  your  hearts }"  Surely,  therefore,  it  is  for  some  in 
whose  heart  God's  law  is  not  yet  written.  And  if  this  cove- 
nant doth  extend  to  such,  who  as  yet  have  not  the  law  written, 
the  law  of  grace  written  in  their  hearts,  oh,  what  encou- 
ragement is  here  for  a  poor  sinner  to  go  to  God,  and  say, 
Lord  thou  hast  made  this  covenant,  and  Christ  hath  con- 
firmed it,  and  he  is  the  Mediator  of  it ;  now  this  law  is  not 
yet  written  in  my  heart ;  oh,  make  good  thy  covenant,  and 
write  thy  law  in  my  heart. 

And  for  you  that  are  saints,  this  doctrine  looks  upon  you, 
and  it  saith  thus :  If  Christ  be  the  Mediator  of  the  new 
covenant,  and  your  Mediator  that  God  hath  provided  for 
you,  then  go  away,  and  be  ashamed  of  your  sins,  and  of 
all  your  doings,  the  pardon  whereof  requires  such  a  Mediator, 
and  the  blood  of  the  Mediator ;  "  Then  shall  you  be  ashamed/' 
saith  the  Lord,  "  when  I  am  pacified  towards  you."  If 
Christ  be  your  Mediator,  and  God  be  pacified,  oh,  then  be 
you  ashamed. 

And  to  you  it  speaks  thus :  If  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ  be 
the  Mediator  of  this  new  covenant,  your  Mediator,  and 
mediates  for  you,  then  why  should  not  you  appear  for  Christ 
on  earth  upon  all  occasions  ?  Shall  Christ  interpose  with 
the  Father,  and  appear  for  you,  and  mediate  for  you  in 
heaven  upon  all  occasions,  and  will  not  you  appear  for  Christ 
on  earth  ?  What,  Christ  appear  for  you  in  heaven,  and  me- 
diate for  you  in  heaven,  and  will  not  you  appear  for  Christ 
on  earth  ?  Yea,  unto  you  it  saith,  Why  should  not  you  all 
go  away  with  your  hearts  full  of  love  and  thankfulness,  both 
to  God  the  Father  and  to  Jesus  Christ  ?  If  you  were  going 
to  the  prison  for  a  debt,  and  a  man  should  meet  you,  and 
undertake  to  be  your  surety,  and  pay  your  debt,  you  would 
love  him  as  long  as  you  lived.  Here  is  the  case  :  we  were 
all  going  to  prison,  Christ  comes,  undertakes  to  be  our 
Surety,  pays  our  debt ;  then  will  not  you  love  Christ  the 
Mediator  of  the  new  covenant  ?  Will  you  not  love  him,  and 


SER.  4.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  79 

be  thankful  to  him,  and  to  God  the  Father  ?  For  though 
the  performance  of  this  mediation  be  Christ's,  the  contri- 
vance is  God  the  Father's.  God  the  Father  did  contrive 
this  covenant,  and  God  the  Father  did  send  Christ  this 
Mediator ;  "  I  have  given  thee  for  a  covenant,"  saith  the 
Father;  and  saith  Christ,  "  Lo,  I  come  to  do  thy  will." 
Friends,  it  was  the  will  of  God  the  Father  that  Jesus 
should  be  the  Mediator  of  this  new  covenant.  Oh,  the 
freeness  of  the  grace  of  God  the  Father !  He  was  the 
person  offended ;  and  yet,  that  he  himself  should  find  out 
such  a  Mediator  of  such  a  covenant,  what  grace  is  here  ! 
Now  therefore  blessed  be  God  the  Father  for  this  Medi- 
ator, let  us  all  say ;  and  blessed  be  this  Mediator  Jesus,  who 
hath  mediated  us  into  this  new  covenant. 

Go  away,  I  say,  you  that  are  saints  with  your  hearts  full 
of  love,  both  unto  God  the  Father,  who  hath  contrived  this 
mediation,  and  unto  Jesus  who  hath  performed  this  media- 
tion ;  and  now  let  your  hearts  be  confirmed,  let  your  hope 
be  confirmed,  let  your  love  be  confirmed,  let  your  joy  be 
confirmed,  let  your  thankfulness  be  confirmed,  let  your  graces 
be  confirmed.  A  confirmed  covenant  calls  for  confirmed 
Christians. 

I  have  done,  I  cannot  say  whom  we  should  love  most  and 
be  thankful  most  unto,  the  Father  or  the  Son ;  but  this  I 
say,  love  the  Father  with  all  your  heart,  and  be  thankful  to 
him  in  reference  to  his  contrivance ;  love  the  Son  with  all 
your  heart,  and  be  thankful  to  him  in  reference  to  his  per- 
formance, for  Jesus  is  the  Mediator  of  the  new  covenant. 

And  thus  I  have  done  with  the  second  doctrine,  namely, 
that  Jesus  is  the  Mediator  of  the  new  covenant.  The  third 
follows,  and  that  is,  that  now  in  these  gospel  times  we  are 
not  come  to  Moses  the  mediator  of  the  Old,  but  unto  Jesus 
the  Mediator  of  the  New  Testament. 


80  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SER.  5. 

SERMON    V. 

THE    WAY    AND    SPIRIT    OF    THE    NEW  COVENANT   OR    NEW 
TESTAMENT. 

"  And  to  Jesus  the  Mediator  of  the  new  covenant,  and  to  the  blood 
of  sprinkling,  that  speaketh  better  things  than  that  of  Abel." — HEB. 
xii.  24. 

THE  third  observation  follows,  which  is  this : 

Observation  III.  That  in  these  gospel  times  we  are  not 
come  to  Moses,  the  mediator  of  the  Old ;  but  unto  Jesus, 
the  Mediator  of  the  new  covenant  or  the  New  Testament. 

The  latter  part  of  the  doctrine  you  have  in  the  words  of 
the  text,  and  the  former  part  in  the  context ;  for,  saith  the 
apostle,  "Ye  are  not  come  unto  the  mount  that  might  be 
touched/'  to  mount  Sinai,  "but  ye  are  come  unto  mount 
Sion,  and  ye  are  come  unto  Jesus  the  Mediator  of  the  new 
covenant."  So  that  now  in  these  gospel  times,  we  are  not 
come  to  Moses,  the  mediator  of  the  old  covenant ;  but  to 
Jesus,  the  Mediator  of  the  New  Testament. 

For  the  opening  and  prosecuting  whereof, 

First,  We  must  inquire  what  is  here  meant  by  coming  unto 
Jesus,  the  Mediator  of  the  new  covenant,  in  opposition  to 
Moses,  the  mediator  of  the  old  covenant. 

Secondly,  Whether  it  be  possible  for  a  man  that  doth  pro- 
fess Christ,  the  Mediator  of  the  new  covenant,  to  have 
recourse  unto  Moses,  the  mediator  of  the  old  covenant  or 
the  Old  Testament  ?  That  is,  whether  a  man  may  possibly 
be  legal  and  Mosaical  in  these  gospel  times  ? 

Thirdly,  When  so. 

Fourthly,  The  danger  of  it.     And, 

Fifthly,  What  we  should  do  that  we  may  stand  clear  from 
Moses,  the  mediator  of  the  old  covenant;  and  come  fully 
off  unto  Jesus,  the  Mediator  of  the  new.  That  we  may 
walk  with  a  gospel,  not  a  legal  spirit ;  and  be  found  in  a 
gospel,  not  a  legal  way,  in  these  gospel  times. 

First  of  all,  If  you  ask  what  is  here  meant  by  coming 
unto  Jesus,  the  Mediator  of  the  new  covenant,  in  opposition 
to  Moses  ? 

I  answer  in  the  general,  It  doth  signify  and  note  out  that 
evangelical  and  gospel  state  that  we  are  now  brought  unto, 


SER.  5.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  81 

by  Jesus  the  Mediator  of  the  New  Testament ;  in  opposition 
to  the  legal  state  that  they  were  in,  in  the  days  and  times  of 
the  Old  Testament.  But  because  this  is  general  and  common 
unto  that  which  goes  before,  therefore  you  must  know  more 
particularly : 

That  a  man  is  said  to  come  unto  Jesus  the  Mediator  of 
the  New  Testament,  in  opposition  to  Moses,  when  now  in 
these  gospel  times,  upon  all  occasions,  he  hath  recourse  unto 
Jesus,  as  in  the  times  of  the  Old  Testament,  upon  all 
occasions,  they  had  recourse  unto  Moses.  As  now  for  ex- 
ample. 

In  the  times  of  the  Old  Testament  they  came  to  Moses 
for  the  law,  under  God,  and  they  received  the  law  from  his 
mouth.  What  saith  Moses  ?  was  the  saying  then.  So  now 
in  these  times  of  the  gospel  we  are  to  have  recourse  unto 
Jesus,  and  to  receive  the  law  at  his  mouth.  What  saith 
Jesus  ?  And  therefore  saith  our  Saviour,  "  It  hath  been  said 
unto  you,  Thou  shalt  not  kill  •"  and,  "  Thou  shalt  not  com- 
mit adultery;  but  I  say  unto  you,  and  I  say  unto  you." 
Why  ?  What,  because  (as  the  Socinians  would)  Christ  made 
any  addition  to  the  law  ?  No :  but  because  now,  as  for 
other  reasons,  we  are  to  receive  the  law  from  his  mouth,  from 
the  mouth  of  Jesus. 

Arid,  as  in  the  times  of  the  Old  Testament,  they  had  re- 
course to  Moses  for  their  church  and  their  church  state. 
He  it  was  that  did  give  the  tabernacle,  under  God,  and  the 
way  of  the  tabernacle.  So  now  in  the  times  of  the  New 
Testament,  we  arc  to  have  recourse  to  Jesus.  What  saith 
Jesus  to  a  church-way  ?  not,  What  saith  Moses  ?  now.  And 
therefore  saith  Christ,  "  If  thy  brother  offend  thee,  tell  him 
of  it ;  and  if  he  hear  not,  call  two  or  three ;  and  if  he  mind 
not,  then  tell  it  to  the  church  ;  and  if  he  hear  not  the  church, 
let  him  be  as  a  heathen  or  publican  to  you ;  for  where  two 
or  three  are  gathered  together  in  my  name,  I  am  in  the  midst 
of  them,"  Matt,  xviii.  We  are  to  hear  what  Jesus  saith  in 
this  matter,  and  not  what  Moses. 

And,  as  then,  in  the  times  of  the  Old  Testament  they  had 
recourse  to  Moses,  under  God,  for  their  ministry;  and 
Moses  did  direct  them  unto  priests  and  Levites  for  their 
ministers  :  so  now  in  the  times  of  the  New  Testament,  we 
are  to  have  recourse  to  Jesus  for  our  ministry  ;  and  therefore 

VOL.  in.  o 


CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  [SttR.  5. 

saith  the  apostle,  "  He  hath  set  in  the  church  pastors  and 
teachers."  And  in  Ephes.  iv.,  "  He  hath  ascended  up  on 
high,  and  he  hath  given  gifts  unto  men,  pastors  and  teachers^' 
and  the  like.  We  are  to  hear  what  Jesus  saith  now,  and 
not  what  Moses,  for  our  ministry. 

And  as  in  the  times  of  the  Old  Testament  they  had  then 
recourse  unto  Moses  for  the  ordinances,  for  their  Sabbaths, 
for  their  sacraments,  and  for  their  woiship;  so  now  in  the 
times  of  t]>e  New  Testament,  we  are  to  hear  what  Jesus 
saith,  and  to  have  recourse  to  him  for  these  things.  "  Go," 
saith  our  Saviour  Christ,  "and  teach  all  nations,  baptizing 
them,  and  teaching  them  to  observe  and  do  what  I  command 
you,"  Matt,  xxviii.  And  for  the  Lord's  supper,  "  What  I 
received  of  the  Lord,  that  delivered  we  unto  you,"  saith  the 
apostle.  And  for  the  Sabbath.  "  The  Son  of  Man  is  Lord 
of  the  Sabbath."  Go  to  him  for  your  Sabbath ;  not  to 
Moses,  but  unto  him.  And  for  worship,  saith  our  Saviour 
Christ  unto  the  woman  of  Samaria,  John  iv.  23,  "The  hour 
cometh,  and  now  is,  when  the  true  worshippers  shall  worship 
the  Father  in  spirit  and  truth  ;  for  the  Father  seeketh  such 
to  worship  him."  You  that  are  Samaritans,  you  have  wor- 
shipped God;  but  you  have  not  worshipped  God  according 
to  his  own  appointment,  you  have  not  worshipped  him  in 
truth.  The  Jews,  they  have  worshipped  God  according  to 
God's  appointment,  but  not  with  the  Spirit.  But  now,  the 
hour  cometh,  when  men  shall  worship  the  Father  "  in  spirit 
and  in  truth."  In  truth,  in  opposition  to  the  Samaritans,  that 
did  not  worship  according  to  appointment.  And  in  spirit,  in 
opposition  to  the  Jews,  that  worshipped  God  legally  and 
without  the  spirit.  Thus  we  must  hear  what  Jesus  saith. 

And  as  then  in  the  times  of  the  Old  Testament  they  had 
recourse  to  Moses  still;  when  they  wanted  bread,  he,  under 
God,  gave  them  manna,  and  he  gave  them  water  out  of  the 
rock ;  so  now,  in  the  times  of  the  New  Testament,  we  are 
to  have  recourse  to  Jesus  for  our  bread.  In  John  vi.  saith 
Christ,  "  Labour  not  for  the  meat  which  perisheth,  but  for 
the  meat  that  endureth  to  everlasting  life,  which  the  Son 
of  man  shall  give  unto  you,  for  him  hath  God  the  Father 
sealed." 

And  as  in  the  times  of  the  Old  Testament,  they  had  much 
recourse  to  Moses  for  their  faith  :  if  they  could  not  believe, 


SER.  5.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  83 

Moses  wrought  miracles  before  them,  and  they  believed. 
Insomuch  as  it  is  said  in  Exod.  xiv.  31.,  "  And  Israel  saw 
that  great  work  which  the  Lord  did  upon  the  Egyptians,  and 
the  people  feared  the  Lord,  and  believed  the  Lord,  and  his 
servant  Moses."  But  now  what  saith  Jesus  ?  "  Let  not  your 
heart  be  troubled,  ye  believe  in  God,  believe  also  in  me." 
Not  in  God  and  in  Moses ;  but,  "  ye  believe  in  God,  believe 
also  in  me." 

And  to  say  no  more  in  it  but  this :  in  the  times  of  the  Old 
Testament,  they  had  recourse  to  Moses  for  their  rest.  Mo- 
ses was  to  lead  them  up  to  Canaan,  and  the  land  of  rest :  and 
so  now  in  the  times  of  the  New  Testament,  we  are  to  have 
recourse  to  Jesus  for  our  rest ;  for  saith  he  himself:  "  Come 
unto  me  all  ye  that  are  weary  and  heavy  laden,  and  I  will 
give  you  rest." 

Thus,  as  in  the  times  of  the  Old  Testament,  they  were 
upon  all  occasions  to  have  recourse  to  Moses :  so  now  in  the 
times  of  the  New  Testament,  upon  all  occasions,  we  are  to 
have  recottrse  to  Jesus,  the  Mediator  of  the  new  testament ;  for 
saith  the  Lord  by  Moses,  in  Deut.  xviii.  18.,  "  I  will  raise 
them  up  a  prophet  from  among  their  brethren,  like  unto 
thee,"  rather,  as  thee,  that  is,  as  I  raised  up  thee ;  "  and  will 
put  my  words  in  his  mouth,  and  he  shall  speak  unto  them 
all  that  I  shall  command  him."  Which  the  apostle  applies 
unto  Christ,"  Acts  iii.  22,  "  For  Moses  truly  said  unto  the 
fathers,  a  prophet  shall  the  Lord  your  God  raise  up  unto 
you  of  your  brethren  like  unto  me,"  rather,  as  me,  w<?  ept, 
as  me,  that  is,  as  he  raised  up  me,  not  like  unto  me,  as  the 
Socinians  would  argue  from  hence ;  that  Christ  must  be  but 
man  like  to  Moses  :  "  For  Moses  truly  said  unto  the  fathers, 
a  prophet  shall  the  Lord  your  God  raise  up  unto  you  of  your 
brethren,  like  unto  me,"  rather  as  me  :  that  is,  as  he  raised 
up  me  ;  "  him  shall  ye  hear  in  all  things,  whatsoever  he  shall 
say  unto  you."  So  that  thus,  as  they  had  recourse  to  Moses 
upon  all  occasions,  in  the  time  of  the  Old  Testament ;  so 
now  we  are  to  have  recourse  unto  Jesus;  and  thus  we  see 
what  it  is  to  come  unto  Jesus  the  Mediator  of  the  new 
covenant,  in  opposition  unto  Moses  the  mediator  of  the  old 
covenant. 

Secondly,  But  then  whether  is  it  possible  for  a  man  that 
doth  profess  to  come  unto  Jesus  the  Mediator  of  the  new 
G  2 


84  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SER.    5. 

covenant,  still  to  have  recourse  to  Moses ;  that  is,  whether 
it  is  possible  for  a  man  to  be  legal  and  mosaical,  in  these  gos- 
pel times  ? 

Without  all  doubt  it  is :  and  I  wish,  if  it  were  the  will  of 
the  Lord,  that  too  many  were  not  found  upon  legal 
ground  among  professors.  What  think  you  of  the  Galatians  ? 
Did  not  they  live  in  gospel  times  ?  Did  not  they  profess  to 
come  unto  Jesus  the  Mediator  of  the  new  covenant  ?  Yet, 
see  how  the  apostle  treats  them  and  reproves  them  again  and 
again,  for  their  being  too  legal,  too  mosaical :  "  Ye  are  fallen 
from  grace,  (saith  he)  my  little  children,  of  whom  I  travail 
in  birth  again,  till  Christ  be  formed  in  you/'  Ye  are  so  much 
for  Moses  and  the  law,  that  I  travail  in  birth  again,  till 
Christ  be  formed  in  you. 

As  there  was  a  mixture  of  the  gospel  in  the  time  of  the 
law ;  so  there  may  be  too  great  a  mixture  of  the  law  in  the 
times  of  the  gospel. 

And  I  pray  what  think  you,  are  there  not  very  many  that 
live  under  the  gospel,  in  whom  sin  reigns  ?  Yes,  many  live 
under  the  gospel  in  whom  sin  reigns  :  and,  saith  the  apostle, 
"  Let  not  sin  reign  in  your  mortal  bodies,  for  ye  are  not  un- 
der the  law,  but  under  grace."  If  you  be  under  the  law,  then 
sin  will  reign  in  you  :  and  what  is  the  reason  that  sin  reigns 
in  many  that  live  under  the  gospel,  but  because  they  are  un- 
der the  law.  As  there  were  two  in  Abraham's  house,  the 
bond-woman,  and  the  free-woman,  Hagar  and  Sarah,  so  in 
these  gospel  times,  there  will  be  some  that  shall  be  freely  for 
the  grace  of  God,  and  the  covenant  of  grace ;  some  again, 
that  will  turn  into  the  covenant  of  works,  and  be  legal  and 
mosaical. 

And  if  that  we  be  legal  and  mosaical  in  these  gospel  times, 
we  shall  be  more  legal,  and  more  mosaical  than  before.  As 
when  a  servant  was  bound,  and  the  year  of  freedom  came, 
and  he  might  go  free,  and  would  not,  then  his  ear  was  bored, 
and  he  was  to  be  a  servant  for  ever :  so  now ;  for  what  is  our 
gospel  time,  but  a  time  of  spiritual  freedom :  and  if  men  will 
be  servants  still,  and  under  the  law  still,  their  ears  are 
bored,  and  they  are  more  mosaical  and  more  legal  than  be- 
fore. 

But,  friends,  this  ought  not  to  be :  for  you  know  what  the 
Lord  saith  from  heaven  concerning  Christ,  "  Hear  ye  him/' 


SER.  5.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  65 

Once  iu  Matt,  iii.,  ye  have  those  words  from  heaven  over 
Christ,  "  This  is  my  beloved  Son  in  whom  I  am  well  pleas- 
ed." And  a  second  time  ye  have  those  words  at  the  trans- 
figuration, in  Matt.  xvii.  5.,  (e  This  is  my  beloved  Son,  in 
whom  I  am  well  pleased,  hear  ye  him."  Why  are  those 
words,  hear  ye  him,  added  here  ?  In  Matt,  iii.,  these  words 
are  not  added,  but  only  thus  ;  "  This  is  my  beloved  Son,  in 
whom  I  am  well  pleased/'  There  it  is  not  said,  "  hear  ye 
him  ;"  but  in  Matt,  xvii.,  it  is  said,  "  This  is  my  beloved  Son, 
in  whom  I  am  well  pleased,  hear  ye  him."  Why  is  "  hear 
ye  him,"  added  here  ?  Why,  if  you  look  into  the  former 
verse,  ye  find,  "  Peter  answered  and  said  unto  Jesus,  Lord, 
it  is  good  for  us  to  be  here ;  if  thou  wilt,  let  us  make  here  three 
tabernacles,  one  for  thee,  and  one  for  Moses,  and  one  for 
Elias."  Moses  gave  out  the  law,  and  Elias  restored  the 
law :  now  they  being  present ;  now  conies  the  voice,  ie  hear 
ye  him  :"  that  is,  not  Moses,  not  Elias,  but  now,  "  hear  ye 
him,"  in  opposition  to  Moses,  in  opposition  unto  Elias, 
"  hear  ye  him." 

And  if  you  look  into  Rom.  vii.,  you  shall  find  that  now  in 
these  gospel  times,  we  are  to  be  dead  unto  the  law  ;  which 
the  apostle  clears  by  a  very  great  similitude :  saith  he, 
"  Know  ye  not  brethren,  how  that  the  law  hath  dominion 
over  a  man  as  long  as  he  liveth :  for  the  woman  which  hath 
an  husband,  is  bound  by  the  law  to  her  husband,  so  long  as 
he  liveth ;  but  if  the  husband  be  dead,  she  is  loosed  from  the 
law  of  her  husband :  so  then,  if  while  her  husband  liveth,  she 
be  married  to  another  man,  she  shall  be  called  an  adulteress  ; 
but  if  her  husband  be  dead,  she  is  free  from  that  law,  so  that 
she  is  no  adulteress,  though  she  be  married  to  another  man  : 
wherefore,  my  brethren,  ye  also  are  become  dead  to  the  law, 
by  the  body  of  Christ,  that  ye  should  be  married  to  another, 
even  to  him  who  is  raised  from  the  dead,  that  we  should 
bring  forth  fruit  unto  God." 

Ye  are  married  to  another,  therefore  ye  are  dead  to  the 
law.  Dead,  how  dead  ?  Why,  ye  are  freed  from  the  law  ; 
he  expresses  it  so  elsewhere,  freed  from  the  law.  How  so  ? 
What  are  we  freed  from  the  commandment  of  the  law?  From 
the  precept  of  the  law  ?  No,  saith  the  apostle  :  "  The  com- 
mandment is  holy,  and  just,  and  good."  How  then  are  we 
freed  from  the  law  ? 


86  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SER.  5. 

Why  you  are  free  from  the  vail  of  the  law,  2  Cor.  iii.  And 
you  are  free  from  the  dominion  of  the  law  :  "  Ye  are  not 
under  the  law,  but  under  grace,  Rom.  vi. 

And  ye  are  free  from  the  pedagogy  of  the  law,  the  law  is 
not  your  school-master  to  bring  to  Christ,  Gal.  iii. 

And  ye  are  free  from  the  covenant  of  the  law,  as  a  cove- 
nant. And  thus  are  ye  in  these  gospel  times,  dead  to  the 
law,  and  free.  But  now  though  we  are  thus  dead,  and  be 
thus  free,  yet  possibly  a  man  may  be  too  legal  in  these  gospel 
times,  that  is  the  second. 

Thirdly,  But  then  when  may  a  man  be  said  to  be  legal,  or 
mosaical,  in  opposition  to  this  Mediator,  Jesus  the  Media- 
tor of  the  new  covenant  ?  And  when  may  a  man  be  said  to 
be  evangelical  in  opposition  to  Moses,  the  mediator  of  the 
old  covenant  ?  Or,  in  short,  what  is  the  way  and  spirit  of 
the  old,  and  of  the  new  testament,  and  wherein  do  they 
differ  ? 

An  old  testament  legal  spirit,  is  a  servile  spirit,  that  serv- 
eth  God  upon  the  account  of  wages,  or  reward;  mostly, 
chiefly,  or  only.  An  evangelical  gospel  spirit,  is  a  filial  spi- 
rit. Moses  therefore,  the  head  of  that  covenant,  is  called  a 
sen^ant;  and  Jesus  the  head  of  this  covenant  is  called  a  Son: 
"  Moses  as  a  servant,  Christ  as  a  Son/'  Heb.  ii.  And  if  you 
look  into  Rom.  viii.,  you  shall  find  it  is  said  there  by  way  of 
difference :  "  For  ye  have  not  received  the  spirit  of  bondage 
again  unto  fear :"  so  you  read  it,  but  the  words  are  irtnvpa 
$ov\eia.<,  ye  have  not  received  the  spirit  of  servitude  again, 
or  a  servile  spirit,  or  the  spirit  of  servants  :  "  But  ye  have 
received  the  Spirit  of  Adoption,  whereby  we  cry,  Abba  Fa- 
ther." Compare  this  with  Gal.  iv.,  and  you  shall  see  the 
opposition  doth  lie  between  the  spirit  of  adoption,  and  bon- 
dage, but  servitude,  verse  6,  "  Because  ye  are  sons,  God  hath 
sent  forth  the  Spirit  of  his  Son  into  your  hearts,  crying,  Abba 
Father;  wherefore  thou  art  no  more  a  servant  but  a  son."  In 
verse  1.,  "  Now  I  say,  that  the  heir,  as  long  as  he  is  a  child, 
differeth  nothing  from  a  servant,  though  he  be  lord  of  all ; 
but  is  under  tutors  apd  governors,  until  the  time  appointed 
of  the  father.  But  when  the  fulness  of  the  time  was  come, 
God  sent  forth  his  Son  made  of  a  woman,  made  under  the 
law,  to  redeem  them  that  were  under  the  law,  that  we  might 
receive  the  adoption  of  sons  :  and  because  ye  are  sons,  God 


SEK.  5.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  H7 

hath  sent  forth  the  Spirit  of  his  Son  into  your  hearts,  crying, 
Abba  Father ;  wherefore  thou  art  no  more  a  servant/'  So 
that  it  is  a  servile  spirit,  and  the  spirit  of  a  servant,  that  is 
here  opposed  to  this  adoption  :  and  would  you  know  the  dif- 
ference between  the  spirit  of  a  servant,  and  the  spirit  of  a 
son  ? 

Why,  a  servant  serves  for  wages,  and  a  son  serves  out  of 
love  and  duty  :  and  are  there  not  many  in  these  times  of  the 
gospel,  that  do  serve  God  only,  or  mostly  upon  the  account 
of  wages  and  reward.  Ye  know  what  men  ordinarily  say, 
What  need  ye  be  so  strict  in  your  life  ?  you  may  go  to  heaven 
with  less  ado.  So  then  it  seems,  it  is  heaven  that  is  their 
measure  of  obedience.  Why  ?  Because  men  are  legal  and 
serve  God  upon  the  account  of  wages  :  it  is  heaven  and  re- 
ward, and  wages,  that  is  the  business.  Why?  because  men 
are  legal. 

I  grant  it  is  lawful  to  have  an  eye  to  the  recompcnce  of  re- 
ward, Christ  himself  had.  All  love  of  reward  is  not  merce- 
nary. But  for  a  man  to  serve  God,  mostly,  chitrly,  only, 
upon  the  account  of  wages,  and  for  reward,  this  is  plainly 
legal.  A  man  of  a  gospel  spirit,  kncws  that  he  lives  upon 
a  better  purse  than  all  his  own  earnings  can  amount  unto. 
But, 

A  legal  spirit  also  is  a  fearing  spirit,  put  on  rather  by  the 
threatening  than  by  the  promise  ;  a  gospel  spirit  rather  by 
the  promise  than  the  threatening.  In  the  times  of  the  Old 
Testament  the  threatening  reigned.  And  if  you  look  into 
Deuteronomy,  you  shall  find  that  when  Moses  the  mediator 
of  the  old  covenant,  preached  and  declared  the  mind  of  God 
unto  the  people,  he  begins  with  curses  and  threatening*, 
Oeut.  xxvii.  They  were  upon  two  hills,  and  verse  14  :  "The 
Lcvites  shall  speak,  and  say  unto  all  the  men  of  Israel,  with 
a  loud  voice,  Cursed  be  the  man  that  maketh  any  graven 
or  molten  image,  an  abomination  unto  the  Lord.  Cursed  be 
he  that  sctteth  light  by  his  father  or  his  mother/'  And 
"Cursed  be  lie  that  rernoveth  his  neighbour's  land-mark/' 
and  so  he  goes  on  with  curses.  In  the  xxviiith.  chapter  then 
come  the  blessings  :  "  It  shall  come  to  pass  if  thou  shalt 
hearken  diligently  unto  the  voice  of  the  Lord  thy  God,  to 
observe  and  to  do  all  his  commandments,  which  I  command 
thee  this  dav  ;  that  the  Lord  thy  God  will  sc-t  thce  on  high, 


88  CHRIST    AND    THE   COVENANT.  [SER.  5. 

above  all  nations  of  the  earth  ;  and  all  these  blessings  shall 
come  on  thee  and  overtake  thee :  blessed  shalt  thou  be  in 
the  city,  and  blessed  shalt  thou  be  in  the  field ;  blessed  shall 
be  the  fruit  of  thy  body,  and  the  fruit  of  thy  ground,  and 
the  fruit  of  thy  cattle,  the  increase  of  thy  kine,  and  the 
flocks  of  thy  sheep."  Mark  how  the  blessing  comes  after. 
First  comes  the  curse,  when  Moses  the  mediator  of  the  old 
covenant  preached.  But  now  look  into  Matt,  v.,  and  ye 
find  that  when  Jesus  the  Mediator  of  the  new  covenant 
comes  to  preach,  that  he  begins  with  blessing.  "Blessed  are 
the  poor  in  spirit,  and  blessed  are  the  meek,  and  blessed  are 
those  that  hunger  and  thirst  after  righteousness,"  and  blessed, 
and  blessed.  First  comes  the  blessing,  and  then  afterwards 
in  the  following  part  of  the  chapter  comes  the  law  and  the 
curse.  And  if  you  look  into  this  Scripture  you  find  the 
difference  also;  for,  saith  the  apostle  here,  "We  are  not  come 
unto  the  mount  that  might  be  touched,  that  burned  with  fire, 
nor  unto  blackness,  and  darkness,  and  tempest,  and  the 
sound  of  a  trumpet,  and  the  voice  of  words  which  they  could 
not  endure,  so  terrible  was  the  sight  thereof;  but  ye  are 
come  to  mount  Sion."  Would  you  know  the  difference 
between  the  dispensations  ?  The  one  is  terrible,  the  other 
comfortable.  The  one  is  fearing,  and  the  other  comforting. 
Look  in  Rom.  x.  The  apostle  there  also  makes  the  differ- 
ence between  the  spirit  of  the  law  and  the  gospel.  ft  Moses 
(saith  he,  verse  5,)  describeth  the  righteousness  which  is  of 
the  law,  that  the  man  which  doth  those  things,  shall  live  by 
them/'  Do  and  live ;  but  at  verse  6,  "  The  righteousness 
which  is  of  faith,  speaketh  on  this  wise,  Say  not  in  thine 
heart,  who  shall  ascend  into  heaven ;  that  is,  to  bring  Christ 
down  from  above,  or  who  shall  descend  into  the  deep." 
But  what  saith  it,  "  The  Word  is  nigh  thee,  even  in  thy 
mouth,  and  in  thy  heart."  The  righteousness  which  is  of 
faith  speaketh  on  this  wise ;  say  not  in  thine  heart  who  shall 
ascend  into  heaven.  It  does  not  hold  the  soul  in  suspense, 
and  anxiety,  and  fear,  and  trouble.  "  Christ  hath  ascended," 
and  "Christ  hath  descended." 

But  you  will  say,  May  not  a  man  that  is  of  a  gospel  spirit, 
and  that  is  come  to  Jesus  the  Mediator  of  the  new  covenant, 
be  full  of  fears  ?  May  not  a  good  and  gracious  soul  be  full 
of  fears  about  his  condition  ? 


SER.  5.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT  89 

I  answer,  He  may ;  but  his  fears  do  arise  from  the  weak- 
ness of  his  adherence  and  faith.  The  other's  fears  do  rather 
arise  from  the  weakness  of  the  ground  he  stands  upon.  As 
for  example  :  Two  men  are  afraid  of  drowning ;  one  stands 
upon  a  rock,  and  he  is  afraid  of  being  drowned ;  the  other 
stands  upon  a  quicksand,  and  he  is  afraid  of  being  drowned  ; 
both  are  afraid.  He  that  stands  upon  a  rock  is  afraid  of 
drowning,  why  ?  because  he  is  afraid  he  shall  be  washed  off; 
his  fear  arises  from  the  weakness  of  his  adherence.  But  the 
other's  fear  arises  from  the  unsoundness  of  the  ground  he 
stands  upon,  for  it  is  upon  a  quicksand.  So  here  are  two 
fears :  a  gracious,  gospel  heart  fears,  and  a  legalist  fears. 
One  fears  from  the  weakness  of  his  adherence:  I  am  upon 
the  rock,  but  I  am  afraid  I  shall  be  washed  off.  But  the 
other's  fears  arise  from  the  weakness  of  the  ground  he  stands 
upon ;  he  stands  upon  the  quicksand,  upon  his  own  duties, 
and  his  own  works  ;  so  that  a  legal  spirit  is  a  fearing  spirit. 
He  is  put  on  rather  by  the  threatenings  than  the  promise; 
the  other  by  the  promise  rather  than  the  threatening.  The 
one  is  kept  from  evil  by  his  delight  in  good,  and  the  other  is 
put  on  to  good  by  his  fear  of  evil. 

In  the  times  of  the  Old  Testament  they  did  very  much 
measure  the  love  of  God  by  outward  things  :  for  the  promises 
(as  you  know)  then  were  mostly  concerning  temporal  things ; 
and  so  they  measured  the  love  of  God  much  by  those  out- 
ward things.  But  now  in  the  times  of  the  New  Testament, 
our  promises  are  mostly  spiritual,  and  therefore  a  New  Tes- 
tament spirit  measures  the  love  of  God  most  by  spiritual 
things,  and  not  by  these  outward  things. 

A  legal  old  testament  spirit  trades  much,  or  most,  or 
altogether,  with  conditional  promises ;  for  the  old  covenant 
promises  were  most  conditional,  and  ran  conditionally.  But 
now  when  God  promises  the  new  covenant,  he  gives  out 
an  absolute  promise  ;  and  therefore  a  new  testament  spirit 
trades  much  with  absolute  promises.  For  he  knows,  and 
you  may  know,  that  though  a  promise  be  conditional,  J;he 
Lord  hath  promised  the  very  condition  in  another  Scrip- 
ture, and  that  without  a  condition.  And  he  knows,  and  you 
may  know,  that  when  God  gives  a  promise  with  an  oath, 
though  the  promise  do  run  conditionally,  it  shall  be  fulfilled 
absolutely. 


90  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SfiB.  5. 

In  the  time  of  the  Old  Testament  they  came  unto  Christ 
by  the  promise,  for  Christ  was  not  yet  come,  but  promised. 
But  now  in  the  times  of  the  New  Testament  we  come  first 
to  Christ,  and  so  unto  the  promise ;  for  all  the  promises  are 
yea  and  amen  in  Christ. 

In  the  time  of  the  Old  Testament  they  came  unto  Christ  by 
the  law,  and  without  the  law  they  might  not  come  to  Christ ; 
for  the  law  was  a  schoolmaster  for  to  bring  to  Christ.  But 
now  in  the  time  of  the  New  Testament,  the  law  is  not  our 
schoolmaster  for  to  bring  to  Christ.  And  though  seldom 
any  go  to  heaven,  but  come  by  the  gates  of  hell ;  and  seldom 
men  do  come  to  Christ  now,  but  they  have  some  workings  of 
the  law  first;  yet  notwithstanding,  if  I  will  lay  a  necessity 
upon  such  a  precedency  of  a  legal  work,  before  I  do  come  to 
Christ,  then  I  am  too  legal. 

In  the  time  of  the  Old  Testament,  men  did  then  upon  any- 
great  discovery  of  God,  fly  from  God ;  as  when  God  gave 
out  the  law  they  fled  from  God.  And  when  Christ  did  a 
great  work  before  Peter,  "  Lord  (saith  he),  depart  from  me, 
for  I  am  a  sinful  man."  But  now  in  the  gospel,  the  greater 
the  discovery  is,  the  more  a  gospel  spirit  doth  draw  near  to 
God.  Oh,  it  is  good  for  me  to  be  here,  saith  he. 

The  time  of  the  Old  Testament  was  a  time  of  the  letter. 
And  therefore  if  a  man  of  a  legal  spirit  can  but  perform  his 
duty  according  to  the  letter  of  the  commandment,  he  is 
satisfied.  But  the  times  of  the  New  Testament  are  the 
times  of  the  Spirit :  "  We  are  not  ministers  of  the  letter, 
but  of  the  Spirit."  And  therefore  a  gospel  spirit,  though  he 
can  perform  his  duty  according  to  the  letter  of  the  command, 
yet  if  he  does  not  attain  the  Spirit  in  it  he  is  unsatisfied. 

To  say  no  more  in  it  but  this :  In  the  times  of  the  Old 
Testament,  God  spake  by  visions,  and  dreams  and  signs  ; 
but  now  in  these  latter  days,  he  hath  spoken  by  his  Son ; 
and  we  have  a  more  sure  word  of  prophecy,  whereunto  we 
do  well  that  we  take  heed.  So  that  thus  you  see  that  there 
is  a^  difference,  and  what  the  difference  is  between  the  way 
of  the  Old  and  New  Testament,  between  an  Old  Testament 
and  a  New  Testament  spirit. 

Fourthly,  But  then  suppose  I  have  recourse  too  much  to 
Moses  in  these  gospel  times,  and  not  enough  unto  Jesus  the 


SER.  5.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  91 

Mediator  of  the  new  covenant ;  suppose  I  be  legal  in  these 
gospel  times,  is  there  any  great  danger  in  it  ? 

Much,  very  much.  And  I  pray  consider  it,  that  we  may 
be  all  found  upon  gospel  ground,  in  this  gospel  day.  Danger  ? 
I  say  much.  For, 

The  more  legal  you  are  in  gospel  times,  the  more  sinful 
you  will  be,  and  the  less  able  for  to  live  unto  God. 

The  more  sinful  you  will  be ;  for,  saith  the  apostle,  "  Let 
not  sin  reign  in  your  mortal  body,  for  ye  are  not  under  the 
law,  but  under  grace." 

And  the  less  able  you  will  be  to  live  unto  God ;  for,  saith 
the  apostle,  Gal.  ii.  19,  "  I,  through  the  law,  am  dead  to  the 
law,  that  I  might  live  unto  God."  Till  ye  be  dead  unto 
the  law,  you  will  never  live  unto  God.  And  in  Rom.  vii., 
"  Ye  are  become  dead  to  the  law,  by  the  body  of  Christ,  that 
ye  should  be  married  to  another,  even  to  him,  who  is  raised 
from  the  dead,  that  we  should  bring  forth  fruit  unto  God." 
Dead  unto  the  law  that  ye  may  bring  forth  fruit  unto  God. 
Never  think  of  bringing  forth  fruit  unto  God  while  you  are 
upon  a  legal  ground,  and  come  not  off  fully  to  Jesus  the 
Mediator  of  the  new  covenant.  It  is  observed  that  the  law 
was  given  out  twice  in  tables  of  stone.  And  the  first  time 
that  they  were  given  out,  God  did  cut  out  the  tables  of  stone, 
and  lie  himself  did  write  the  law  with  his  own  finger  in  those 
tables.  The  second  time  Moses  cut  out  the  tables  of  stone, 
and  Moses  wrote  the  words  of  the  commandment  upon  those 
tables.  In  Exod.  xxxiv.,  "  Hew  thee  two  tables  of  stone, 
like  unto  the  first,"  saith  God.  Well,  so  he  did.  At  the 
28th  verse,  "And  he  wrote  upon  the  tables,  the  words  of  the 
covenant,  the  ten  commandments."  The  first  tables  were  of 
God's  own  making,  and  the  writing  was  of  God's  own  finger. 
The  second  tables  were  of  Moses's  framing,  and  Moses's 
writing,  and  yet  the  first  were  broken,  the  second  kept. 
What  should  be  the  reason  ?  One  would  think  tlmt  the  first 
tables  should  have  been  kept  as  a  holy  thing  rather  than  the 
second  ;  but  the  first  were  broken  and  the  second  kept. 
Why  ?  For  a  good  reason,  saith  Austin,  because  when  the 
commandment  was  given  in  the  first  tables,  then  God  ap- 
peared in  a  dreadful  way,  with  thunder  and  lightning.  When 
God  gave  out  the  commandments  again,  the  Lord  appeared 
in  a  way  of  grace:  "The  Lord  proclaimed  unto  Moses,  The 


92  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SfiR.  5. 

Lord,  the  Lord  God,  merciful  and  gracious,  long-suffering, 
and  abundant  in  goodness  and  truth,  keeping  mercy  for 
thousands/'  Exod.  xxxiv.  Thus  God  proclaims  himself  as  a 
"gracious  and  merciful  God,"  and  when  the  law  comes  out  now, 
it  is  kept.  No  such  way  to  keep  the  commandments  of  the  law, 
as  from  the  consideration  of  the  free  grace  and  mercy  of  God. 
When  the  law  comes  out  with  a  gospel  hand,  aye,  then  it  is 
kept,  and  the  commandment  not  broken.  So  that  I  say,  the 
more  legal  you  are,  the  more  sinful  you  will  be,  and  the  less 
able  you  will  be  for  to  live  unto  God. 

The  more  legal  you  are,  the  more  opposite  you  are  to  your 
own  assurance ;  to  a  full  settled  assurance  of  your  interest  in 
God  and  Christ :  "  We  have  not  received  the  spirit  of  bond- 
age (you  read  it)  again  to  fear ;  but  the  spirit  of  adoption, 
whereby  we  cry,  Abba,  Father."  Assurance  is  a  work  of  the 
Comforter ;  but  the  spirit  of  servitude,  it  is  opposite  to  the 
spirit  of  adoption,  whereby  we  cry,  Abba,  Father ;  it  is  a 
great  enemy  unto  true  assurance.  Now  is  it  not  a  miserable 
thing  for  a  man  or  woman  to  be  always  fluctuating,  and  never 
to  have  assurance  settled.  The  more  legal  you  are,  the  more 
opposite  to  your  own  assurance.  But 

Though  you  do  serve  and  worship  the  true  God,  yet  if 
you  worship  him  in  a  legal  way,  your  worship  will  be  anti- 
christian.  For  what  is  antichrist,  and  who  is  antichrist  ? 
The  apostle  John  tells  you  in  the  1st  Epistle  iv.  3,  "  Every 
spirit  that  confesseth  not  that  Jesus  Christ  is  come  in  the 
flesh,  is  not  of  God;  and  this  is  that  spirit  of  antichrist, 
whereof  you  have  heard  that  it  should  come." 

But  shall  antichrist  deny  Christ  to  be  come  in  the  flesh  in 
so  many  terms  ?  No. 

He  shall  not  deny  the  Incarnation  of  Christ ;  for  he  shall 
sit  in  the  temple  of  God. 

How  then  shall  antichrist  deny  Christ  to  be  come  in  the 
flesh? 

He  shall  set  up  such  a  worship  as  was  before  Christ  came 
in  the  flesh. 

As  in  the  time  of  the  Old  Testament  before  Christ  came 
in  the  flesh,  there  was  an  outward,  glorious,  and  a  pompous 
worship  ;  so  shall  antichrist  have. 

As  in  the  time  of  the  Old  Testament  before  Christ  came 


SER.  5.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  93 

in  the  flesh,  there  was  a  temple  and  a  great  cathedral ;  so 
shall  antichrist  have. 

As  in  the  time  of  the  Old  Testament  before  Christ  came 
in  the  flesh,  there  was  a  high  priest,  and  priests,  and  Levites ; 
so  shall  antichrist  have. 

As  in  the  time  of  the  Old  Testament  before  Christ  came 
in  the  flesh,  there  were  copes,  and  ephods,  and  linen  coats ; 
so  shall  antichrist  have. 

As  in  the  time  of  the  Old  Testament  before  Christ  came 
in  the  flesh,  there  were  candles,  and  tapers,  and  music  in  the 
temple  ;  so  shall  antichrist  have. 

As  in  the  time  of  the  Old  Testament  before  Christ  came 
in  the  flesh,  there  were  altars;  so  shall  antichrist  have. 

And  as  in  the  time  of  the  Old  Testament  before  Christ 
came  in  the  flesh,  there  were  sacrifices ;  so  shall  antichrist 
have  his  unbloody  sacrifices. 

As  then  they  turned  into  a  covenant  of  works,  so  shall 
antichrist  also  do.  Thus,  the  more  legal  and  of  an  Old  Tes- 
tament stamp  your  worship  is,  the  more  antichristian  it  is. 
Now  is  it  not  a  dangerous  thing  to  have  our  worship  anti- 
christian worship  in  these  gospel  days  ? 

But  again.  The  apostle  Paul  tells  us  that  the  inheritance 
is  not  to  the  bond  woman  ;  there  were  two  women  in  Abra- 
ham's house,  Hagar  the  bond  woman,  and  Sarah  the  free 
woman ;  and  these  were  types  of  the  law  and  the  gospel,  saith 
the  apostle.  The  inheritance  is  not  to  the  bond  woman,  cast 
her  out;  but  the  inheritance  is  to  the  free  woman  and  to 
her  children.  So  then,  the  inheritance  is  not  to  the  legalist ; 
no,  the  inheritance  is  to  the  free  woman. 

Yea,  friends,  what  is  this,  but  a  plain  apostacy,  or  that 
which  tends  to  apostacy,  now,  after  we  profess  we  are  come  to 
Jesus,  the  Mediator  of  the  new  covenant,  to  have  recourse 
to  Moses,  the  mediator  of  the  old  covenant  ?  "  All  flesh  is 
grass,  and  withercth,  but  the  word  of  the  Lord  endures  for 
ever,"  and  what  is  that  ?  The  gospel  that  I  preached  unto  you, 
that  will  hold,  saith  he.  "  Whose  house  ye  arc,  (saith  the 
apostle,)  if  ye  hold  fast  the  confidence  of  your  rejoicing  stcd- 
fast  unto  the  end."  Where  lies  our  confidence  but  in  Jesus 
the  Mediator  of  the  new  covenant?  yea,  saith  the  apostle  to 
the  legal  Galatians,  "  Ye  are  fallen  from  grace;"  because  they 
were  returned  to  Moses,  and  had  recourse  to  Moses.  Oh, 


94  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SfiB.    5. 

what  a   dangerous  thing  then  is  it  for  a  man  to  be  legal  in 
these  gospel  times. 

But  yet  may  not  possibly  a  godly,  truly  gracious  soul,  be 
too  legal  even  in  these  gospel  times  ? 

Possibly  he  may ;  for  as  there  is  no  duty  which  a  good 
man  doth  perform,  but  a  wicked  man  may  perform  the  same 
for  one  act;  so  there  is  no  sin  that  a  wicked  man  doth 
commit,  but  a  godly  man  may  commit  the  same  for  one  act ; 
and  therefore  this  of  legality  he  may  fall  into  as  well  as 
others. 

Yet,  let  me  tell  you  this,  though  a  good  and  gracious  soul 
may  be  overgrown  with  legality  too  much,  yet  he  is  very  sen- 
sible of  his  own  legality;  a  mere  legalist  is  not,  he  thinks 
it  strange  that  we  speak  of  a  legal  spirit  in  a  gospel  time. 

And  though  a  good  man  may  be  too  much  overgrown,  be 
too  legal,  and  too  mosaical ;  yet  notwithstanding  he  doth  not, 
he  cannot  wish  that  there  were  no  law,  because  the  law  is 
written  in  his  heart ;  another  that  is  under  the  power  of  the 
law,  could  wish  with  all  his  soul,  that  there  were  no  law,  be- 
cause he  is  under  the  power  of  it. 

Again,  Though  a  good  man  may  be  too  much  overgrown 
with  legality,  yet  he  doth  most  favour  the  things  of  the  gos- 
pel, spiritual  things  ;  for  every  man  is  according  to  what  he 
favours.  Three  men  come  to  a  sermon.  One  is  an  affection- 
ate man.  Another  an  expressionate  man,  a  man  of  parts. 
Another  a  spiritual  man;  and  the  preacher  hath,  it  may  be 
all  three.  He  hath  affection,  he  hath  expression,  he  hath 
spiritual  matter :  the  affectionate  man  is  most  taken  with  the 
affectionate  part ;  the  expressionist,  the  man  of  parts  is 
most  taken  with  the  expressions  of  the  sermon  ;  and  there  he 
hangs,  such  and  such  rare  expressions  there  were.  But  the 
spiritual  man  is  most  taken  with  the  spiritual  matter  of  the 
sermon ;  for  every  man  is  according  to  the  thing  that  he  fa- 
vours. Now,  I  say,  a  good  man,  though  he  may  be  over- 
grown with  legality,  yet  he  favours  spiritual  and  gospel  things 
most. 

And  then  again,  though  a  good  man  may  be  too  legal,  yet 
notwithstanding,  he  does  not,  he  cannot  oppose  those  that 
are  spiritual,  and  evangelical,  and  of  a  gospel  spirit.  Though 
a  spark  of  fire  be  not  so  great  as  the  flame,  it  will  not  oppose 
the  flame ;  and  though  a  good  man  be  too  legal,  he  will  not 


SER.  5.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVEANNT.  95 

oppose  and  persecute  them  that  are  evangelical,  a  legalist 
will ;  saith  the  apostle,  "  But  the  son  of  the  bond  wo- 
man, persecuted  the  son  of  the  free  woman."  And  truly,  the 
more  legal  we  are,  the  more  we  are  apt  for  to  persecute.  So 
that  thus  then  we  see  what  a  dangerous  thing  it  is  to  be  legal 
and  mosaical  in  these  gospel  times. 

Fifthly,  But  what  shall  we  then  do,  that  we  may  stand 
clear  from  Moses,  and  come  off  clearly  unto  Jesus,  the  Me- 
diator of  the  new  covenant  ? 

This  I  must  speak  unto  :  only  by  the  way  give  me  leave  to 
say  three  or  four  things  unto  you. 

If  we  are  not  come  to  Moses  the  mediator  of  the  old  cove- 
nant, but  unto  Jesus  the  Mediator  of  the  new  ;  what  a  bles- 
sed, and  happy  condition  are  all  the  saints  in  now  in  these 
gospel  times  ?  It  was  a  comfortable  thing  for  the  Jews  to 
have  Moses  with  them,  that  mediator,  that  upon  all  occasions 
he  might  interpose  between  God  and  them.  But  alas,  what 
was  that  Moses,  to  this  Jesus,  this  Mediator  of  ours.  Though 
Moses  was  the  mediator  of  the  old  testament,  and  did  stand 
between  God  and  the  people :  yet 

He  was  but  a  typical  mediator ;  and  therefore  look  how 
much  the  thing  typified  goes  beyond  the  type,  the  substance 
goes  beyond  the  shadow:  so  much  doth  our  Mediator  go 
beyond  theirs. 

Again,  Though  Moses  was  a  mediator  between  God  and 
them,  yet  he  was  but  mere  man  ;  but  Jesus  the  Mediator  of 
the  new  covenant,  is  God  and  man ;  very  God  and  very  man. 
In  Rom.  ix.  5.  "  Whose  are  the  fathers,  and  of  whom  as 
concerning  the  flesh,  Christ  came,"  there  is  his  manhood. 
"  Who  is  over  all,  God  blessed  for  ever,  Amen."  God,  truly, 
not  nuncupatively  ;  truly  God,  and  truly  man. 

Again,  though  Moses  was  a  mediator,  and  did  stand  be- 
tween God  and  them  in  the  time  of  the  old  testament,  yet 
notwithstanding  he  was  unwilling  to  undertake  the  work : 
"  Send  by  whom  thou  wilt,"  saith  he  :  but  now  this  our  Je- 
sus saith,  "  Lo,  I  come,  I  delight  to  do  thy  will." 

Again,  though  Moses  was  a  mediator  then  between  God 
and  them,  and  stood  between  God  and  them  ;  yet  he  was  not 
able  to  do  that  work  of  mediation  perfectly  ;  I  am  not  elo- 
quent, saith  he  ;  and  I  am  not  able  to  bear  all  this  people, 
saith  he  :  but  now  saith  Jesus,  "  he  hath  given  me  the  tongue 


96  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SEB.  5. 

of  the  learned,  that  I  may  administer  a  word  in  due  season, 
to  them  that  are  weary:"  he  hath  borne  us,  and  he  hath  borne 
our  griefs. 

Again,  though  Moses  stood  between  God  and  them,  and 
was  a  mediator  between  God  and  them,  and  did  sometimes 
make  an  atonement,  as  in  the  case  of  the  golden  calf,  when 
they  had  sinned;  yet  notwithstanding,  he  destroyed  three 
thousand  of  them  :  "  Peradventure,  (saith  he,  after  he  had 
done  it)  I  shall  make  an  atonement  for  your  sin."  Exod. 
xxxii.  30.,  and  he  steps  in  to  God  for  them  :  "  And  the  Lord 
said  unto  Moses,  whosoever  hath  sinned  against  me,  him 
will  I  blot  out  of  my  book :"  and  I  have  heard  thee  (saith 
he),  "  nevertheless,  in  the  day  when  I  visit,  I  will  visit  their 
sin  upon  them."  Now  Jesus  he  makes  an  atonement,  slays 
none,  neither  doth  God  the  Father  make  any  reserve  with 
him,  he  freely  forgives  those  that  he  makes  atonement  for,  all 
at  once  without  any  reserves,  or  after-reckonings.  . 

Again,  though  Moses  was  a  mediator  of  the  old  covenant, 
stood  between  God  and  the  people,  yet  notwithstanding  he  is 
dead ;  he  did  intercede,  but  he  is  dead,  and  intercedes  no 
more  :  but  Jesus  the  Mediator  of  the  new  covenant,  he  ever 
liveth  to  make  intercession. 

And  though  Moses  was  a  mediator  between  God  and  them, 
stood  between  God  and  them  ;  yet  they  were  not  able  to  be- 
hold his  face,  after  he  had  been  in  the  mount,  but  a  vail  was 
put  upon  it :  but  now  as  for  Jesus,  "  We  saw  his  glory,  as 
the  glory  of  the  only  begotten  of  the  Father."  And,  "  We 
all  with  open  face  behold  as  in  a  glass,  the  glory  of  the  Lord." 
What  a  glorious  Mediator  have  we  now  ?  What  a  blessed 
condition  hath  God  brought  his  people  to  now  ?  Friends, 
will  you  not  be  thankful  for  this  Mediator,  will  ye  return  to 
Moses  now ;  what,  having  such  a  mediator,  will  ye  now  re- 
turn to  Moses,  and  be  legal  now  ?  Consider  what  a  a  blessed 
state  ye  are  now  brought  unto. 

But,  If  we  are  now  come  unto  Jesus  the  Mediator  of  the 
new  covenant,  and  not  unto  Moses :  why  then  should  we  go 
to  men  for  the  worship  of  God,  and  for  the  ordinances  of 
God  ?  What,  may  we  not  have  recourse  to  Moses,  and  shall 
we  have  recourse  to  men  ?  Moses  spake  from  God.  and 
spake  the  words  of  God  unto  the  people  ;  and,  may  we  not 
have  recourse  now  to  Moses  for  the  ordinances,  and  worship, 


SER.  5.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  97 

and  shall  we  have  recourse  to  men  for  our  worship  and  ordi- 
nances ?  As  Gersom  out  of  Austin  observes  :  One  com- 
mandment from  a  fellow-servant,  is  more  burdensome  than  a 
hundred  from  the  master;  and  Moses  spake  the  words  of 
God :  if  Moses'  tool  doth  defile  our  Christian  altar,  how  much 
more  doth  the  tool  of  man  defile  our  altar  ?  That  is  the  se- 
cond. 

If  we  be  come  unto  Jesus  the  Mediator  of  the  new  cove- 
nant, why  then  should  we  despair  of  any,  and  not  go  to  God 
for  the  worst  of  men,  for  we  are  come  to  Jesus  the  Mediator 
of  the  new  covenant.  Mark,  how  it  is  brought  in,  1  Tim.  ii. 
5.,  "  There  is  one  God,  and  one  Mediator  between  God  and 
man,  the  man  Christ  Jesus."  What  then  ?  "  I  exhort 
therefore  that  supplications,  prayers,  and  intercessions,  be 
made  for  all  men  :  for  kings,"  even  for  Nero,  a  persecutor. 
Why  ?  "  For  there  is  one  God  and  one  Mediator  between 
God  and  man,  the  man  Christ  Jesus :"  and  therefore  you 
may  go  to  God  for  the  worst  of  men,  "  For  there  is  one  Me- 
diator between  God  and  man,  the  man  Christ  Jesus."  Three 
sorts  there  are  that  do  greedily  snatch  at  this  scripture,  the 
ISocinian,  and  the  Arminian,  and  the  Papist. 

The  Sociniaii  thinks  that  here  is  something  for  him  against 
the  deity  of  Christ,  because  it  is  said,  "  the  man  Christ  Je- 
sus." Whereas  in  verse  3.,  it  is  said,  this  is  good  and  accep- 
table in  the  sight  of  God  our  Saviour. 

The  Arminian  thinks  that  there  is  some  ground  here  for 
his  universal  redemption  :  for  it  is  said,  "  There  is  one  Me- 
diator between  God  and  man,  the  man  Christ  Jesus,  who 
gave  himself  a  ransom  for  all:"  whereas  the  apostle  here 
doth  explain  himself,  what  he  means  by  this  all ;  that  is,  all, 
both  Jews  and  gentiles:  for  saith  he  in  the  next  verse, 
"  Whereunto  I  am  ordained  a  preacher,  and  an  apostle,  a 
teacher  of  the  gentiles,  in  faith  and  verity  :"  explaining  his 
word  all,  to  be  meant  both  Jews  and  gentiles. 

The  Papists  also  think  they  have  something  here  for  their 
opinion,  who  hold  that  Christ  is  our  Mediator  only  according 
to  his  human  nature  :  for  it  is  said  the  "  man  Christ  Jesus." 
But  if  we  observe  how  these  words  are  brought  in  ;  we  find 
it  is  an  encouragement  to  pray  for  the  worst  of  men.  Why  ? 
"  for  there  is  one  God,  and  one  Mediator  between  God  and 
men,  the  man  Christ  Jesus."  Be  not  discouraged,  go  to 

VOL.  III.  II 


98  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SfiR.  5. 

God  for  the  worst  of  men,  (f  for  there  is  one  Mediator  be- 
tween God  and  men,  the  man  Christ  Jesus." 

But  then,  if  we  are  come  unto  Jesus  the  Mediator  of  the 
new  covenant,  why  then,  why  should  you  not  come  to  Jesus? 
If  you  be  come,  why  should  you  not  come  ?  That  is,  if  you 
be  come  in  regard  of  your  state,  why  should  you  not  come  in 
regard  of  act,  in  a  way  of  believing.  You  are  come  unto  him 
in  regard  of  your  state ;  why  should  you  not  come  unto  him 
in  regard  of  your  faith,  come  unto  him  in  a  way  of  believing. 
Some  think,  oh  it  is  presumption  to  come  to  Christ,  and  to 
believe  and  lay  hold  on  Christ :  but  friends,  it  is  no  pre- 
sumption for  any  man  to  do  that  act,  that  is  suitable  to  his 
state  ;  it  is  no  presumption  to  act  according  to  my  state  that 
God  hath  brought  me  to  :  now  this  is  our  state  ;  in  regard  of 
state  we  are  come  to  Jesus,  and  therefore  why  should  we  not 
come  to  Jesus  also  in  a  way  of  believing.  Especially  seeing 
he  hath  said,  "  Those  that  come  unto  me,  I  will  in  no  wise 
cast  out." 

If  we  be  come  unto  Jesus  the  Mediator  of  the  new  cove- 
nant, and  not  unto  Moses :  why  then  should  we  not  all  stand 
clear  from  Moses,  and  come  fully  off  to  Jesus  the  Mediator  of 
the  new  covenant. 

But  you  will  say,  What  shall  we  do  that  we  may  be  found 
upon  gospel  grounds,  with  a  gospel  spirit.  I  confess  I  have 
been  too  legal ;  legal  in  my  performances,  legal  in  my  obedi- 
ence, legal  in  the  matter  of  my  comfort ;  what  should  I  do 
now  that  I  may  stand  clear  from  Moses,  and  come  fully  off  to 
Jesus  this  Mediator  of  the  new  covenant. 

Improve  all  your  former  legal  workings  and  fears,  unto 
your  dying  to  them ;  improve  them  so  as  by  them,  to  die  to 
them.  Many  it  may  be  of  you  here,  have  been  under  le- 
gal workings  and  terrors.  Either  you  have,  or  you  have  not; 
if  you  have  not  been  under  any  legal  workings  of  terror,  thou 
art  one  of  a  hundred. 

If  you  have,  why  should  you  not  improve  those  legal  work- 
ings, so  as  by  them,  to  die  unto  them  :  saith  Paul,  "  I  through 
the  law,  am  dead  unto  the  law."  What  is  that  ?  "  I  through 
the  law,  am  dead  unto  the  law,  that  I  might  live  unto  God." 
I  through  affliction,  am  dead  unto  affliction.  I  through  the 
disappointment  of  friends,  am  dead  unto  my  friends.  I 
through  sin,  am  dead  unto  my  sin.  I  through  the  law,  and 


SER.  5.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  99 

the  terrors  of  the  law,  am  dead  unto  the  law.  Now  then, 
improve  your  former  terrors,  so  as  by  them  to  die  unto  them. 
You  have  been  under  them  :  aye,  but  have  you  improved 
them,  have  you  so  improved  them,  as  thereby  for  to  die  unto 
them  ? 

Observe  what  those  things  are  that  are  commanded  by 
Moses  in  the  Old  Testament,  and  go  unto  Jesus  the  Media- 
tor of  the  New  Testament,  for  grace  to  perform  them.  There 
is  nothing  commanded  in  the  Old  Testament,  but  it  is  pro- 
mised in  the  New.  There  is  nothing  commanded  by  Moses 
in  the  Old  Testament,  but  Christ  the  Mediator  of  the  New 
Testament  is  engaged  to  perform  it  for  you,  and  to  give  you 
grace  to  do  it :  the  law  commands  and  grace  helps  :  "  The  law 
was  given  by  Moses,  but  grace  and  truth  came  by  Jesus 
Christ."  Observe  therefore,  what  that  is  that  is  commanded 
by  Moses  in  the  Old,  and  go  to  Jesus  the  Mediator  of  the 
New,  for  grace  and  strength  to  do  the  same. 

Then  be  sure  that  you  stand  where  the  Spirit  breathes : 
now  the  Spirit  breathes  in  the  pure  and  clean  preaching  of 
the  gospel :  "  Received  ye  the  Spirit  by  the  works  of  the 
law,  or  by  the  hearing  of  faith  ?"  Would  you  be  brought  off 
from  Moses  and  stand  clear  from  Moses ;  choose  to  stand 
under  such  a  preaching,  where  the  Spirit  breathes,  and  that 
is  a  gospel  preaching. 

Then  put  your  selves  upon  the  stream  of  the  free-grace  of 
God  without  having  any  foot  on  your  own  bottom  :  some 
men  will  learn  to  swim,  and  they  are  loth  to  lean  themselves 
upon  the  stream  of  the  water  but  keep  a  foot  at  the  bottom  ; 
and  they  never  learn  to  swim,  till  they  take  up  the  foot : 
some  would  fain  be  evangelical,  but  they  cannot  lean  them- 
selves upon  the  stream  of  grace,  but  keep  a  foot  at  the  bot- 
tom still,  upon  something  of  their  own. 

Some  there  are  that  do,  and  work>  and  when  they  can 
work  no  further,  then  they  eke  it  out  with  Christ's  mediation. 
So  indeed  they  make  the  mediation  of  Christ  but  anekement 
to  their  own  working :  but  away  with  these  ekements :  oh, 
let  Christ  be  all,  let  Christ  be  all.  And  therefore, 

Study  much  the  body  of  Jesus  and  the  all  sufficiency  of  the 
mediation  of  this  Jesus  the  Mediator  of  the  covenant.     The 
sight  of  God's  all-sufficiency,  will  draw  one  off  from  the  crea- 
ture :  and  the  sight  of  the  all-sufficiency  of  the  mediation  of 
H  2 


100  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SfiR.  5. 

Christ,  will  draw  one  off  from  Moses.  Put  thyself  often 
unto  this  disjunction :  come,  O  my  soul,  either  there  is 
enough  in  the  mediation  of  Jesus,  or  not :  if  not  enough,  why 
do  I  go  unto  Christ  at  all ;  if  there  be  enough,  why  should  I 
not  stand  clear  from  Moses,  and  upon  pure  gospel  ground  ? 
Thus  therefore  do. 

But  suppose  I  have  come  to  Jesus  the  Mediator  of  the 
new  covenant,  what  shall  I  do  that  I  may  walk  up  unto  this 
condition  ?  What  should  I  do,  and  how  should  I  so  walk, 
as  one  that  is  indeed  come  unto  Jesus,  the  Mediator  of  the 
covenant ;  that  yet  I  may  stand  upon  gospel  ground,  and  not 
touch  at  all  upon  Moses  ? 

If  you  be  indeed  come  unto  Jesus,  this  Mediator  of  the 
new  covenant,  and  would  walk  suitably  thereunto  :  why  then 
should  you  not  still  throng  and  press  after  the  appointments, 
institutions  and  ordinances  of  Jesus  ?  "  The  law  and  the 
prophets  were  until  John,  but  from  John  the  Baptist,  the 
kingdom  of  heaven  suffers  violence  ;"  that  was  suitable  to  the 
gospel.  And  what  was  the  suffering  violence,  but  peoples 
pressing  after  the  gospel :  so  now,  to  press  after  the  kingdom 
of  heaven,  suits  with  a  gospel  state  ;  to  press  after  the  ordi- 
nances and  appointments  of  Jesus  suits  with  a  gospel 
state. 

But  labour  more  and  more  for  to  know  your  Christian  li- 
berty, in  conjunction  with  strictness  of  life.  Some  there  are 
that  are  very  strict  in  their  lives,  but  they  do  not  know  their 
Christian  liberty ;  some  again  know  their  Christian  liberty, 
yet  abate  in  their  strictness  of  life.  But  blessed  is  that  know- 
ledge of  our  Christian  liberty,  that  is  in  conjunction  with  more 
strictness  of  life.  Oh  blessed,  blessed  is  that  knowledge  of 
our  Christian  liberty,  where  strictness  of  life  and  holiness, 
grow  up  together  with  it.  Therefore  I  say,  labour  more  and 
more  to  know  your  Christian  liberty  in  conjunction  with 
strictness  and  holiness  of  life,  this  suits  a  gospel  state; 
then  shall  you  do  as  those  that  are  come  unto  Jesus.  But 
then. 

In  regard  of  your  faith  :  be  sure  that  you  close  with  Christ 
himself,  the  absolute  promise ;  and  live  in  continual  depen- 
dence upon  Christ,  this  Jesus,  this  Mediator.  For  as  living 
upon  an  old  stock,  and  a  stock  received,  suited  with  a  cove- 
nant of  works :  so  living  in  continual  dependence  upon  Je- 


SER.  5.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  101 

sus  for  fresh  grace,  suits  with  this  covenant  of  grace  whereof 
he  is  Mediator. 

In  regard  of  your  repentance  and  sorrow  for  sin,  the  more 
your  hearts  do  melt  and  thaw  under  a  sense  of  love,  that  you 
have  sinned  against  God  :  for  the  law  rends  and  tears  ;  but 
the  gospel  melts  and  thaws.  The  more  that  you  grieve  for 
sin,  and  rejoice  in  God  together.  The  more  you  grieve  for 
sin  that  is  pardoned,  and  because  it  is  pardoned :  for  a  legal 
spirit  grieves  for  sin,  only  that  it  may  be  pardoned ;  but  a 
gospel  spirit  because  it  is  pardoned.  And  the  more  you 
grieve  for  sins  that  are  secret,  the  sins  of  your  spirits,  espe- 
cially unbelief;  for  saith  Christ,  "  I  say  unto  you,  he  that 
looketh  upon  a  woman,"  &c.  The  more  I  say  you  are  found 
doing  these  things  in  reference  to  your  repentance,  the  more 
your  repentance  suits  with  the  gospel,  and  with  a  gospel 
state.  And  then, 

As  to  the  matter  of  your  obedience. 

The  more  gracious  you  are  upon  the  account  of  grace,  the 
more  evangelical.  And, 

The  more  free  you  are  in  your  actings  towards  God,  the 
more  evangelical ;  those  that  Jesus  makes  free,  are  free 
indeed.  Free,  not  from  duty,  but  free  in  duty ;  free  from 
sin,  but  not  free  to  sin.  A  legal  spirit  is  restrained  from  evil 
and  constrained  to  good.  Labour  to  be  free  in  all  your 
actings  towards  God.  And, 

Then  again.  The  more  you  are  conformed  unto  God  the 
Father  who  hath  given  you  this  Mediator,  and  to  Jesus  this 
Mediator;  the  more  evangelical  you  are,  and  the  more  you 
suit  with  this  gospel  state  unto  which  you  are  come.  Now 
a  man  is  conformed  unto  God  the  Father  when  he  doth 
good  to  men  for  evil ;  bless  them  that  curse  you,  so  shall  ye 
be  the  children  of  your  Father.  Then  a  man  is  conformed 
to  Jesus  this  Mediator,  when  his  life  is  enamelled  with 
meekness  and  humility;  "Learn  of  ire  (saith  Christ),  for 
I  am  meek  and  lowly."  Friends,  the  law  frets,  and  the  gos- 
pel sweetens. 

And  then,  In  case  that  you  have  to  deal  with  the  things 
of  the  world.  The  more  you  are  estranged  from  the  world 
by  faith,  and  can  forsake  the  things  thoreof  for  Christ  and 
his  ways  and  truth,  bearing  witness  to  his  truth  and  ways ; 
the  more  you  comply  and  comport  with  a  gospel  state:  "  If 


102  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SfiR.  5. 

thou  wilt  be  perfect,  (saith  Christ  to  that  legalist)  go  and  sell 
all  that  thou  hast,  and  come  and  follow  me,  and  thou  shalt 
have  treasure  in  heaven/'  And, 

In  case  that  you  meet  with  sufferings,  look  upon  all  your 
sufferings  as  part  of  Christ's  purchase  for  you.  Your  suffer- 
ings are  your  servants ;  for  all  things  are  yours ;  for  you  are 
Christ's,  who  is  the  head  of  the  covenant. 

And  in  case  that  you  are  under  any  spiritual  desertion, 
then  praise  God  for  his  love  to  Jesus,  when  you  cannot  praise 
God  for  his  love  to  you.  A  true  gospel  spirit  will  praise 
God  the  Father  for  his  love  to  Christ  his  Son,  when  he 
cannot  praise  God  for  his  love  to  himself,  because  he  wants 
assurance. 

Again,  if  you  would  yet  walk  up  unto  this  condition  of 
the  gospel,  whereunto  now  ye  are  come,  then  whatsoever  you 
do,  be  sure  that  you  do  it  upon  gospel  principles :  principles 
of  love,  principles  of  thankfulness,  principles  of  ingenuousness  ; 
principles  are  the  springs  of  actions.  If  your  principles  be 
evangelical,  your  actions  will  be  evangelical ;  if  your  princi- 
ples be  legal,  your  actions  will  be  legal.  Stock,  therefore, 
and  store  yourselves  with  gospel  principles  :  principles  of  love, 
principles  of  thankfulness,  and  principles  of  ingenuousness ; 
doing  all  in  the  name  of  Jesus,  this  Mediator  of  the  cove- 
nant. 

And  when  you  have  wrought  and  done  all,  rest  upon  Jesus 
this  Mediator,  as  if  you  had  done  nothing.  Yea,  repent 
work  and  do,  as  if  you  had  no  such  Mediator ;  I  say,  Work, 
and  pray,  and  read,  and  meditate,  and  confer,  and  repent, 
as  if  you  had  no  Mediator  for  to  rest  upon,  but  only  your 
works ;  and  yet  rest  upon  this  your  Mediator,  as  if  you  had 
done  no  work  at  all.  Thus  do,  and  thus  shall  you  comply 
and  comport  with  your  gospel  state. 

Which  that  you  may  do,  consider  this  is  that  you  are  now 
called  unto  ;  you  are  now  come  to  Jesus,  not  to  Moses ;  you 
are  now  come  to  Jesus  the  Mediator  of  the  new  covenant. 
Why  then,  as  in  the  time  of  the  Old  Testament  they  had 
recourse  unto  Moses,  so  now  in  the  times  of  the  New  Testa- 
ment ye  are  in  all  things  to  have  recourse  unto  Jesus.  What 
saith  Jesus  to  this  business  ?  Here  is  worship.  What  saith 
Jesus  to  it  ?  Here  is  an  ordinance.  What  saith  Jesus  to  it  ? 


SER.  5.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT  103 

Here  is  an  officer  of  the  church.  What  saith  Jesus  to  it  ? 
This  is  suitable  unto  the  state  that  now  ye  are  come  unto. 

And  thus  shall  all  your  convictions,  graces,  and  your  duties 
be  refined;  you  shall  have  much  in  a  little  room.  A  legal 
work  may  be  great  for  the  bulk,  yet  be  but  little  ;  a  gospel 
work  though  but  little,  hath  a  great  deal  in  it,  for  it  is  re- 
fined. 

And  thus  also  shall  you  have  the  wedding  garment  on. 
For  pray  what  is  the  wedding  garment  but  a  gospel  disposi- 
tion, suitable  to  a  gospel  dispensation  ?  this  is  the  wedding 
garment.  Not  faith,  nor  repentance,  nor  this,  nor  that  par- 
ticular grace,  but  a  gospel  disposition,  suitable  to  a  gospel 
dispensation,  is  the  wedding  garment ;  and  thus  you  shall  be 
clothed  with  it. 

Thus  also  your  only  shall  stand  in  its  proper  place ;  for 
mark  where  the  apostle  places  your  only  :  "  Only  (saith  he) 
let  your  conversation  be  as  it  becomes  the  gospel ;"  there 
stands  a  Christian's  only,  upon  a  conversation  becoming  the 
gospel. 

Thus  also  shall  you  please  the  Father  :  The  more  that  you 
come  to  Jesus  the  Mediator,  whom  the  Father  hath  ap- 
pointed ;  and  the  more  your  conversation  suits  thereunto, 
the  more  you  please  the  Father.  You  can  never  please  the 
Father  more  than  in  coming  to  the  Son. 

Now  therefore,  as  ever  you  do  desire  that  you  may  please 
the  Father ; 

As  you  do  desire  that  your  only  may  be  found  in  a  right 
and  proper  place; 

As  you  do  desire  that  you  may  be  found  having  the  wed- 
ding garment  on  ; 

As  you  do  desire  that  all  your  convictions,  graces,  duties, 
may  be  more  refined,  and  so  preserved  and  kept ; 

As  you  do  desire  to  be  found  doing  according  to  the  state 
whereunto  you  are  called  ;  so  let  it  be  your  work  and  busi- 
ness to  stand  clear  from  Moses,  and  to  stand  upon  clear 
gospel  ground,  and  to  come  off  fully  unto  Jesus  the  Mediator 
of  the  new  covenant.  For,  saith  this  doctrine,  in  these  gos- 
pel times,  we  are  riot  corne  unto  Moses,  the  mediator  of  the 
Old  Testament  or  of  the  old  covenant,  but  unto  Jesus  the 
Mediator  of  the  new  covenant.  And  so  I  have  done  with 
this  third  Observation.  There  is  a  fourth  thing  yet  behind 


104  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SfiR.    6. 

which    concerns    the   "  blood    of  sprinkling,   that   speaketh 
better  things  than  the  blood  of  Abel." 


SERMON    VI. 

THE   BLOOD   OF   SPRINKLING. 

And  to  the  blood  of  sprinkling,  that  speaketh  better  things  than 
that  of  Abel."—HEB.  xii.  24. 

When  I  made  entrance  into  these  words,  I  took  up  four 
observations  from  them,  and  having  gone  through  three  of 
them,  I  now  come  unto  the  fourth ;  which  more  largely  runs 
thus, 

Observation  IV.  That  it  is  a  very  great  privilege  which  in 
these  gospel  times  we  are  partakers  of:  To  come  unto  the 
blood  of  sprinkling,  that  speaketh  better  things  than  that 
of  Abel.  For  the  clearing  and  prosecuting  whereof, 

First,  I  shall  shew  you  what  this  sprinkling  of  blood  is, 
what  are  the  grounds  and  use  of  this  sprinkling. 

Secondly,  That  this  blood  of  sprinkling  is  a  speaking  blood, 
and  speaketh  better  things  than  that  of  Abel. 

Thirdly,  That  we  are  now  come  unto  this  blood  of  sprink- 
ling. 

Fourthly,  What  are  the  privileges  of  coming  to  this  blood 
of  sprinkling,  and  of  being  sprinkled  with  this  blood  of 
sprinkling.  And  then, 

Fifthly,  What  we  must  do  that  we  may  get  our  hearts 
sprinkled  with  this  blood  of  sprinkling. 

First,  If  you  ask  what  this  blood  of  sprinkling  is  ? 

I  answer,  That  it  is  no  other  than  the  blood  of  Jesus  the 
Mediator  of  the  new  covenant ;  called  the  blood  of  sprink- 
ling, because  it  was,  and  is,  the  thing  specified  in  all  the 
sprinklings  of  water  and  blood  in  the  Old  Testament.  In 
the  days  of  the  Old  Testament,  it  was  their  way  and  manner 
then  to  mix  water  and  blood  together,  and  to  sprinkle  it 
upon  persons  and  things  ;  which  was  a  pattern  and  type  of 
this  blood  of  Jesus,  as  you  read  from  the  13th  verse  unto 
the  24th  of  the  ixth  of  Hebrews.  When  our  Lord  and  Saviour 
Christ  died  upon  the  cross,  there  came  water  and  blood  out 
of  his  side,  saith  John.  And  if  you  look  into  1  John  v., 


SER.  6.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENAXT  105 

you  shall  see  that  John,  his  beloved  disciple,  insists  much 
upon  it,  verse  6  :  "  This  is  he  that  came  by  water  and  blood, 
even  Jesus  Christ;  not  by  water  only,  but  by  water  and 
blood."  Again,  "This  is  he,  even  Jesus  Christ,  that  came  by 
water  and  blood ;"  which  blood  of  sprinkling  is  the  blood  of 
Jesus,  saith  Peter  expressly  in  his  1st  Epistle  i.  2:  "Elect 
according  to  the  foreknowledge  of  God  the  Father,  through 
sanctifi cation  of  the  Spirit  unto  obedience  and  sprinkling  of 
the  blood  of  Jesus  Christ."  So  that  plainly  then,  and  briefly, 
this  blood  of  sprinkling  is  the  blood  of  Jesus.  Called  the 
blood  of  sprinkling  in  reference  unto  those  types  and  ceremo- 
nies of  sprinkling  blood,  in  the  time  of  the  Old  Testament. 

For  our  better  understanding  whereof  I  shall  labour  to 
shew  you  briefly,  what  were  the  grounds  and  reasons  of  their 
sprinkling  blood  in  the  times  of  the  Old  Testament,  and 
how  that  is  applicable  to  the  blood  of  Jesus. 

If  you  look  therefore  into  the  Old  Testament  you  shall 
find  that  they  sprinkled  blood  upon  a  fourfold  account. 

To  confirm  and  ratify  the  covenant  between  God  and  them. 

To  make  an  atonement  for  their  sin. 

For  the  sanctification  and  purification  of  their  persons  arid 
things. 

And,  for  the  preservation  of  their  persons. 

Accordingly,  therefore,  saith  the  apostle,  Heb.  ix.  19,  the 
book  was  sprinkled;  so  in  Exod.  xxiv.  7j  the  meaning  of  it 
is  given  :  "  And  he  took  the  book  of  the  covenant  and  read 
in  the  audience  of  the  people ;  and  they  said,  All  that  the 
Lord  hath  said  we  will  do,  and  be  obedient :  and  Moses  took 
the  blood  and  sprinkled  it  on  the  people,  and  said,  Behold 
the  blood  of  the  covenant."  And  the  ixth  of  Hebrews  tells 
us  that  he  sprinkled  the  blood  itself.  And  why  so  ?  But  to 
shew  thus  much,  that  it  is  the  blood  of  Jesus  that  doth  ratify 
and  confirm  the  covenant  now  made  between  God  and  us ;  as 
at  large  in  that  ixth  of  Hebrews. 

Then,  also,  in  those  times  of  the  old  testament  they  sprin- 
kled blood  to  make  an  atonement  for  the  sins  of  the  people, 
as  you  have  it  in  Lev.  iv.  fi,  20 :  "  And  the  priest  shall  dip 
his  finger  in  the  blood,  and  sprinkle  of  the  blood  seven  times 
before  the  Lord,  before  the  veil  of  the  sanctuary."  The 
mercy-seat  and  the  altar  were  sprinkled  ;  the  reason  is  given 
at  the  20th  verse  :  "  And  he  shall  do  with  the  bullock  as  he 


106  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SfiR.    6. 

did  with  the  bullock  for  a  sin  offering,  so  shall  he  do  with 
this ;  and  the  priest  shall  make  an  atonement  for  them,  and 
it  shall  be  forgiven  them."  And  why  so  ?  But  to  shew  that 
it  is  the  blood  of  Jesus  whereby  we  have  atonement,  as  in 
Rom.  v.  11. 

Again,  In  the  times  of  the  old  testament  they  did  sprinkle 
blood  for  the  purification  of  men's  persons,  and  of  things,  as 
you  have  it  in  Lev.  xiv.  7?  "  And  he  shall  sprinkle  upon  him 
that  is  to  be  cleansed  from  the  leprosy  seven  times,  and  shall 
pronounce  him  clean."  And  why  so  ?  But  to  shew  that  it 
is  the  blood  of  Jesus  that  doth  cleanse  us  from  all  iniquity, 
as  in  1  John  i. 

Then  in  those  times  they  did  sprinkle  men's  persons  for 
preservation  from  the  destroying  angel :  when  the  destroying 
angel  came  to  destroy  the  Egyptians,  the  posts  of  the  Israel- 
ites were  sprinkled  that  they  might  be  preserved.  And  why  ? 
But  to  shew  that  it  is  by  the  blood  of  Jesus  that  we  are  pre- 
served from  the  destroyer.  In  the  1st  verse  of  Jude's  epistle 
it  is  said,  "  Jude,  the  servant  of  Jesus  Christ,  and  brother  of 
James,  to  them  that  are  sanctified  by  God  the  Father,  and 
preserved  in  Jesus  Christ  ;"  or  preserved  by  Jesus  Christ : 
and  "  Christ  our  passover  is  sacrificed  for  us,"  saith  the  apos- 
tle to  the  Corinthians.  So  that  thus  now  you  see,  briefly, 
what  were  the  grounds  and  reasons  of  their  sprinkling  blood 
in  the  times  of  the  old  testament,  and  how  all  this  is  applica- 
ble to  the  blood  of  Jesus. 

And  if  you  look  wishly  into  the  Scripture,  and  compare 
things  with  things,  you  shall  find  that  Moses  in  the  times  of 
the  old  testament  did  divide  the  blood  of  the  covenant,  part 
whereof  was  sprinkled  upon  the  altar,  poured  down  at  the 
foot  of  the  altar,  to  oblige  God  to  the  covenant ;  and  part  of 
it  was  sprinkled  upon  the  people,  to  confirm  their  souls  in  the 
certainty  of  the  covenant,  and  to  oblige  them  to  observe  and 
keep  covenant  with  God.  So  with  the  blood  of  Christ.  And 
therefore  when  our  Lord  and  Saviour  Christ  speaks  at  the 
Lord's  supper,  he  saith,  "  This  cup  is  the  new  testament  in 
my  blood,  shed  for  many,  for  the  remission  of  sins."  The 
first  part  of  the  words — "  This  cup  is  the  new  testament  in 
my  blood  ;"  hath  regard  to  us,  shewing  that  our  souls  are  to 
be  confirmed  in  this,  that  we  are  in  covenant  with  God.  The 
second  part  of  the  words — "  shed  for  maoy,  for  the  remission 


SEK.  6.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  107 

of  sins  ;"  relates  unto  God,  shewing  the  use  of  Christ's  blood 
to  satisfy  God  for  our  sins  and  to  obtain  our  remission. 

And  if  you  would  know  what  is  the  use  of  this  sprinkling ; 
I  say,  sprinkling  of  the  blood  notes  application.  What  are 
we  the  better  for  the  blood  of  Christ,  if  it  be  not  applied  to 
us  and  sprinkled  on  us  ?  -There  are  two  great  attributes  of 
God  that  we  have  to  deal  withal  in  the  great  matter  of  our 
redemption ;  the  justice  of  God  and  the  mercy  of  God. 
That  the  justice  of  God  might  be  satisfied,  Christ  was  made 
a  sacrifice  on  the  cross,  and  his  blood  shed  on  earth,  that  the 
favour  of  God  might  be  obtained.  Christ  carries,  as  our 
great  High  Priest,  his  blood,  the  virtue  of  it,  into  heaven,  and 
sprinkles  the  mercy-seat  seven  times. 

And  that  we  might  be  sanctified  and  reconciled  to  God,  this 
blood  is  sprinkled  upon  us  too.  As  it  is  sprinkled  upon  the 
altar  and  the  mercy-seat,  that  God  may  be  reconciled  to  us  ; 
so  it  is  sprinkled  upon  us  that  we  might  be  sanctified  and  re- 
conciled to  God,  and  that  thereby  we  might  be  assured  that 
God  is  in  covenant  with  us.  As  when  the  Je\vs  were  sprin- 
kled with  blood,  the  priest  saying,  "  This  is  the  blood  of  the 
covenant ;"  they  were  assured,  thereby,  that  they  were  in  co- 
venant with  God :  so  when  we  are  sprinkled  with  the  blood 
of  Jesus,  we  are,  or  may  be  assured  that  we  are  in  the  cove- 
nant of  grace  with  God.  And  thus  now,  you  see,  what  this 
blood  of  sprinkling  is,  upon  what  account  it  is  sprinkled,  and 
what  is  the  use  of  the  sprinkling  thereof.  And  so  I  have 
done  with  the  first  general. 

Secondly,  This  blood  of  sprinkling,  which  is  the  blood  of 
Jesus,  is  a  speaking  blood,  and  speaketh  better  things  than 
that  of  Abel,  or  than  Abel. 

It  speaketh  in  regard  of  its  continual  and  perpetual  virtue 
and  operation.  But  here  are  two  things. 

What  this  blood  of  sprinkling  speaketh. 

How  and  in  what  sense  it  speaketh  better  things  than  that 
of  Abel. 

What  this  blood  of  sprinkling  speaketh. 

It  speaketh  a  necessity  of  satisfaction,  for  "  without  blood 
there  is  no  remission." 

It  speaketh  the  righteousness  of  God.  If  God  have  burnt 
down  such  a  city  as  this  to  declare  his  righteousness,  how 
much  more  doth  the  shedding  of  the  blood  of  Jesus  declare 


108  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SfiR.  6. 

the  righteousness  of  God :  "  To  declare,  I  say,  his  righteous- 
ness/' saith  the  apostle  in  the  iiird  of  Romans. 

It  speaketh  the  highest  obedience  that  ever  the  sun  saw. 
That  the  Son  of  God  should  be  obedient  unto  death,  laying 
down  his  blood,  is  the  highest  obedience.  As  the  disobedi- 
ence of  the  first  Adam  was  in  the  matter  of  the  tree,  so  the 
obedience  of  the  second  Adam  was  in  the  matter  of  the  tree : 
lf  Who  his  own  self  bare  our  sins  in  his  own  body  on  the 
tree/'  saith  the  apostle.  As  the  disobedience  of  the  first 
Adam  was  in  the  transgressing  a  positive  commandment, 
which  was  the  symbol  of  obedience  to  the  whole  moral  law ; 
so  the  obedience  of  the  second  Adam  doth  consist  in  being 
obedient  unto  a  positive  commandment,  which  was  the  sym- 
bol of  his  obedience  to  the  whole  law  of  God ;  "  This  com- 
mandment received  I  of  my  Father/'  saith  he.  And  as  Moses 
the  head  of  that  covenant  was  "  faithful  in  all  his  house,"  in- 
somuch as  it  is  said  of  him,  "  As  the  Lord  commanded,  so 
did  he :"  so  Jesus,  the  head  of  this  second  covenant,  was 
faithful  in  all  his  trust,  and  as  the  Lord  commanded,  so  did 
he :  "  As  the  Father  gave  me  commandment  (saith  he),  even 
so  I  do/'  John  xiv.  31.  So  that  the  blood  of  sprinkling 
speaks  the  highest  obedience  in  the  world. 

It  speaketh  also  the  worth  of  souls.  If  a  physician  have 
a  patient  ready  to  die,  and  nothing  will  work  his  cure  but 
the  heart  blood  of  the  physician,  and  the  physician  should 
vouchsafe  thereto,  and  let  him  have  his  heart  blood  to  drink ; 
would  it  not  argue  that  the  physician  thinks  this  man's  life 
is  of  great  concernment  and  of  great  worth  ?  so  it  is  here. 
And  what  doth  this  argue,  but  that  Jesus  did  look  upon  the 
souls  of  men  as  of  infinite  worth  and  concernment. 

This  blood  of  Jesus  and  the  blood  of  sprinkling  speaketh 
the  evil  of  sin,  the  heinousness,  the  sinfulness,  the  evil  of 
sin.  There  are  many  things  that  do  speak  the  evil  of  sin, 
but  of  all  things  methinks  the  blood  of  sprinkling,  the  blood 
of  Jesus,  speaks  the  evil  of  sin  loudest.  Give  me  leave  to 
name  some,  that  so  you  may  compare  them  and  this  to- 
gether. 

The  separation  from  God  and  union  with  Satan  speaks  the 
evil  of  sin.  As  by  grace  we  are  united  unto  God,  made  one 
with  God,  and  separated  from  the  devil ;  so  by  sin  we  are 


SER.  6.]  CHRIST  AND  THE   COVENANT.  109 

separated  from  God,  and  united  unto  Satan,  and  made  one 
with  him. 

The  condemnation  of  the  whole  world  by  the  sin  of  Adam, 
speaks  the  evil  of  sin.  If  the  eating  of  the  apple,  commit- 
ting that  one  sin,  brought  condemnation  upon  all  the  world, 
how  great  must  the  evil  of  sin  be. 

The  fire  of  hell  speaks  the  evil  of  sin,  for  what  is  the  fuel 
that  the  fire  of  hell  feeds  upon,  but  sin  ;  take  sin  away,  and 
the  fire  of  hell  will  die,  it  will  be  quenched. 

The  spoil  of  cuties  speaks  it.  One  sinful  thought  is 
enough  to  spoil  a  prayer,  to  spoil  a  duty,  to  spoil  a  sermon. 
And  if  one  drop  of  ink  shall  blacken  a  whole  glass  of  milk, 
how  black  is  that  ink. 

The  horror  of  conscience  speaks  it :  for  if  but  one  sin  set 
on  upon  the  soul  by  God,  doth  put  a  man  into  such  horror 
of  conscience,  how  great  is  the  evil  of  sin. 

The  troublesomeness  of  the  relics  of  sin  in  the  saints 
speaks  it.  Sins  in  the  saints  are  but  wasps  without  their 
sting  ;  and  if  the  wasps  without  their  sting  be  so  troublesome, 
how  troublesome  are  the  wasps  that  have  their  stings  in 
them  :  how  troublesome  is  sin  in  itself. 

But  above  all,  the  blood  of  sprinkling  speaks  the  evil  of 
sin.  For  if  the  guilt  of  sin  be  so  great,  that  nothing  can 
satisfy  for  it  but  the  blood  of  Jesus ;  and  the  filth  of  sin  be 
so  great,  that  nothing  can  fetch  out  the  stain  thereof  but  the 
blood  of  Jesus  ;  how  great,  how  heinous,  how  sinful  must  the 
evil  of  sin  be.  The  blood  of  sprinkling  speaks  the  evil  of 
sin.  And  then, 

As  the  blood  of  sprinkling  speaks  the  evil  of  sin,  so  it 
speaks  the  riches  and  the  freeness  of  the  love  of  God.  It 
was  love  in  Jonathan  to  part  with  his  garment  for  David. 
What  love  is  it  in  Christ  to  part  with  his  blood  for  us.  It 
was  love  that  made  Christ  weep  over  Lazarus  ;  they  said, 
"  Behold  how  he  loved  him."  And  if  his  tears  speak  his 
love,  what  doth  his  blood  ?  It  is  love  to  give  a  cup  of  cold 
water  to  a  disciple,  what  is  it  then  to  give  one's  warm  blood 
unto  enemies. 

Three  things  there  are  that  do  make  a  gift  greatly  free. 

1.  The  greatness  of  the  gift  given. 

2.  The  un worthiness  of  t.ie  person  given  unto.     And, 

3.  The  greatness  of  the  person  that  gives. 


110  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SfiH.  G. 

1.  As  for  the  gift  itself,  what  greater  than  the  blood  of 
Jesus  ? 

2.  As  for  the  persons  given  unto,  who  more  unworthy  than 
sinful  men  ? 

3.  As  for  the  person  that  doth  give,  who  greater  than  God 
in  the  three  Persons  ?     The  Father  gives  Christ  to  die  ;   the 
Son   dies  and  gives  his  blood  ;  and  the  Holy  Ghost  comes 
and  sprinkles  it,  for  it  is  the  work  of  the  Holy  Ghost  to 
sprinkle.      This  is   another   thing  that  the  blood  of  Jesus 
speaks  ;  it  speaks  the  riches  and  the  freeness  of  the  love  of 
God.     These   are  the  things  that  this  blood  of  sprinkling 
speak  eth. 

And  now  if  you  ask,  How  and  in  what  respects  it  speaketh 
better  than  -Abel's,  or  than  that  of  Abel :  for  it  may  be 
translated  both  ways,  according  to  the  several  copies;  but 
take  it  according  to  our  translation,  better  than  that  of  Abel, 
or  than  the  blood  of  Abel  :  How  and  in  what  respects  doth 
the  blood  of  Jesus  speak  better  things  than  the  blood  of 
Abel? 

Why,  it  speaks  better  things  than  the  personal  blood  of 
Abel;  and  it  speaks  better  things  than  the  sacrificed  blood 
of  Abel. 

It  speaks  better  than  the  personal  blood  of  Abel :  for  the 
blood  of  Abel  cried  for  vengeance  against  his  own  brother : 
but  the  blood  of  Jesus  cries  for  mercy  and  for  remission  for 
his  enemies :  "  Father,  forgive  them,  they  know  not  what 
they  do,"  said  Christ,  when  their  hands  were  embrued  in  his 
blood. 

But  others  think  rather  that  these  words  are  to  be  under- 
stood of  the  sacrificed  blood  of  Abel.  And  because  Abel  is 
the  first  that  stands  upon  record  in  Scripture  for  offering  a 
sacrifice  with  blood,  it  is  as  if  the  apostle  should  say,  The 
sacrifice  of  Jesus  on  the  cross,  and  the  blood  of  Jesus, 
speaketh  better  things  than  the  sacrifice  of  Abel,  or  of  all 
the  sacrifices  in  the  Old  Testament.  And  indeed  this  is  more 
suitable  to  the  scope  of  the  apostle  here,  for  the  design  of 
the  apostle  here  is,  to  shew  the  excellency  of  new  testament 
sacrifice,  and  of  the  way  of  the  new  testament,  above  the 
old.  And  if  you  look  into  the  Scripture  you  find,  that 
though  in  Gen.  iv.  it  is  said,  "  Abel's  blood  cried  ;"  yet  not- 
withstanding it  is  not  said  that  Abel  or  his  blood  speaketh  : 


SEE.  6.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  Ill 

but  in  Heb.  xi.  it  is  said  that,  in  point  of  sacrifice,  by  faith, 
Abel  speaketh  :  "  By  faith  Abel  offered  unto  God  a  more 
excellent  sacrifice  than  Cain,  and  by  it  he  being  dead  yet 
speaketh."  In  point  of  sacrifice  by  faith  he  yet  speaketh. 

And  would  you  know  how  the  blood  of  Jesus  speaketh 
better  things  than  the  sacrificed  blood  of  Abel,  or  than  all  the 
sacrifices  of  the  Old  Testament.  Thus : 

The  blood  of  Jesus,  and  the  sacrifice  of  Christ  on  the 
cross,  doth  give  efficacy  unto  all  those  sacrifices.  What  are 
all  the  types  and  ceremonies  but  dead  things,  without  the 
thing  typified  ? 

And  though  Abel  offered  an  excellent  sacrifice,  he  did  not 
offer  his  own  blood  :  but  Jesus  did,  he  offered  up  himself  by 
the  Eternal  Spirit,  as  in  Heb.  ix. 

And  though  Abel  and  the  fathers  of  the  old  testament 
offered  excellent  sacrifices,  yet  they  offered  often,  and  so 
those  sacrifices  could  not  make  the  comers  thereunto  perfect, 
saith  the  apostle,  "  But  Christ  offered  himself  once  for  all : 
and  so  he  hath  for  ever  perfected  them  that  are  sanctified," 
Heb.  x. 

Though  Abel  and  the  fathers  in  the  Old  Testament  did 
offer  excellent  sacrifices,  yet  their  sacrifice  was  after  their  sin 
committed ;  when  they  had  committed  a  sin,  then  they  were 
to  get  a  sacrifice,  and  possibly  they  might  have  died  before 
the  sacrifice  was  offered  ;  but  the  sacrifice  of  Christ  is  before 
our  sin  is  committed ;  we  cannot  die  between  the  sin  and  the 
sacrifice. 

And  though  Abel  and  the  fathers  of  the  Old  Testament 
offered  excellent  sacrifices,  the  blood  whereof  was  sprinkled 
on  the  people,  yet  that  was  but  to  the  purifying  of  the  flesh, 
for,  saith  the  apostle  chap.  ix.  13 :  •'  If  the  blood  of  bulls 
and  of  goats,  and  the  ashes  of  an  heifer  sprinkling  the  un- 
clean, sanctifieth  to  the  purifying  of  the  flesh,  &c."  But  the 
sprinkling  of  the  blood  of  Jesus,  purgeth  our  consciences 
from  dead  works.  "  How  much  more  shall  the  blood  of 
Christ,  who  through  the  eternal  Spirit  offered  himself  without 
spot  to  God,  purge  your  conscience  from  dead  works,  to 
serve  the  living  God."  Upon  which  words,  saith  Capellus, 
you  have  here  the  excellency  of  this  offering  above  all  other 
offerings  in  the  world ;  above  the  offerings  of  the  heathen, 
above  the  offerings  of  the  Jews,  above  the  offerings  of  the 


112  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SfiR.  6. 

Christians.  Above  the  offerings  of  the  heathen ;  for  they 
sacrificed  to  devils,  but  he  offered  himself  without  spot  to 
God.  Above  the  sacrifice  of  the  Jews;  for  their  blood  of 
sprinkling  sanctified  to  the  purifying  of  the  flesh,  but  this 
to  the  purging  of  your  "  conscience  from  dead  works."  Above 
the  offering  of  the  christians ;  for  though  Christians  offer  up 
spiritual  sacrifices  to  God,  as  prayers  and  thanksgivings,  yet 
"not  without  spot;"  but  he  offered  himself  through  the 
eternal  Spirit  without  spot  to  God. 

And  then,  though  Abel  offered  an  excellent  sacrifice,  and 
so  the  fathers  of  the  Old  Testament,  yet  notwithstanding 
those  were  for  themselves  and  for  those  times.  Abel  offered 
for  himself,  and  the  Jews  for  themselves,  for  that  time  only ; 
but  Christ  offered  a  sacrifice  for  all  the  world,  "  He  is  the 
Lamb  of  God  that  taketh  away  the  sin  of  the  world,"  and 
"  a  Lamb  slain  from  the  beginning  of  the  world." 

Again,  though  Abel  offered  an  excellent  sacrifice,  and  the 
fathers  of  the  Old  Testament  offered  excellent  sacrifices,  and 
the  blood  thereof  was  sprinkled  ;  yet  it  was  not  sprinkled 
upon  all  things,  but  in  Heb.  ix.  it  is  said :  "  Moreover  he 
sprinkled  with  blood  both  the  tabernacle  and  all  the  vessels 
of  the  ministry,  and  almost  all  things  are  by  the  law  purged 
with  blood."  It  was  but  almost,  but  now  by  the  blood  of 
Jesus  all  things  are  purged  and  cleansed,  not  almost,  but  all 
things  are  purged  and  cleansed.  Thus  now  you  see  what 
this  blood  of  sprinkling  speaketh,  and  how  it  speaketh  better 
things  than  the  blood  of  Abel;  better  than  his  personal 
blood,  and  better  than  his  sacrificed  blood,  and  that  is  the 
second  general. 

Thirdly,  Now  unto  this  blood  of  sprinkling  are  we  come 
in  these  gospel  times.  We  are  not  come  unto  the  blood  of 
bulls  and  goats  and  heifers,  but  we  are  come  unto  the  blood 
of  Jesus  the  blood  of  sprinkling. 

For  what  is  the  dispensation  we  are  now  under  but  the 
dispensation  of  a  crucified  Christ  ?  There  are  two  comings 
of  Christ  mentioned  in  the  Scripture.  A  coming  in  a  way  of 
meanness,  riding  upon  an  ass ;  his  first  coming  is  in  a  way  of 
humiliation,  riding  upon  an  ass,  and  accordingly  his  kingdom 
is  a  kingdom  of  patience.  And  there  is  a  second  coming  of 
Christ,  when  he  comes  riding  upon  the  clouds  in  power  and 
great  glory,  and  accordingly  his  kingdom  then  shall  be  a 


SER.  6.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  113 

kingdom  of  power  and  glory.  When  Christ  comes  the  second 
time  we  shall  be  under  glorious  dispensations,  but  now  we 
are  under  the  first  coming  of  Christ,  and  therefore  what  is 
the  dispensation  that  now  we  are  under,  but  the  dispensation 
of  a  crucified  Christ?  What  doth  preaching  signify  and 
hold  forth,  but  Christ  crucified  ?  "  WTe  preach  Christ  cru- 
cified," saith  the  apostle.  What  do  the  sacraments  hold 
forth?  Why:  "This  cup  is  the  New  Testament  in  my 
blood/'  saith  he.  So  that  now  we  are  under  the  dispensation 
of  a  crucified  Christ.  In  the  times  of  the  old  covenant, 
they  did  believe  in  God,  and  God  himself  was  the  first  ob- 
ject of  their  faith,  and  so  they  came  to  Christ ;  now,  in  these 
times  of  the  New  Testament,  the  first  and  immediate  object 
of  our  faith,  is  the  blood  of  Christ,  "  Faith  in  the  blood  of 
Christ,"  Rom.  iii.  So  that,  I  say,  it  is  the  blood  of  Jesus 
that  now  we  are  come  unto. 

Well,  but  though  in  these  gospel  times  we  are  now  come 
to  the  blood  of  Jesus,  the  blood  of  sprinkling,  yet,  it  may 
be,  this  blood  of  sprinkling  may  not  be  sprinkled  upon  my 
soul.  When  may  the  blood  of  sprinkling  be  said  to  be 
sprinkled  upon  a  man's  soul  ?  How  shall  I  know  whether  this 
blood  of  sprinkling  be  sprinkled  upon  my  soul  in  particular  ? 
That  is  a  question  of  great  concernment.  Thus  therefore, 

If  it  be  your  great  work  in  all  your  temptations  and  upon 
all  occasions  to  apply  yourselves  unto  the  blood  of  Jesus, 
then  is  the  blood  of  Jesus  applied  to  you,  and  so  sprinkled 
on  you.  The  blood  of  Jesus  is  sprinkled  on  us  by  the  Spirit 
of  God,  and  when  it  is  sprinkled  by  the  Spirit  of  God,  it  is 
applied.  If  you  do  make  applications  of  yourselves  to  Christ, 
certainly  Christ  hath  made  applications  of  himself  to  you ; 
for  all  our  grace  is  but  a  reflection  of  his  grace  ;  we  love  him 
because  he  loved  us  first,  and  we  choose  him  because  he 
chose  us  first,  and  we  apply  ourselves  to  him  because  he  hath 
applied  himself  unto  us  first.  If  therefore  in  all  temptations 
and  upon  all  occasions,  it  be  your  great  work  to  make  an 
application  of  yourselves  unto  the  blood  of  Jesus,  then  hath 
the  blood  of  Jesus  been  applied  to  you  and  sprinkled  upon 
you. 

If  you  ever  have  had  such  a  sight  of  the  blood  of  Christ 
as  that  thereby  you  are  purged  from  an  evil  conscience,  then 
hath  this  blood  been  applied  to,  and  sprinkled  on  you ;  they 

VOL.  III.  I 


114  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SfiR.  6. 

go  together.  In  Heb.  x.  22,  it  is  said  :  "  Let  us  draw  near 
with  a  true  heart,  in  full  assurance  of  faith,  having  our  hearts 
sprinkled  from  an  evil  conscience,"  or  purged,  Heb  ix.  calls 
it  purged ;  "  having  our  hearts  sprinkled  from  an  evil  con- 
science." What  is  that  ?  Why  an  evil  conscience  is  an 
evil  conscience  two  ways;  either  because  it  is  a  sluggish 
conscience,  and  does  not  stir  us  up  unto  our  duty  and  accuse 
for  sin ;  or  else  because  it  is  a  clamorous  and  despondent 
conscience.  Now  if  you  have  had  such  a  sight  of  the  blood 
of  Jesus  as  hath  quickened  your  conscience,  and  wakened 
your  conscience,  and  yet  pacified  your  conscience  at  the  same 
time,  then  have  you  been  sprinkled  with  this  blood  of  Jesus. 
You  see  how  they  go  together  in  the  xth  chapter  1,  2,  3. 
But, 

If  you  have  a  continual  sight  and  remembrance  of  the 
blood  of  Jesus  in  all  your  goings  out  and  your  comings  in, 
then  hath  the  blood  of  Jesus  been  sprinkled  upon  you. 
When  the  destroying  angel  passed  over  the  houses  of  the 
Israelites,  the  posts  were  sprinkled  with  the  blood  of  the 
lamb.  The  posts;  and  why  their  posts'!  But  that  in  all 
their  goings  out  and  their  comings  in,  they  might  have  an  eye 
thereunto.  So  now  how  is  it  with  me  ?  Do  I  not  only  find 
the  virtue  of  the  Lord  Christ  within  me  ;  but  that  in  all  my 
goings  out  and  comings  in,  I  have  an  eye  unto  his  blood  ? 
Then  is  his  blood  sprinkled  upon  my  posts,  and  applied 
unto  me. 

If  that  you  do  walk  in  the  light,  as  God  is  in  the  light ; 
then  the  blood  of  Jesus  hath  been,  and  is,  sprinkled  upon 
you,  and  applied  to  you ;  1  John  i.  vii. :  "  But  if  we  walk  in 
the  light,  as  he  is  in  the  light,  we  have  fellowship  one  with 
another,  and  the  blood  of  Jesus  Christ  his  Son  cleanseth  us 
from  all  sin."  If  we  walk  in  the  light  as  he  is  in  the  light  ? 
What  is  that  ?  How  is  God  and  Christ  in  the  light  ?  Why 
he  is  in  the  light  certainly  in  regard  of  grace  and  holiness. 
So  he  is  in  the  light,  and  to  that  purpose  the  apostle  speaks 
here.  So  then,  although  you  cannot  walk  in  the  light  of 
comfort,  but  as  a  child  of  light  walking  in  darkness;  yet 
if  you  do  walk  in  the  light  of  holiness,  walk  in  the  light  as 
God  is  in  the  light;  then  certainly  the  blood  of  Jesus  Christ 
hath  cleansed  you,  and  so  hath  been  sprinkled  upon  you. 

If  you  are  indeed  separated  and  set  apart  for  God,  and  for 


SER.  6.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  115 

the  work  and  service  of  God,  then  is  the  blood  of  Jesus 
sprinkled  upon  you.  He  that  is  dipt  in  this  blood  of  sprink- 
ling, is  separated.  You  shall  observe  that  when  the  priests 
were  consecrated,  the  tip  of  the  right  ear  was  sprinkled  with 
blood,  and  the  thumb  of  the  right  hand,  and  the  toe  of  the 
right  foot.  And  not  only  the  priests  when  they  were  con- 
secrated were  so  sprinkled;  but  when  a  man  was  cleansed 
from  his  leprosy,  he  was  so  sprinkled  also.  You  have  them 
both  in  Leviticus  concerning  Aaron.  Lev.  viii.  23  :  "  He 
slew  the  ram,  and  Moses  took  of  the  blood  of  it,  and  put  it 
upon  the  tip  of  Aaron's  right  ear,  and  upon  the  thumb  of 
his  right  hand,  and  upon  the  great  toe  of  his  right  foot." 
Thus  in  regard  of  Aaron.  In  regard  of  the  leprosy,  you 
have  it  in  Lev.  xiv. :  "  And  of  the  rest  of  the  oil  that  is  in 
his  hand,  shall  the  priest  put  upon  the  tip  of  the  right  ear 
of  him  that  is  to  be  cleansed,  and  upon  the  thumb  of  his 
right  hand,  and  upon  the  great  toe  of  his  right  foot,  upon 
the  blood  of  the  trespass  offering."  And  so  in  regard  of 
blood  as  well  as  of  oil.  What  is  the  meaning  of  this,  that 
the  tip  of  the  right  ear  was  to  be  touched  with  blood,  and 
the  thumb  of  the  right  hand  was  to  be  touched  with  blood, 
and  the  toe  of  the  right  foot  with  blood,  both  when  the 
priest  was  consecrated,  and  when  the  leprosy  was  cleansed  ? 
But  to  shew  thus  much,  that  the  whole  man  is  to  be  set 
apart  for  God.  The  ear  of  his  understanding  and  knowing 
part  is  to  be  set  aside  for  God.  The  thumb  of  his  right 
hand,  the  believing  part  (by  faith  we  lay  hold),  is  to  be  set 
apart  for  God.  And  the  great  toe  of  the  right  foot,  the 
practical  part  of  life  and  conversation ;  the  whole  man  is  to 
be  set  apart  for  God  where  this  sprinkling  comes.  So  that 
look  therefore,  when  a  man  is  set  apart  for  the  worship  and 
service  of  God,  ear,  and  hand,  and  foot,  set  apart  for  the 
worship  and  service  of  God ;  then  he  is  said  to  be  sprinkled 
with  this  blood  of  sprinkling. 

Once  more,  If  that  you  have  had  such  a  prospect  of  Christ 
crucified,  and  have  seen  what  great  and  wonderful  things 
Christ  hath  done  and  suffered,  insomuch  as  your  hearts  have 
been  astonished  therewithal ;  then  have  your  souls  been 
sprinkled  with  this  blood.  See  how  they  go  together,  Isa. 
lii.  13,  14,  15  :  "Behold,  my  servant  shall  deal  prudently, 
he  shall  be  exalted  and  extolled,  and  be  very  high,  (speaking 


116  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  [SER.    6. 

of  Christ).  As  many  were  astonied  at  him,  (his  visage  was 
so  marred,  more  than  any  man's,  and  his  form,  more  than 
the  sons  of  men,)  so  shall  he  sprinkle  many  nations ;  the 
kings  shall  shut  their  mouths  at  him,  for  that  which  had  not 
been  told  them,  shall  they  see,  and  that  which  they  had  not 
heard,  shall  they  consider."  Where  this  blood  is  sprinkled 
there  comes  astonishment  at  the  mirror,  and  wisdom  and 
mystery  of  a  crucified  Christ.  So  that  thus  now  you  see 
that  we  are  come  unto  this  blood  of  sprinkling  :  and  how  a 
man  shall  know  whether  his  own  soul  be  sprinkled  with 
this  blood  of  sprinkling  in  particular.  And  is  this  a  small 
matter  ? 

Fourthly.  The  fourth  thing  tells  us  it  is  a  privilege,  and  a 
very  great  privilege  to  come  unto  the  blood  of  sprinkling ;  it 
is  a  very  great  privilege  to  be  sprinkled  with  this  blood  of 
sprinkling. 

It  was  a  very  great  privilege  for  the  Jews  to  have  a  sacri- 
fice at  hand  when  they  had  committed  sin,  to  have  the  blood 
of  sprinkling  by  them.  But,  alas,  what  is  that  to  this ;  what 
was  that  sacrifice  to  this  of  Christ,  and  what  was  that  blood 
to  this  of  Christ,  and  what  was  that  sprinkling  unto  this 
sprinkling  of  the  blood  of  Jesus  ?  Look  what  difference  is 
between  the  type  and  the  thing  typified ;  look  what  differ- 
ence there  is  between  the  blood  of  bulls  and  goats,  and  the 
blood  of  Jesus ;  look  what  difference  between  carnal  and 
spiritual  things :  so  great  a  difference  is  there  between  the 
coming  to  the  blood  of  bulls  and  goats,  and  the  coming  to 
and  being  sprinkled  with  the  blood  of  Jesus. 

Let  me  open  this  a  little  to  you,  if  you  be  indeed  come 
unto  this  blood  of  sprinkling,  and  be  sprinkled  with  the  blood 
of  Jesus, 

Then  look  whatsoever  benefits  'do  flow  from  the  blood  of 
Jesus :  all  those  do  belong  to  you.  And  do  you  well  consider 
what  are  the  benefits  that  do  flow  from  the  blood  of  Jesus. 
Let  me  name  some  to  you. 

Thereby,  in  the  general,  we  have  redemption :  "  In  whom 
we  have  redemption  through  his  blood,"  saith  Paul,  Eph.  i. 

Thereby  the  covenant  of  grace  is  ratified  and  confirmed, 
Heb.  ix.,  at  large. 

Thereby  the  church  of  God  is  purchased,  Acts  xx.  pur- 
chased by  his  blood ;  by  the  blood  of  God. 


SER.  6.J  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  117 

Thereby  the  wall  of  partition  made  between  Jew  and  gen- 
tile, God  and  us  is  broken  down.  Eph.  ii.  13. 

Thereby  all  things  in  heaven  and  earth  are  reconciled. 
Col.  i.  20. 

Thereby  are  your  souls  justified  and  your  sins  pardoned  : 
"  In  whom  we  have  redemption  through  his  blood,  the  for- 
giveness of  our  sins,"  Eph.  i. 

Thereby  are  you  washed  and  cleansed  and  sanctified  :  "  The 
blood  of  Jesus  cleanseth  from  all  iniquity,"  1  John  i. 

Thereby  is  your  great  adversary,  Satan,  routed  and  over- 
come and  spoiled :  "  They  overcame  him  by  the  blood  of  the 
Lamb,"  Rev.  xii. 

Thereby  Christ  is  made  welcome  by  his  Father  when  he 
comes  into  heaven  in  your  name  to  intercede  for  you.  In 
the  times  of  the  old  testament  the  high  priest  went  into  the 
holy  of  holiest,  and  carried  blood,  and  sprinkled  the  mercy- 
seat  seven  times  ;  but  the  high  priest  did  not  sit  down.  Now 
in  Heb.  x.  11,  it  is  said,  "  And  every  high  priest  standeth 
daily  ministering  and  offering  oftentimes  the  same  sacrifices, 
which  can  never  take  away  sin  ;  but  this  Man,  after  he  had 
offered  one  sacrifice  for  sins,  for  ever  sat  down  at  the  right 
hand  of  God  the  Father."  The  high  priest  did  not,  then,  sit 
down  ;  but  now  when  Christ  comes  into  heaven  with  your 
names  upon  his  heart,  to  sprinkle  the  mercy-seat  with  his 
blood  ;  Come  my  Son,  saith  the  Father,  sit  down  and  welcome 
upon  this  account. 

And  thereby,  also,  have  you  entrance  into  the  holy  of  ho- 
liest, as  in  Heb.  x. 

And  if,  indeed,  you  be  sprinkled  with  this  blood  of  sprin- 
kling, then  are  you  at  one  with  the  mercy-seat.  It  is  the 
same  blood  that  is  sprinkled  upon  the  mercy-seat  in  heaven 
that  is  sprinkled  upon  your  souls  here  on  earth.  The  same 
blood,  in  the  time  of  the  old  testament,  that  was  sprinkled 
upon  the  people  was  sprinkled  upon  the  altar  and  the  mercy- 
seat  ;  so  the  same  blood  that  is  now  in  heaven,  sprinkled 
upon  the  mercy-seat,  is  sprinkled  upon  your  hearts. 

If  you  are  sprinkled  with  this  blood  of  sprinkling,  then  all 
the  promises  are  yours,  for  all  the  promises  are  yea  and  amen 
in  Christ ;  and  if  Christ's  blood  be  sprinkled  on  you,  and 
applied  to  you,  then  may  you  apply  the  promises  to  yourselves. 

And  if,  indeed,  you  be  sprinkled  with  this  blood  of  sprin- 


118  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SEB.    6. 

kling,  then  are  all  things  clean  unto  you ;  for  as  the  blood  of 
sprinkling  is  sprinkled  upon  your  souls,  so  are  all  your  enjoy- 
ments to  be  sprinkled  with  it. 

And  if  you  be  indeed  sprinkled  with  the  blood  of  Jesus, 
then  may  you  go  away  and  say,  Now  are  all  the  blessings  of 
the  covenant  mine.  The  day  that  you  are  sprinkled  with  the 
blood  of  Jesus,  you  may  say,  Now  know  I  that  my  sins  are 
pardoned  :  mercy  is  mine,  and  pardon  is  mine,  and  adoption 
is  mine.  As  when  the  psalmist  had  a  sight  of  God,  he  cried 
out  and  said,  "  Gilead  is  mine,  and  Manasseh  is  mine ;"  so 
the  day  that  you  have  this  sight  of  God,  in  being  sprinkled 
with  the  blood  of  Jesus,  you  may  cry  out  and  say,  not,  Gilead 
is  mine,  and  Manasseh  is  mine ;  but,  Pardon  is  mine,  and 
adoption  is  mine,  and  heaven  is  mine,  and  God  is  mine  for 
ever.  Oh,  who  would  not  labour  to  get  his  soul  sprinkled 
now  with  the  blood  of  sprinkling  ! 

Fifthly.  You  will  say,  in  the  fifth  and  last  place,  It  is  a 
great  privilege  to  be  sprinkled  with  the  blood  of  sprinkling. 
We  grant  it.  But  what  shall  we  do  that  even  we  may  get 
our  souls  sprinkled  with  the  blood  of  Jesus,  the  blood  of 
sprinkling  ? 

First  of  all  you  must  know  that  there  is  a  twofold  sprin- 
kling with  the  blood  of  sprinkling.  There  is  an  initial  sprin- 
kling, and  a  renewed  sprinkling.  As  there  is  an  initial 
repentance  and  a  renewed  repentance,  so  there  is  an  initial 
sprinkling  and  a  renewed  sprinkling. 

An  initial  sprinkling,  and  that  is  a  man's  first  conversion, 
when  he  is  justified,  according  to  that  in  1  Cor.  vi.  1 1,  "  Such 
were  some  of  you ;  but  you  are  washed,  but  ye  are  sanctified, 
but  ye  are  justified,  in  the  name  of  the  Lord  Jesus,  and  by 
the  Spirit  of  our  God."  Here  is  the  initial  sprinkling. 

The  renewed  sprinkling  is  upon  a  twofold  account ;  upon 
the  account  of  some  great  sin  committed,  and  upon  the  ac- 
count of  some  special  duty  to  be  performed. 

A  fresh  sprinkling  there  must  be  upon  some  great  sin  com- 
mitted. So  in  the  list  Psalm,  saith  David,  "Wash  me 
throughly  from  mine  iniquity  "  He  had  sinned  a  great  sin, 
but  his  sin  was  pardoned.  Psalm  li.,  title :  "  A  Psalm  of 
David  when  Nathan  the  prophet  came  unto  him  •"  that  was, 
after  Nathan  came  to  him.  And  what  did  Nathan  say  ?  He 
told  him  his  sin  was  pardoned.  Yet  saith  David,  "  Purge  me 


SEE.  6.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  119 

with  hyssop ;"  I  must  have  a  fresh  sprinkling  :  after  some 
great  sin  committed  there  must  be  a  fresh  sprinkling  with  the 
blood  of  Jesus. 

And  upon  duty  to  be  performed,  especially  some  great  duty 
to  be  performed,  there  must  also  be  a  fresh  sprinkling.  In 
Heb.  x.  22,  Paul  saith,  "  Let  us  draw  near  with  a  true  heart, 
in  full  assurance  of  faith,  having  our  hearts  sprinkled  from 
an  evil  conscience,  and  our  bodies  washed  with  pure  water." 
Why  our  bodies  washed  with  pure  water  ?  It  relates  to  the 
washings  in  the  old  testament :  when  the  priests  were  to  come 
to  offer  a  sacrifice,  there  was  a  laver,  and  they  were  then  to 
wash  themselves ;  so  saith  the  apostle,  "  Let  us  draw  near  to 
God,  having  our  hearts  sprinkled  from  an  evil  conscience,  and 
our  bodies  washed  with  pure  water,"  because  upon  a  new 
address  to  God,  a  fresh  sprinkling  with  the  blood  of  Jesus  is 
to  be  had.  It  is  not  enough  to  have  an  old  sprinkling  with 
the  blood  of  Jesus,  but  upon  all  our  approaches  to  God,  es- 
pecially after  some  great  sin  committed  or  some  special  duty 
to  be  performed,  we  must  come  and  get  a  fresh  sprinkling 
with  the  blood  of  Jesus. 

You  must  know  also  that  though  you  have  been  very  great 
sinners,  yet  you  are  not  incapable  of  this  sprinkling  with 
the  blood  of  Jesus.  The  apostle  saith  in  that  place  of  the 
Corinthians  :  "  Such  were  some  of  you."  What  such  ?  ver. 
9 :  "  Know  ye  not  that  the  unrighteous  shall  not  inherit  the 
kingdom  of  God,  be  not  deceived,  neither  fornicators,  nor 
idolaters,  nor  adulterers,  nor  effeminate,  nor  abusers  of  them- 
selves with  mankind,  nor  thieves,  nor  covetous,  nor  drun- 
kards, nor  revilers,  nor  extortioners,  shall  inherit  the  kingdom 
of  God.  And  such  were  some  of  you  ;  but  ye  are  washed," 
how  ?  why  "ye  are  justified  in  the  name  of  our  Lord  Jesus, 
and  by  the  Spirit  of  our  God,"  which  sprinkles,  which  applies 
the  blood  of  Christ.  So  then,  though  ye  have  been  great 
sinners,  yet  you  are  not  incapable  of  being  sprinkled  with 
this  blood  of  sprinkling. 

You  must  know  this  also,  that  there  is  nothing  not  this 
side  the  blood  of  Jesus,  this  blood  of  sprinkling,  that  can 
cleanse  you.  If  any  thing  should  bid  for  our  cleansing, 
methinks  it  should  be  our  sufferings  and  persecutions  for  the 
name  of  God.  But  look  into  Rev.  vii.  14,  it  is  said  :  "These 
are  they  which  came  out  of  great  tribulations,  and  have 


120  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SER.  6. 

washed  their  robes,  and  made  them  white  in  the  blood  of 
the  Lamb/'  They  have  washed  their  robes.  How?  what 
with  their  "  great  tribulations  ? "  No,  they  came  out  of 
great  tribulations,  but  their  tribulations  do  not  wash  them. 
"These  are  they  that  came  out  of  great  tribulations,  and 
have  washed  their  robes  and  made  them  white  in  the 
blood  of  the  Lamb."  Nothing  on  this  side  Christ,  and  this 
blood  of  sprinkling,  can  cleanse  your  souls.  But, 

Though  there  be  nothing  on  this  side  Christ  that  can 
cleanse  your  souls  but  the  blood  of  Jesus ;  yet  it  is  the  Spirit 
of  Christ  that  must  sprinkle  it.  The  blood  of  Jesus  is  then 
sprinkled  when  it  is  applied ;  now  this  is  the  work  of  the 
Holy  Ghost,  "  I  will  sprinkle  you  with  clean  water,"  I  will 
wash  you  with  water.  As  it  is  a  derogation  to  the  blood  of 
Christ  to  go  to  any  else  for  cleansing ;  so  it  is  a  derogation 
to  the  Spirit  of  Christ  to  go  to  any  else  for  sprinkling,  or  to 
go  to  any  else  for  that  application  of  the  blood  of  Christ. 
It  is  only  the  Spirit  of  Christ  that  must  sprinkle  this  blood 
upon  your  and  my  soul. 

Though  this  sprinkling  must  be  done  only  by  the  Spirit ; 
yet  notwithstanding  this  blood  of  Jesus  is  sprinkled  by  the 
ordinance  in  the  hand  of  the  Spirit,  by  the  preaching  of  the 
gospel.  He  preaches  not,  that  sprinkles  not  the  blood  of 
Christ  in  preaching ;  and  especially  by  that  great  ordinance 
of  the  Lord's  supper.  You  may  observe  therefore,  that  the 
same  words  that  were  used  in  the  Old  Testament  when  they 
sprinkled  the  blood,  "  This  is  the  blood  of  the  covenant,"  as 
in  Heb.  ix.,  are  used  by  our  Saviour  Christ  at  the  Lord's 
supper :  This  cup  is  the  New  Testament  in  my  blood,  &c." 
Why  so  ?  but  to  shew  thus  much,  that  this  ordinance  of  the 
Lord's  supper  is  the  hyssop  in  the  hand  of  the  Spirit,  whereby 
the  souls  of  believers  are  sprinkled  with  a  fresh  sprinkling. 
Oh,  therefore,  who  would  not  come  to  this  ordinance  of  the 
Lord's  supper  in  a  right  way  and  manner. 

But  then  again,  you  must  know  also  that  you  must  come 
for  sprinkling  with  the  greatest  sense  of  unworthiness  that 
may  be.  If  you  look  into  the  xixth  of  Numbers,  you  shall 
find  that  he  that  sprinkled  the  blood,  was  to  be  unclean 
until  the  evening,  verse  7-  "  Then  the  priest  shall  wash  his 
clothes,  and  he  shall  bathe  his  flesh  in  water,  and  afterward 
he  shall  come  into  the  camp,  and  the  priest  shall  be  unclean 


SER.  6.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  121 

until  the  evening/*  At  verse  6  :  "The  priest  shall  take  cedar 
wood,  and  hyssop,  and  scarlet,  and  cast  it  into  the  midst  of 
the  burning  of  the  heifer ;  and  then  the  priest  shall  wash 
his  clothes,  and  come  into  the  camp,  and  shall  be  unclean 
until  the  evening."  And  at  verse  8  :  "He  that  burneth  her 
shall  wash  his  clothes  in  water,  and  bathe  his  flesh  in  water, 
and  shall  be  unclean  until  the  evening.  And  a  man  that  is 
clean  shall  gather  up  the  ashes  of  the  heifer,  and  lay  them 
up  without  the  camp  in  a  clean  place,  and  it  shall  be  kept 
for  the  congregation  of  the  children  of  Israel  for  a  water  of 
separation ;  it  is  a  purification  for  sin,  and  he  that  gathered 
the  ashes  of  the  heifer,  shall  wash  his  clothes,  and  be  un- 
clean until  the  evening/'  What  is  all  this  ?  but  to  shew 
thus  much,  that  they  might  not  come  to  this  sacred  expia- 
tion, but  with  the  greatest  sense  of  their  unworthiness. 
Plainly  shewing  thus  much :  that  there  is  no  meddling  with 
this  blood  of  sprinkling  but  with  the  greatest  sense  of  our 
unworthiness  of  the  blood  of  Jesus.  Now  therefore,  do  you 
desire  that  you  may  be  sprinkled  with  this  blood  of  sprink- 
ling; then,  whensoever  you  go  to  the  blood  of  Jesus,  and 
look  upon  it,  go  with  the  greatest  sense  of  your  unworthiness 
of  this  blood;  then  go  to  the  Spirit  of  God,  whose  work 
above  it  is,  to  apply  and  sprinkle,  and  then  stand  and  wait 
where  the  Spirit  stands  with  his  hyssop  to  sprinkle  the  souls 
of  men.  And  so  shall  you  be  made  partakers  of  this  great 
privilege. 

But  suppose  that  I  be  sprinkled  with  the  blood  of  Jesus, 
and  that  this  blood  of  sprinkling  hath  indeed  fallen  upon  my 
soul,  what  is  my  duty  then  ? 

Then,  "  Go  away  and  doubt  no  more."  When  the  sinning 
Jew  was  sprinkled,  do  you  think  he  doubted  whether  he  were 
pardoned  or  no  ?  No  surely,  he  did  believe  that  he  was 
pardoned,  and  that  he  was  in  covenant  with  God.  For  those 
words  were  used,  This  is  the  blood  of  the  covenant.  And 
shall  you  be  sprinkled  with  the  blood  of  Jesus,  and  will  you 
doubt  whether  you  be  in  covenant  with  the  Lord  by  grace 
or  no !  &c. 

This  blood  of  sprinkling  speaketh,  and  you  have  heard 
what  it  speaks.  Now  then  I  pray  take  heed  that  you  do  not 
refuse  him  that  speaketh  from  heaven.  Mark  how  it  follows 
in  the  very  next  words  to  the  text :  "  We  are  come  to  the 


122  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SER.  6. 

blood  of  sprinkling  that  speaketh  better  things  than  that  of 
Abel.  See  that  ye  refuse  not  him  that  speaketh,  for  if  they 
escaped  not  who  refused  him  that  spoke  on  earth,  much 
more  shall  not  we  escape,  if  we  turn  away  from  him  that 
speaketh  from  heaven."  Why,  man  or  woman,  it  is  Jesus 
that  speaketh  to  thee,  Jesus  the  Mediator  of  the  covenant 
that  speaks  unto  you  to  believe.  What,  are  you  sprinkled  ? 
go  away  then  and  doubt  no  more ;  but  take  heed  that  ye 
refuse  not  him  that  speaketh  from  heaven. 

And  then  also  conclude  and  say,  Now  know  I  that  I  shall 
be  preserved  from  the  destroyer.  When  the  Israelites*  posts 
were  sprinkled  with  the  blood  of  the  Lamb,  they  could  say, 
Now  know  I  that  I  shall  not  be  destroyed  by  this  destroying 
angel.  Art  thou  sprinkled  with  the  blood  of  Jesus  ?  say 
then,  Now  know  I  that  I  shall  not  be  destroyed,  but  that  the 
angel  shall  pass  over  me  in  the  destroying  day. 

Then  also  go  away  and  be  contented  with  your  condi- 
tion whatever  it  be.  And  well  you  may.  If  you  be  sprinkled 
with  the  blood  of  Jesus,  you  are  made  partakers  of  the 
greatest  privilege  that  can  be,  and  will  you  not  then  be 
contented  with  your  condition  ?  Go  away  and  be  con- 
tented with  your  condition,  saying,  I  have  now  received  the 
greatest  privilege,  for  I  am  sprinkled  with  the  blood  of 
Jesus,  therefore  will  I  be  contented  with  my  condition  what- 
ever it  be. 

And  then  go  away  and  praise  God  and  be  very  thankful. 
Be  very  thankful  to  God  the  Father,  and  to  the  Lamb  with 
whose  blood  you  are  sprinkled.  Look  into  Rev.  v.,  and  you 
shall  find  there  are  three  choirs  of  praisers,  and  all  praising 
upon  the  account  of  this  blood.  And  when  he  had  opened 
the  book,  verse  9,  "  the  twenty-four  elders  fell  down  before 
the  Lamb,  and  they  sung  a  new  song."  The  four  and 
twenty  elders  (these  are  men)  saying,  Thou  art  worthy  to 
take  the  book,  and  to  open  the  seals  thereof,  for  thou  wast 
slain,  and  hast  redeemed  us  to  God  by  thy  blood."  By  thy 
blood ;  here  is  the  foot  of  the  song. 

Then  comes  in  the  angels,  another  choir,  praising  God, 
verse  11.  K  And  I  beheld,  and  I  heard  the  voice  of  many 
angels  round  about  the  throne,  and  the  beasts,  and  the  elders, 
and  the  number  of  them  was  ten  thousand  times  ten  thou- 
sand, and  thousands  of  thousands,  saying  with  a  loud  voice, 


SEB.  6.]]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT  123 

Worthy  is  the  Lamb  that  was  slain."  See  the  foot  of  the 
song  still;  "Worthy  is  the  Lamb  that  was  slain."  Men 
praise  upon  this  account,  angels  praise  upon  this  account  also. 

There  is  a  third  choir,  and  those  are  other  creatures,  verse 
14  :  <e  And  every  creature  which  is  in  heaven,  and  on  the 
earth,  and  under  the  earth,  and  such  as  are  in  the  sea,  and 
all  that  are  in  them,  heard  I  saying,  Blessing,  honour,  glory 
and  power,  be  unto  him  that  sitteth  upon  the  throne,  and 
unto  the  Lamb."  The  word  slain  is  not  there,  but  "  To  the 
Lamb,"  that  is  all  one.  Now  shall  there  be  such  praising 
God  upon  that  account,  for  the  Lamb's  being  slain ;  and  are 
you  indeed  most  concerned,  and  sprinkled  with  this  blood  of 
Jesus,  this  Lamb,  and  will  not  you  praise  God  ?  Oh,  go 
away  and  be  for  ever  thankful. 

Go  away  and  sin  no  more ;  be  not  defiled  with  sin,  for 
you  see  it  cost  dear  to  cleanse  you  :  the  blood  of  sprinkling, 
the  blood  of  Jesus. 

And  go  away  and  honour  God  yet  more  in  believing.  It 
may  be  there  are  some  here,  that  never  honoured  God  to  this 
day  with  a  believing  smile.  Man,  woman,  art  thou  sprinkled, 
indeed  sprinkled  with  the  blood  of  Jesus  ?  Go  away  then, 
and  honour  the  Lord  with  one  smile  of  faith  this  day. 

And  to  conclude  all.  Art  thou  indeed  sprinkled  with  the 
blood  of  Jesus  ?  then  go  away  and  be  sure  that  you  never 
sell  your  birth-right  for  a  mess  of  pottage.  Mark  how  this 
text  comes  in.  In  Heb.  xii.,  the  apostle  speaking  of  profane 
Esau,  "  Take  heed  (saith  he)  lest  there  be  any  fornicator  or 
profane  person,  as  Esau,  who  for  one  morsel  of  meat  sold  his 
birthright :  for  ye  know  how  that  afterwards,  when  he  would 
have  inherited  the  blessing,  he  was  rejected,  for  he  found  no 
place  of  repentance,  though  he  sought  it  carefully  with  tears  : 
for  ye  are  not  come  to  mount  Sinai,  but  ye  are  come  to  mount 
Sion,  and  ye  are  come  to  Jesus,  the  Mediator  of  the  covenant, 
and  to  the  blood  of  sprinkling."  What  then  ?  Oh,  take 
heed  you  do  not  sell  your  birth-right  for  a  mess  of  pottage. 
What  is  your  birth-right  ?  The  gospel  is  your  birth-right, 
you  are  born  thereto,  through  grace.  And  what  is  your  little 
estate,  but  a  rness  of  pottage  ;  and  what  is  your  great  estate, 
but  a  great  bowl  of  pottage.  Oh,  do  not  sell  your  birth-right 
for  a  mess  of  pottage.  You  are  sprinkled,  and  the  blood  of 
sprinkling  is  upon  you  ;  then  hold  fast,  keep  your  birth-right, 


124  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  [SfiB.  7- 

and  never  sell  it  for  a  mess  of  pottage  :  "  For  ye  are  come 
unto  Jesus,  the  Mediator  of  the  new  covenant,  and  to  the 
blood  of  sprinkling,  that  speaketh  better  things  than  the 
blood  of  Abel."  And  thus  now  I  have  done  with  the  fourth 
argument,  and  with  this  text. 

Think  on  these  things,  and  the  Lord  bless  them  to  you. 


SERMON    VII. 

THE    SWEETNESS   AND    PROFITABLENESS    OF    DIVINE 
MEDITATION. 

"  My  meditation  of  him  shall  be  sweet." — Psalm  civ.  34. 

THE  psalm  is  a  psalm  of  thanksgiving,  wherein  the  psalm- 
ist doth  call  upon  and  provoke  himself  to  praise  the  Lord, 
upon  the  account  of  his  greatness.  "  Bless  the  Lord,  O  my 
soul ;  O  Lord  my  God,  thou  art  very  great,  thou  art  clothed 
with  honour  and  majesty,"  verse  1. 

Which  greatness  of  God  is  illustrated  by  the  work  of 
creation  and  preservation. 

By  the  work  of  creation,  from  the  2nd  verse  unto  the  25th. 

By  the  work  of  preservation,  from  the  25th  unto  the  33rd. 

Having  called  upon  himself  thus  to  praise  the  Lord,  he 

resolves  to  do  it :  "I  will  sing  unto  the  Lord  as  long  as  I 

live,  I  will  sing  praise  unto  my  God  while  I  have  my  being." 

And,  saith  he,  "  My  meditation  of  him  shall  be  sweet,  I 

will  be  glad  in  the  Lord." 

"  My  meditation  of  him  shall  be  sweet." 
Take  the  words  as  they  lie  in  themselves,  and  you  have 
this  doctrine  presently  : 

That  it  is  a  sweet  thing  for  a  gracious  soul  to  meditate  on 
God.  Meditation  work  is  sweet  work.  A  gracious  soul 
doth  find  sweetness  in  meditating  on  God.  David  was  a 
gracious  man,  and  he  found  sweetness  in  this  work  of  medi- 
tation on  God.  It  is  the  property  then  of  a  gracious  soul, 
to  find  sweetness  in  meditating  on  God. 

For  the  opening  and  prosecuting  of  which  argument : 
First,  We  will  inquire  what  this  meditation  is  ;  what  is  the 
true  nature  and  notion  of  meditation. 


SER.  7-]  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  125 

Secondly,  How  and  in  what  respects  a  man  may  be  said  to 
meditate  on  God. 

Thirdly,  How  it  may  appear,  that  it  is  a  sweet  thing  to 
meditate  on  God  and  the  things  of  God. 

Fourthly,  I  shall  answer  unto  some  objections. 

Fifthly,  And  then  show  how  the  work  of  meditation 
is  to  be  carried  on  with  sweetness ;  which  is  my  design  in 
the  choice  of  these  words. 

First,  As  for  what  the  work  of  meditation  is,  what  is  the 
true  notion  of  it ;  it  is  several  ways  expressed  in  Scripture. 

Sometimes  it  is  called,  a  remembering  of  God.  In  Psalm 
Ixiii.,  ft  When  I  remember  thee  upon  my  bed,"  which  is  ex- 
plained by  that  which  follows,  "  And  meditate  on  thee  in  the 
night  watches." 

Sometimes  it  is  called,  a  thinking  on  God.  So  in  Psalm 
xlviii.  9,  "  We  have  thought  of  thy  loving-kindness,  O  God." 

And  sometimes  it  is  called  a  musing  on  God.  And  so  in 
Psalm  cxliii.,  "  I  remember  the  days  of  old,  I  meditate  on 
all  thy  works,  I  muse  on  the  work  of  thy  hands."  Thus  it 
is  severally  expressed  in  Scripture. 

Great  authors  do  describe  it  several  ways. 

It  is  a  vehement  application  of  the  soul  unto  a  thing,  for 
the  investigation  and  experimental  knowledge  thereof.  So 
Gerson  and  others. 

It  is  a  studious  action  of  the  mind,  whereby  a  man  labours 
to  find  out  some  hidden  truth.  So  Austin. 

It  is  the  exercise  of  a  man's  soul,  whereby  calling  to  re- 
membrance what  he  doth  know  already,  he  doth  further  think 
on  it,  and  debate  on  it  within  himself,  for  his  own  profit  and 
benefit.  So  Mr.  Greenham. 

But  plainly  and  briefly  thus  : 

It  is  the  vehement  or  intense  application  of  the  soul  unto 
some  thing,  whereby  a  man's  mind  doth  ponder,  dwell  and 
fix  upon  it,  for  his  own  profit  and  benefit. 

There  must  be  the  application  of  the  soul  to  some  thing ; 
and  therefore  sometimes  it  is  expressed  by  laying  of  a  thing 
to  heart :  "  The  righteous  are  taken  away,  and  no  man  lays 
it  to  heart ;"  no  man  considers  on  it.  "  If  ye  will  not  lay 
these  things  to  heart,"  &c.  Mai.  ii.  2. 

And  as  there  must  be  an  application,  so  there  must  be  a 
vehement  and  intense  application  of  the  soul  unto  a  thing, 


126  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SER.    f. 

for  every  consideration  does  not  make  meditation  :  consider- 
ation heightened  makes  meditation. 

Meditation  is  the  work  of  the  whole  soul.  The  mind  acts, 
and  the  memory  acts,  and  the  affections  act.  "  Let  the 
words  of  my  mouth,  and  the  meditations  of  my  heart :"  it  is 
an  intense  and  a  vehement  application  of  the  soul  unto  truth. 

But  there  must  be  also  a  fixation  of  the  soul  upon  the 
thing.  It  is  not  every  slight  and  transient  thought  that 
makes  meditation  :  "  My  meditation  shall  be  of  thee  all  the 
day,"  Psalm  cxix.  It  is  Actio  cunctabunda,  saith  Alvares. 
A  man  may  think  on  God  every  day,  and  meditate  on  God 
no  day.  There  must  be  a  fixation  of  the  soul  upon  some 
truth ;  a  dwelling  and  fixing  of  the  soul  upon  some  thing. 

But  then  this  must  be  in  reference  to  one's  own  profit  and 
benefit.  Though  I  do  think,  and  think  much  of  sin,  if  I  do 
not  think  thereof  to  leave  it,  it  is  not  meditation.  Though  I 
think  on  the  life  and  the  death  of  Christ,  if  it  be  not  to  con- 
form unto  him,  these  thoughts  will  not  amount  to  meditation. 
Though  I  think  on  the  love  and  goodness  of  God,  yet  if  it  be 
not  to  get  my  heart  inflamed  with  love  thereby,  it  will  not 
amount  to  meditation. 

Plainly,  then,  meditation,  for  the  true  nature  and  the 
notion  of  it,  is  a  vehement,  an  intense  application  of  the  soul 
unto  a  thing,  whereby  a  man's  mind  doth  dwell  and  insist 
and  abide  upon  it  for  his  profit  and  benefit.  That  is  the  first. 

Secondly.  But,  then,  how  and  in  what  respects  may  a  man 
be  said  to  meditate  on  God  ? 

Why  look  when  a  man  doth  meditate  on  the  name,  na- 
ture, titles  and  attributes  of  God,  then  he  is  said  to  meditate 
on  God. 

On  the  nature  of  God.  So  in  the  Ixiiird  Psalm  :  "  When 
I  remember  thee  upon  my  bed,  and  meditate  on  thee  in  the 
night  watches." 

And  look  when  a  man  doth  meditate  on  Christ  the  Son  of 
God,  then  he  is  said  for  to  meditate  on  God,  for  Christ  is 
God ;  and  therefore  saith  the  apostle,  "  Consider  the  High 
Priest  ot  your  profession,  looking  unto  Jesus." 

And  look  when  a  man  doth  meditate  on  the  word  of  God, 
the  law  and  statutes  of  God,  then  he  is  said  to  meditate  on 
God.  Psalm  i.,  "  He  delighteth  in  the  law  of  the  Lord,  and 
therein  doth  he  meditate." 


SER.  7-]  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVEANNT.  127 

And  look  when  a  man  doth  meditate  on  the  works  and 
concernments  of  God,  then,  in  scripture  phrase,  he  is  said  to 
meditate  on  God.  And  so  in  the  Ixxviith  Psalm:  "  I  will 
remember  the  works  of  the  Lord ;  I  will  remember  thy  won- 
ders, and  I  will  meditate  also  of  all  thy  works."  So  that, 
briefly,  then  a  man  is  said  to  meditate  on  God,  not  only  when 
he  doth  meditate  on  the  nature  of  God,  but  when  he  doth 
meditate  on  the  Son  of  God,  meditate  on  the  word  of  God, 
meditate  on  the  works  and  concernments  of  God.  And  that 
is  the  second. 

Thirdly.  But  how  may  it  appear  that  it  is  a  sweet  thing 
to  meditate  on  God ;  that  meditation  work  is  sweet  work,  and 
that  it  is  a  sweet  thing  to  a  gracious  soul  to  meditate  on  God? 

Something  first  in  the  general  and  then  more  particularly 
in  reference  to  a  gracious  soul.  In  general, 

It  is  a  sweet  thing  to  meditate  on  God.  Will  you  instance 
in  the  nature,  name  and  attributes  of  God  ? 

Is  it  not  a  sweet  thing  to  enjoy  God  ?  Enjoyment  of  God 
is  the  life  of  our  lives.  And  how  do  we  enjoy  God  ?  God 
doth  come  down  to  us,  and  we  do  ascend  and  go  up  to  him. 
Sometimes  God  doth  come  down  into  our  souls ;  sometimes 
there  is  an  ascent  of  the  soul  unto  God.  And  what  is  the 
ladder  whereby  we  ascend  unto  God,  and  take  our  turns  in 
heaven  with  God,  but  believing  meditation  ? 

The  more  perfect  any  thing  is,  the  more  sweet  it  is  to  lay 
out  one's  thought  thereon.  Now  God  is  all  perfection,  there 
is  nothing  not  perfect  in  God.  If  you  have  a  nosegay  made 
up  of  flowers,  and  but  one  weed,  the  sweetness  of  the  nose- 
gay is  spoiled ;  there  are  perfections  in  God,  and  no  weeds 
among  them.  If  there  be  a  musical  instrument,  and  one 
string  out  of  order,  all  jars ;  there  is  no  string  out  of  order 
among  God's  perfections ;  perfections  and  nothing  not  perfect 
in  God.  You  account  it  a  sweet  thing  to  see  your  lands  and 
your  estates  lie  together,  a  sweet  thing  to  see  all  your  children 
together ;  do  but  look  and  meditate  on  God,  and  you  see  all 
your  wealth  lie  together. 

And  if  the  names,  titles,  attributes  of  God  be  your  relief 
in  all  conditions ;  then  it  must  needs  be  a  sweet  thing  to  me- 
ditate on  God,  in  this  respect.  Why  now ;  "  The  name  of 
the  Lord  is  a  strong  tower,  the  righteous  fly  thereunto  and 


128  CHRIST    AND    THE   COVENANT.  [SBR.  7- 

are  safe."  A  sweet  thing  it  is  therefore  to  meditate  on  God 
in  this  respect. 

Will  you  instance  in  the  meditating  on  Christ  the  Son  of 
God  ?  You  know  what  is  said  by  the  spouse  in  the  Can- 
ticles :  "  I  sat  under  his  shadow :"  sat  down,  how  ?  It  is 
meditation  sets  the  soul  down  under  the  shadow  of  Christ. 
And  then  his  fruit,  whether  justification  be  the  fruit,  or  sanc- 
tification,  or  consolation  j  then  his  fruit  was  sweet  unto  my 
taste. 

And  if  Jesus  Christ  be  our  standing  relief  against  all  temp- 
tations, and  desertions  ;  then  it  must  needs  be  a  sweet  thing 
to  meditate  and  think  much  on  him.  Now  he  is  our  bra- 
zen serpent,  our  standing  relief  against  all  our  temptations, 
and  our  desertions. 

But  will  you  instance  in  meditating  on  the  word  of  God  ? 
It  is  a  sweet  thing  to  behold  the  light ;  and  the  word  is  a 
light,  and  a  lanthorn  unto  our  feet.  Is  it  not  a  sweet  thing 
to  taste  honey  ?  David  saith,  "  The  word  of  the  Lord  was  as 
honey  and  the  honey  comb."  And  the  more  it  is  meditated 
on,  the  more  fully  tasted. 

And  if  the  consideration,  and  the  meditation  of  the  word  of 
God  be  our  great  relief  against  all  the  scorns  and  reproaches, 
and  oppositions  of  the  world,  then  certainly  it  is  a  sweet  thing 
to  meditate  on  the  word  of  God.  Now  do  but  look  into  Ps. 
cxix.,  and  you  shall  find  David  speaking  thus ;  "  Remove 
from  me  reproach  and  contempt ;  princes  did  sit  and  speak 
against  me."  What  relief  l:ad  he  ?  "  But  thy  seivant  did 
meditate  in  thy  statutes."  Here  is  his  relief,  princes,  great 
men ;  they  sate  and  spake  against  me,  and  they  reproached 
me,  and  they  opposed  me,  but  here  was  my  relief,  I  did  me- 
ditate in  thy  word. 

But  will  you  instance  in  the  works  of  the  Lord  ?  There 
are  three  sorts  of  God's  works. 

There  is  the  work  of  creation. 

And  the  work  of  providence. 

And  the  work  of  redemption. 

As  for  the  work  of  creation  :  if  it  be  a  sweet  thing  to  be- 
hold and  to  consider  the  .workmanship  of  the  finger  of  human 
wisdom :  what  a  pleasure  and  sweetness  is  it  to  behold  the 
workmanship  of  the  finger  of  infinite  wisdom  ? 

And  as  for  the  works  of  providence:  if  the  meditation  and 


7-]  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  129 

the  consideration  of  the  providence  of  God  be  our  great  help 
against  the  pain  of  unbelieving  thoughts  ;  then  it  must  needs 
be  as\veet  thing  to  meditate  on  God  in  this  respect.  Friends, 
ye  that  know  God,  have  experienced  how  painful  unbelieving 
thoughts  are ;  great  is  the  pain  of  unbelieving  thoughts. 
Well,  but  what  help  against  this  pain  ?  The  consideration 
of  the  providence  of  God :  saith  our  Saviour  in  Matt.  x. 
"  The  very  hairs  of  your  head  are  all  numbered,  fear  ye  not 
therefore,  ye  are  of  more  value  than  many  sparrows."  What 
then,  "  take  no  thought,"  here  lies  your  relief.  The  consi- 
deration, and  the  meditation  of  the  special  providence  of  God, 
is  your  help  against  painful  unbelief. 

And  as  for  the  work  of  redemption,  there  all  the  attributes 
of  God  do  meet :  there  is  wisdom,  there  is  power,  there  is 
mercy,  there  is  righteousness,  there  is  faithfulness  :  and  if  it 
be  a  sweet  thing  to  behold  the  beams  of  the  sun,  what  a 
sweet  thing  is  it  to  behold  all  the  beams  of  God's  glorious 
attributes,  meeting  in  one  work ;  which  work  the  very  angels 
desire  to  look  into,  where  the  glory  of  God  is  :  certainly,  it  is 
a  sweet  thing  then  to  meditate  on  God,  in  regard  of  his 
works ;  these  things  more  generally. 

But  now  more  particularly,  as  to  our  case. 

How  may  it  appear,  that  it  is  a  sweet  thing  for  a  gracious 
soul  to  meditate  on  God  :  it  will  appear  to  you  by  divers 
arguments. 

It  is  a  sweet  thing  for  a  good  and  gracious  man  to  medi- 
tate on  God  and  the  things  of  God,  because  it  is  natural  to 
him.  Natural  works  are  pleasant  works.  It  is  a  tedious 
and  an  irksome  thing  to  row  against  the  stream  of  nature ; 
but  natural  works  are  pleasing  works.  Now  as  it  is  a  natural 
thing  for  a  worldly  man  to  think  and  meditate  on  the  world, 
and  the  things  thereof;  so  it  is  natural  to  a  gracious  man,  to 
think  and  meditate  on  God  and  the  things  of  God.  I  pray, 
what  is  the  reason,  that  wicked  men  take  so  much  delight  in 
thinking  and  meditating  and  musing  on  their  sins  and  sin- 
ful ways,  but  because  sin  is  natural  unto  them.  Why, 
a  good  man  being  made  partaker  of  the  divine  nature,  it  is 
natural  to  him  to  think  on  God,  and  the  ways  and  things  of 
God  ;  and  therefore  pleasant,  therefore  sweet. 

But  as  it  is  natural  to  a  gracious  man  to  think  on  God, 
and  the  things  of  God,  so  it  is  suitable  to  him.  As  it  is  a 

VOL.  in.  K 


130  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SfiR.  7- 

natural  work,  so  it  is  a  suitable  work :  suitable  things  are 
pleasant ;  the  more  suitable  any  thing  is  unto  us,  the  more 
it  pleaseth  us,  all  pleasures  and  delights  arise  from  the  con- 
junction of  suitables.  If  you  have  never  so  great  an  estate, 
if  it  be  not  suited  to  your  heart,  you  have  no  delight  in  it. 
If  you  have  never  so  small  an  estate,  if  it  be  suitable  to  your 
heart,  you  are  delighted  and  pleased  in  it.  Now,  what  in  all 
the  world,  so  suitable  to  a  gracious  soul  as  God  ?  Is  the  ob- 
ject of  man's  understanding  truth  ?  God  is  truth.  Is  the 
object  of  his  will  good  ?  God  is  good.  Is  the  object  of  his 
affections  love  ?  God  is  love.  Is  the  soul  of  a  man  immor- 
tal, immaterial  ?  God  is  so,  an  immortal,  and  an  immaterial 
being.  Is  the  soul  of  a  man  eternal,  a  parte  post  ?  God  is 
so,  God  is  eternal  and  unchangeable.  Are  our  desires  infi- 
nite ?  God  is  infinite.  What  is  there  that  the  soul  of  man 
can  want,  but  it  is  answered  in  God  ?  A  suitable  good  he  is 
surely,  therefore  it  must  needs  be  a  sweet  thing  to  meditate 
on  God,  and  the  things  of  God. 

But  especially,  as  it  is  a  suitable  thing  for  a  gracious 
soul  to  meditate  on  God,  so  it  is  profitable.  Gain  is  sweet. 
Now  it  is  a  very  gainful  thing,  and  very  profitable  for  to  me- 
ditate on  God,  and  the  things  of  God  :  meditation  work  is 
gainful  work. 

For  meditation  is  a  great  help  to  knowledge :  the  more  you 
think  and  meditate  on  what  you  read  and  hear,  the  more  you 
know  ;  and  though  you  read  never  so  much  and  hear  never 
so  much,  if  you  do  not  meditate  on  what  you  read  or  hear,  it 
will  amount  to  little,  you  will  be  never  the  wiser:  if  a  man 
doth  meditate,  he  proves  the  wiser.  Mark  what  David  saith, 
Ps.  cxix.,  "  I  am  wiser  than  mine  enemies,"  verse  98.  "  I  am 
wiser  than  my  teachers,  I  am  wiser  than  the  ancients,"  verse 
99.  "  Through  thy  commandments  thou  hast  made  me  wi- 
ser than  mine  enemies."  It  may  be  so,  they  might  be  fools. 
But  saith  he,  "  I  have  more  understanding  than  all  my 
teachers."  verse  99.  Aye,  but  this  teacher  may  be  some 
young  man,  newly  come  to  the  university.  I  have  more 
understanding  than  all  my  teachers.  Aye,  but,  saith  he,  "  I 
understand  more  than  the  ancients."  Pray  how  ?  "  For  thy 
testimonies  are  my  meditation.  Through  thy  command- 
ments, thou  hast  made  me  wiser  than  mine  enemies;  for 
they  are  ever  with  me.  I  have  more  understanding  than  all 


SER.    7-]  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  131 

my  teachers,  for  thy  testimonies  are  my  meditation,"  Medi- 
tatio  sapientice  parens,  meditation  is  the  parent  of  wisdom. 
If  you  read  over  a  book,  and  there  be  many  notions  and 
good  things  in  the  book,  yet  if  the  notions  be  not  made  your 
own,  if  you  be  not  master  of  the  notions  you  read,  you  are 
never  the  better.  If  I  read,  and  read,  and  find  such  and  such 
notions  in  a  book,  if  I  be  not  master  of  those  notions,  I  am 
little  the  better  for  my  reading.  It  is  meditation  that  makes 
you  the  master  of  the  notions  that  you  read,  or  that  you 
hear,  otherwise,  it  is  but  the  book's  notion  still.  By  medi- 
tation after  a  sermon,  a  man  may  look  further  into  a  truth, 
than  the  preacher  ever  intended.  Meditation  is  a  great  help 
to  knowledge  :  that  is  the  first. 

As  meditation  is  a  great  help  to  knowledge,  so  it  is  a  great 
friend  to  memory.  Meditatio  firmat  memoriam.  Meditation 
strengthens  memory ;  it  fastens  the  things  that  we  hear  or 
read  in  the  memory.  Many  complain  they  have  bad  memo- 
ries. Oh,  their  memories  are  very  bad,  they  cannot  remem- 
ber ;  what  is  the  reason  that  we  remember  no  more  what  we 
read  and  what  we  hear,  but  because  we  meditate  no  more 
upon  what  we  have  heard  or  read  ?  Meditation  is  a  great 
help  to  memory. 

As  meditation  is  a  great  help  to  memory,  so  it  is  a  heart 
warming  work,  a  friend  to  warmth  of  heart.  If  a  thing  be 
cold,  you  chafe  it,  if  a  man's  body  be  cold,  you  chafe  it  and 
rub  it ;  and  by  chafing  and  rubbing  of  a  cold  part,  you  put 
life  and  warmth  into  it ;  meditation  chafes  the  soul,  and  rubs 
the  soul  with  a  truth.  And  what  is  the  reason  that  our  hearts 
are  no  warmer  by  what  we  read,  or  hear,  or  observe,  but 
because  we  meditate  no  more  on  it.  Meditation  is  a  heart 
warming  work. 

As  it  is  a  heart  warming  work,  so  it  is  that  which  will 
keep  your  hearts  and  souls  from  sinful  thoughts.  When  the 
vessel  is  full  you  can  put  in  no  more.  If  the  vessel  be  full 
of  puddle  water,  you  cannot  put  in  wine ;  if  the  vessel  be 
full  of  wine  you  cannot  put  in  puddle  water.  If  the  heart 
be  full  of  sinful  thoughts,  here  is  no  room  for  holy  and 
heavenly  thoughts;  if  the  heart  be  filled  with  holy  and 
heavenly  thoughts  by  meditation,  there  is  no  room  for  evil 
and  sinful  thoughts.  And  what  is  the  reason  that  men's  hearts 
are  so  full  of  sinful  and  evil  thoughts,  but  because  their 

K2 


132  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SER.   7- 

hearts  are  no  more  full  of  God ;  they  think  no  more,  they 
meditate  no  more  of  God.  Thereby,  1  say,  you  will  be  kept 
from  sinful  thoughts. 

As  it  will  keep  you  from  sinful  thoughts,  so  it  will  fit  and 
tune  your  hearts  for  every  duty.  For  prayer,  for  thanks- 
giving, for  holy  conference  and  communication  of  good  things 
to  others. 

For  prayer,  it  is  Orationis  Mater,  &c. 

As  it  is  the  sister  of  reading,  so  it  is  the  mother  of  prayer. 
Though  a  man's  heart  be  much  indisposed  to  prayer,  yet,  if 
he  can  but  fall  into  a  meditation  of  God,  and  the  things  of 
God,  his  heart  will  soon  come  off  to  prayer.  Meditation 
lies  so  near  unto  prayer,  that  'in  the  Hebrew,  the  word  that 
signifies  to  pray,  signifies  to  meditate.  And  therefore  you 
shall  observe,  that  whereas  in  some  books  it  is  said  that, 
'•'  Isaac  went  out  to  pray,"  in  other  books  it  is  said  that 
fi  Isaac  went  out  to  meditate."  Meditation  is  a  friend  to 
prayer. 

And  it  is  a  friend  to  thanksgiving ;  and  therefore  saith  the 
Psalmist  here  in  the  text,  "  I  will  sing  praise  unto  my  God, 
my  meditation  of  him  shall  be  sweet ;"  they  go  together. 

And  it  is  a  great  help  unto  holy  conference,  which  I  am 
afraid  is  too  much  wanting  among  us.  Private  meditation 
on  God  and  the  things  of  God,  is  a  great  help  unto  holy 
conference.  Psa.  xlv.  1  :  "My  heart  is  inditing  a  good 
matter."  What  then  ?  "  I  speak  of  the  things  which  I  have 
made  touching  the  King :  my  tongue  is  the  pen  of  a  ready 
writer."  When  ?  When  the  heart  hath  been  at  work  in 
meditation,  Psa.  Ixxvii.  1^  :  "  I  will  meditate  also  on  all  thy 
works."  What  then?  "and  talk  of  thy  doings."  See 
how  conference  comes  in :  "I  will  meditate  also  of  all  thy 
works,  and  talk  of  all  thy  doings."  So  that  thus  then,  me- 
ditation will  fit  and  prepare  you,  and  tune  your  hearts  to 
prayer,  thanksgiving,  holy  conference,  and  other  duties. 

As  meditation  is  a  great  friend  to  prayer  and  to  other 
duties,  so  it  is  a  help  unto  growth  in  grace,  and  the  know- 
ledge of  Christ. 

A  help  to  grow :  the  more  we  meditate  on  what  we  read 
and  hear,  the  more  we  grow.  And  what  is  the  reason  that 
men  grow  no  more  after  all  that  they  have  heard  and  read, 
but  because  they  meditate  no  more.  The  best  scholar  reads 


SEP.  7']  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  133 

and  meditates,  and  meditates  and  reads.  And  the  best 
Christian  reads  and  meditates,  and  hears  and  meditates.  The 
growing  Christian  doth.  Suppose  now  you  have  a  load  of 
dung  or  marl  to  lay  upon  the  ground,  you  lay  it  upon  the 
ground  to  make  it  fat  and  fruitful ;  but  if  it  be  laid  upon  the 
ground  and  not  spread,  will  it  make  the  grass  or  the  corn 
grow  ?  No,  it  will  hinder  the  growth  of  the  grass  ;  the  spread- 
ing of  it  makes  the  grass  grow.  So  now,  come  and  lay  down 
a  load  of  truth  upon  a  poor  soul,  and  let  it  lie  unspread,  it 
rather  hinders  his  growth ;  but  the  hand  of  meditation 
spreads  it.  And,  I  say,  What  is  the  reason  that  men  grow- 
no  more,  but  because  it  may  be  sermons,  or  truths,  like 
loads,  are  laid  down  upon  the  soul,  but  no  spreading  by  the 
hand  of  meditation. 

As  meditation  work  is  a  great  friend  to  growth  in  grace, 
so  thereby  also  your  hearts  shall  be  kept  savoury  and  spi- 
ritual in  the  midst  of  all  your  outward  and  worldly  employ- 
ments. Oh,  saith  one,  that  my  heart  were  but  more  savoury 
and  spiritual  in  all  my  outward  employments,  and  in  my 
calling.  Why  meditation  carries  a  still  up  and  down  in  the 
soul,  whereby  it  doth  extract  and  distil  the  virtue  and  the 
juice  of  all  the  leaves  of  Providence,  that  it  meets  with  in 
the  calling.  You  see  how  it  is  with  a  cow,  or  with  a 
sheep,  though  the  grass  that  the  cow  or  the  sheep  eats  be 
green;  yet  by  concoction  and  digesting  of  it,  it  turns  white, 
and  turns  into  milk;  so  now,  though  that  which  you  read, 
that  which  you  meet  withal  in  your  callings  be  but  ordi- 
narily as  the  common  grass,  yet  if  you  can  digest  it,  it  will 
be  milk  unto  you.  And  how  are  these  things  digested  but 
by  meditation  ? 

Friends,  thereby  you  steal  out  of  your  calling  to  get  unto 
God. 

Thereby  your  hearts  are  perfumed  as  you  walk  along  in 
your  calling  and  in  your  place. 

This  is  that  that  will  keep  your  hearts  savoury  and  spiritual 
in  all  your  outward  and  worldly  employments. 

Thereby  also  you  shall  fill  up  all  the  chinks  and  crevices  of 
your  lives  and  spend  your  spare  times  for  God.  There  is  no 
man  but  hath  his  spare  times,  more  or  less  ;  some  more, 
some  less,  but  all  have  their  spare  times.  That,  look  as  it 
is  with  a  book,  all  books  have  their  margins,  some  books 


134  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SER.  7- 

have  a  greater  margin,  some  a  lesser  and  a  narrower  margin, 
but  all  books  have  their  margins  ;  so  all  men  have  their  mar- 
gins, their  spare  tiir.es;  some  have  a  greater  margin,  and 
more  time  to  spare  than  others,  some  have  a  lesser  and  a 
narrower  margin,  and  less  spare  time  than  others.  But  all 
men  have  their  margins  and  their  spare  times.  Some  men 
know  not  what  to  do  with  their  spare  time,  therefore  they 
call  in  for  dice,  and  call  in  for  cards,  and  call  in  for  vanity. 
Some  when  they  are  out  of  employment,  they  dare  not  be 
alone.  Have  but  the  skill  of  meditation  to  meditate  on  God 
and  the  things  of  God,  and  you  will  never  be  afraid  to  be 
alone ;  your  margins  will  be  all  rilled  up,  all  the  chinks  and 
crevices  of  your  lives  shall  be  all  filled  up  with  God.  There- 
fore, oh,  what  a  profitable  thing  is  this  work  of  meditation. 

Thereby  you  shall  be  also  able  to  draw  good  out  of  evil, 
i  ere  is  the  philosopher's  stone.  What  a  great  ado  hath 
tnere  been  in  the  world  about  the  philosopher's  stone,  to  get 
that.  Why  ?  Because  of  the  profit  of  it ;  thereby  lead  is 
turned  into  gold,  and  other  metals  turned  into  gold.  But 
here  is  the  philosopher's  stone  indeed ;  meditation  will  turn 
all  into  gold ;  turn  evils  into  good,  bring  good  out  of  evil, 
grace  out  of  sin.  There  is  a  deal  of  dirt  lies  at  your  door, 
%nd  there  is  no  flowers  grow  out  of  it ;  but  bring  the  same  dirt 
into  your  garden,  arid  then  flowers  grow  out  of  it.  So  now, 
if  sin  lie  at  your  door,  there  are  no  flowers  grow  thereon  ; 
but  bring  your  sin,  your  dirt  into  your  garden  of  meditation, 
and  you  shall  have  flowers  grow  out  of  your  dirt. 

Thereby  you  shall  converse  with  God  and  enjoy  God. 
The  happiness  of  our  life  lies  in  our  enjoyment  of  God,  and 
in  our  converse  with  God.  There  is  a  converse  with  God 
in  this  life,  a  TroXirtv^a  our  conversation  is  in  heaven,  our 
trade  is  in  heaven.  And  how  do  we  come  to  trade  in  heaven? 
Why,  we  go  up  to  God  in  meditation,  and  there  we  take  our 
walks  with  the  Almighty;  thus  Ave  trade  with  God,  thus  we 
converse  with  God.  Surely  therefore,  this  work  of  meditation 
is  sweet,  for  it  is  profitable,  as  you  have  heard  in  these  par- 
ticulars. 

Again,  As  the  work  of  meditation  is  very  profitable, 
natural,  suitable,  so  it  is  very  contentful,  and  satisfying  to  a 
gracious  soul.  What  person  in  love  is  not  satisfied  in  thinking 
and  meditating  on  the  person  loved  ?  What  gracious,  loving 


SER.  7.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  135 

child  is  not  satisfied  in  thinking  on  its  father  that  is  absent 
in  another  country  ?  See  what  David  saith  in  the  Ixiiird 
Psalm :  (( My  soul  shall  be  satisfied,  as  with  marrow  and 
fatness."  When?  "When  I  remember  thee  upon  my  bed, 
and  meditate  on  thee  in  the  night  watches/'  I  shall  not 
only  be  contented,  but  my  soul  shall  be  satisfied.  How  ?  In 
a  way  of  meditation.  It  is  meditation  work  that  is  soul- 
satisfying  work. 

And  as  it  is  a  soul-satisfying  work,  so  this  work  of  medi- 
tation to  a  gracious  soul  is  a  most  delightful  work.  What 
greater  delight  than  to  think  on  that  God  in  whom  he  doth 
most  delight  ?  Is  it  delightful  to  a  wicked  man  to  sit  and 
muse  and  meditate  on  his  sinful  ways  ;  and  will  it  not  be 
delightful  to  a  gracious  soul  to  sit,  and  think,  and  muse,  and 
meditate  on  the  Lord  ?  Certainly,  it  is  a  work  that  is  most 
delightful  to  a  gracious  soul. 

But  how  can  it  be  so  delightful ;  it  is  a  hard  work,  medtia- 
tion  work  is  hard  work,  and  therefore  how  can  it  be  so  de- 
lightful to  a  gracious  soul  ? 

Yes,  very  well,  for  though  it  be  hard  in  regard  of  its  prac- 
tice, yet  it  may  be  sweet  and  delightful  in  regard  of  its  profit. 
Is  it  not  a  hard  work  to  the  husbandman  to  plough,  to  sow,  to 
reap ;  and  yet  delightful  in  regard  of  its  profit  ?  Is  it  not  a 
hard  work  for  a  man  to  be  digging  in  the  mines,  digging  up 
of  silver ;  and  yet  delightful  in  regard  of  the  profit  ?  Is  it  not 
a  hard  work  for  a  man  to  make  such  ventures  at  sea,  through 
all  storms  :  and  yet  it  is  delightful  in  regard  of  its  profit  ?  the 
profit  of  the  voyage  makes  it  delightful.  Why,  you  have 
heard  now  the  profitableness  of  the  work  of  meditation.  It 
is  an  help  to  knowledge,  thereby  your  knowledge  is  raised. 
Thereby  your  memory  is  strengthened.  Thereby  your  hearts 
are  warmed.  Thereby  you  will  be  freed  from  sinful  thoughts. 
Thereby  your  hearts  will  be  tuned  to  every  duty.  Thereby 
you  will  grow  in  grace.  Thereby  you  will  fill  up  all  the  chinks 
and  crevices  of  your  lives,  and  know  how  to  spend  your  spare 
time,  and  improve  that  for  God.  Thereby  you  will  draw  good 
out  of  evil.  And  thereby  you  will  converse  with  God,  have  com- 
munion with  God,  and  enjoy  God.  And  I  pray,  is  not  here  pro- 
fit enough  to  sweeten  thevoyage  of  your  thoughts  in  meditation. 

But,  hard  work  you  say,  and  therefore  how  can  it  be  de- 
lightful ? 


136  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SfiR.    7- 

Friends,  the  harder  the  work  is,  the  sweeter  it  is,  being 
overcome :  it  is  a  sweet  thing  to  overcome.  It  is  a  hard  thing 
to  fight,  but  it  is  a  sweet  thing  to  overcome.  The  harder 
the  nut  is  to  crack,  the  sweeter  the  meat  when  it  is  cracked  ; 
the  harder  the  scripture  is  that  is  to  be  opened,  the  sweeter 
is  the  kernel,  the  truth  when  it  is  opened.  When  God 
opened  the  rock,  the  waters  that  flowed  out  were  as  sweet  as 
honey.  Now  meditation  makes  a  conquest  of  the  work. 

Though  it  be  a  hard  thing  to  meditate  on  God  and  the 
things  of  God,  yet  notwithstanding  do  but  consider  why  the 
work  is  hard,  and  you  will  say  that  the  difficulty  of  the  work 
is  no  impeachment  to  the  suavity,  or  the  sweetness  thereof. 
There  are  two  things  that  make  meditation  hard. 

The  one  is,  because  men  are  not  used  thereunto,  men  are 
not  exercised  therein : 

And  another  is,  because  they  do  not  love  God  enough. 

Every  thing  is  hard  at  the  first :  writing  is  hard  at  the 
first,  painting  hard  at  the  first,  and  the  getting  languages  hard 
at  the  first.  A  trade  is  hard  at  the  first.  So  certainly  the  work 
of  meditation  will  be  hard  at  the  first.  There  is  nothing 
not  hard  to  those  that  are  unwilling.  There  is  nothing  hard 
to  those  that  love,  love  makes  all  things  easy.  Is  it  an  hard 
thing  for  a  lover  to  think  or  meditate  on  the  person  loved  ? 
Is  it  a  hard  thing  for  a  child  at  a  distance  from  his  father  to 
think  or  meditate  on  his  father,  and  his  father's  love  and 
kindness,  is  this  hard  ?  Indeed  to  a  rebellious  child  it  is  hard, 
to  a  child  that  is  run  away  from  his  father  it  is  hard ;  but  for 
a  loving  and  an  obedient  child,  it  is  not  hard.  And  what  is 
the  reason  that  the  work  of  meditation  is  so  hard  to  many  of 
us,  hut  because  in  truth  we  are  not  used  thereunto,  or  because 
we  are  rebellious  children,  and  do  not  love  the  Lord  as  we 
ought  to  do. 

But  you  will  say,  may  not  a  wicked  man  meditate  on  God, 
and  find  sweetness  in  the  work  ? 

I  answer,  that  it  is  possible  that  a  wicked  man  may  sepa- 
rate and  sequester  himself  unto  this  work  of  reading,  study- 
ing, and  thinking  on  the  word  and  law  of  God.  1  Sam.  xxi. 
7.  "  Now  a  certain  man  of  the  servants  of  Saul  was  there 
that  day,  detained  before  the  Lord,  and  his  name  was  Doeg." 
He  was  there  separated,  cloistered  for  the  studying  of  the 
law,  and  yet  a  Doeg,  a  great  persecutor.  And  who  doth  not 


SER.  7-]  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  137 

see  it  ?  Friars  and  monks  separate  and  cloister  up  them- 
selves at  this  very  day,  and  spend  much  time  in  that  which 
they  call  meditation. 

Yea,  possible  it  is,  that  a  wicked  man  may  not  only  think 
and  meditate  on  the  law  of  God,  but  he  may  find  some 
sweetness  therein  ;  for  if  wicked  men  do  delight  in  their  ap- 
proach unto  God,  as  in  Isaiah  Iviii.  why  may  they  not  delight 
also  and  find  a  sweetness  in  their  meditation  concerning  God  ? 
But  though  a  wicked  man  may  meditate  on  God  and  the 
things  of  God,  and  find  some  sweetness  in  the  work  of  medi- 
tation, yet  with  this  difference.  There  is  great  deal  of  differ- 
ence between  the  sweetness  that  a  wicked  man  finds  in  the 
work  of  meditation,  and  the  sweetness  that  a  good  man 
finds  in  the  work  of  meditation.  For  though  a  wicked  man 
may  meditate,  and  find  some  sweetness  in  the  work,  yet  not- 
withstanding the  sweetness  doth  arise  from  the  satisfaction 
of  his  natural  conscience,  than  from  the  con-naturalness  and 
suitableness  that  is  between  his  heart  and  the  work.  Possibly 
a  Doeg,  a  wicked  man  may  be  convinced  that  he  ought  to  read 
the  Scriptures,  and  t^  meditate  therein,  and  having  done  so  his 
conscience  is  satisfied,  and  he  finds  sweetness  therein.  But 
this  sweetness  doth  rather  arise  from  the  satisfying  of  his  na- 
tural conscience,  than  from  any  con-naturalness  and  suitable- 
ness that  there  is  between  his  heart  and  the  work. 

It  is  one  thing  for  a  man  to  find  a  sweetness  in  this  work  of 
meditation  in  reference  to  his  own  employment,  calling  or 
livelihood  ;  another  thing  for  to  find  a  sweetness  in  it  in  re- 
ference unto  God,  to  his  own  practice,  and  holiness  of  life 
and  conversation.  Suppose  I  be  a  preacher :  it  is  my  duty 
to  study  the  Scriptures :  and  studying  of  the  Scripture  I  me- 
ditate, and  when  things  come  off  well,  I  have  a  sw<  etness 
therein  ;  yet  all  this  may  be  in  reference  to  my  calling,  to  my 
employment,  and  to  my  livelihood.  But  now  a  gracious 
man  he  meditates  on  God  and  the  things  of  God  in  reference 
to  God,  to  his  holiness  and  practice.  Mark  what  David 
saith,  Psalm  cxix.,  "  I  will  delight  myself  in  thy  command- 
ments, which  I  have  loved.  My  hands  also  will  I  lift  up 
unto  thy  commandments,  which  I  have  lo^ed ;  and  I  will  me- 
ditate in  thy  statutes."  "  Lord,  (saith  he,)  I  love  thy  com- 
mandments:" and  upon  that  account  I  meditate  in  thy  com- 
mandments :  and  I  do  not  only  meditate,  but  "  my  hands 


138  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SER.    7. 

also  will  I  lift  up  unto  thy  commandments."  For  practice,  I 
will  not  only  lay  my  eye  to  reading,  I  will  not  only  lay  my 
head  to  studying,  but  my  hands  also  will  I  lift  up  unto  thy 
commandments  ;  to  take  hold  on  them,  and  to  practise  them. 
So  that  thus  a  gracious  soul,  as  he  meditates  on  God  and 
the  things  of  God,  he  finds  a  sweetness ;  so  it  is  in  re- 
ference unto  God,  and  to  his  own  practice  and  holiness  in 
conversation. 

But  though  a  wicked  man  may  meditate  on  God  and  the 
things  of  God,  and  find  a  sweetness  in  so  doing;  yet  he  doth 
also  find  as  great,  if  not  a  greater  sweetness  in  other  things, 
and  in  meditating  and  musing  upon  his  sins,  and  in  the 
world,  Job  xx.  12.,  "  Though  wickedness  be  sweet  in  his 
mouth,  though  he  hide  it  under  his  tongue,  though  he 
spare  it,  and  forsake  it  not,  but  keep  it  still  within  his 
mouth,"  as  a  sweet  pellet ;  here  is  his  great  delight.  Though 
he  may  meditate  on  God  and  the  things  of  God,  and  find 
some  sweetness  there,  his  great  delight  is  here,  in  his  sin  ;  and 
he  finds  rather,  more  delight  and  pleasure  in  musing  on  his  sin 
and  sinful  course,  and  meditating  on  the  world  and  the 
things  thereof,  than  he  finds  in  meditating  on  God  and  the 
things  of  God.  But  now  a  gracious  man  delights  in  the  law 
of  the  Lord,  and  therein  doth  he  meditate :  why,  but  doth  he 
not  also  stand  in  the  counsel  of  the  ungodly  ?  No,  "  he 
walketh  not  in  the  counsel  of  the  ungodly,  but  his  delight  is 
in  the  law  of  the  Lord,  and  in  his  law  doth  he  meditate/' 
He  standeth  not  in  the  way  of  sinners  :  possibly  he  may 
meet  with  sinners,  and  wicked  men  occasionally  ;  but  he  doth 
not  walk  with  them  ordinarily,  he  doth  not  stand  with  them, 
but  his  delight  is  in  the  law  of  the  Lord,  and  therein  doth  he 
meditate. 

But  to  say  no  more.  Take  a  wicked  man,  and  though  he 
may  meditate  on  God  and  the  things  of  God,  and  find  some 
sweetness  therein,  he  doth  not  do  this  ordinarily,  meditate 
ordinarily,  and  continually,  "  God  is  not  in  all  his  thoughts." 
God  may  be  in  some  of  his  thoughts,  but  God  is  not  in  all 
nis  thoughts.  But  this  meditation  of  God  and  the  things  of 
God  is  the  ordinary  work  of  a  good  man,  he  delighteth  in 
the  law  of  the  Lord,  and  therein  doth  he  meditate  day  and 
night.  Meditation  on  God  and  the  things  of  God  is  his 
ordinary  work ;  so  that  thus  now  you  see  the  difference,  and 


SER.  7«]  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT  139 

thus  you  see  the  doctrine  cleared.  It  is  a  sweet  thing  to  a 
gracious  soul  to  meditate  on  God  and  the  things  of  God ; 
meditation  work  is  sweet  work  to  a  gracious  soul.  Sweet,  for 
it  is  natural ;  sweet,  for  it  is  suitable ;  sweet,  for  it  is  profit- 
able ;  sweet,  for  it  is  satisfying ;  sweet,  for  it  is  delightful. 
And  if  these  things  be  so, 

What  shall  we  say  of  those  that  never  spent  any  time  yet 
alone  in  meditating  on  God  and  the  things  of  God  ?  Never 
spent  a  day,  never  spent  half  a  day,  never  spent  an  hour  in 
private  meditating  on  God  and  the  things  of  God.  Shall 
we  say  these  are  godly  ?  Why,  in  the  time  of  the  Old  Tes- 
tament the  beasts  were  unclean  that  did  not  chew  the  cud ; 
in  the  New  Testament  it  is  made  the  property  of  the  highway 
ground,  that  the  seed  falls  upon  it,  and  it  is  not  covered  over 
with  meditation  and  consideration. 

WThat,  is  it  the  property  of  a  gracious  soul  to  meditate  on 
God,  and  doth  he  find  so  much  sweetness  in  meditating  on 
God  and  the  things  of  God ;  and  have  I  lived  twenty 
years,  have  I  lived  thirty  years,  have  I  lived  forty  years,  and 
never  spent  an  hour  yet  in  private  in  meditation  on  God  and 
the  things  of  God,  how  can  I  think  I  am  godly  ? 

If  this  doctrine  be  true,  that  a  gracious,  holy  man  finds  a 
sweetness  in  meditating  on  God,  and  meditation  work  is 
sweet  work  to  a  gracious  soul,  then,  friends,  why  should  you 
not  all  labour  to  be  found  here,  in  this  work  of  meditation  ? 
I  fear  we  are  strangers  hereunto ;  many  come  and  hear  ser- 
mons, and  write  sermons  one  time  after  another,  and  after- 
wards they  stand  up  upon  dusty  shelves,  and  are  never 
meditated  on.  But  is  this  true,  that  a  gracious  man  finds  so 
much  sweetness  in  the  work  of  meditation,  and  that  it  is  so 
profitable  a  work ;  why  should  we  not  all  labour  to  be 
found  herein  ? 

You  will  say  then  unto  me,  Meditation  is  a  sweet  work  we 
confess,  and  very  profitable ;  but  what  should  I  do  that  I 
may  be  able  to  carry  on  this  work  of  meditation  with  sweet- 
ness ?  I  have  found  it  hard  sometimes,  and  after  I  have 
begun  it  I  threw  it  off.  Sometimes  I  have  thought  that  the 
work  of  meditation  is  incumbent  only  upon  preachers,  but  I 
see  it  is  sweet,  and  profitable,  and  good  for  every  one.  What 
shall  I  do  then  that  I  may  be  able  to  carry  on  this  work  of 
meditation  with  sweetness  ? 


140  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SER.    7- 

That  I  shall  speak  to  more  largely.  Only  for  the  present 
give  me  leave  to  say  something  to  it  by  way  of  premises ; 
I  will  only  speak  to  four  cases  and  so  conclude  this  exercise. 

Would  you  meditate  on  God  and  the  things  of  God  with 
sweetness  ?  In  case  that  you  would  meditate  on  the  nature 
and  attributes  of  God,  be  sure  that  you  divide  your  thoughts, 
for  variety  is  most  refreshing.  All  the  attributes  of  God  are 
worthy  of  our  thoughts  ;  do  not  therefore  stand  poring  on  one 
excellency,  or  upon  one  attribute ;  but  when  you  are  most 
fearful,  pat  your  thoughts  upon  that  in  God  which  is  most 
cheerful ;  when  you  are  most  cheerful,  put  your  thoughts 
upon  that  in  God  which  is  most  dreadful ;  evermore  divide 
your  thoughts  if  you  be  to  meditate  on  God,  and  the  name, 
and  nature,  and  attributes  of  God. 

And  be  sure  of  this,  That  you  meditate,  not  in  a  way  of 
reason  only,  when  you  come  to  meditate  on  God,  but  in  a 
way  of  faith.  For  who  can  give  the  reason  of  the  Trinity  in 
Unity,  and  the  Unity  in  Trinity  ?  How  can  men  know  and 
understand  this  :  That  the  second  person  should  be  begotten 
of  the  Father  from  all  eternity,  and  yet  be  co-equal  with  the 
Father  ?  Here  reason  halts.  Saith  one  truly  :  Dispute  not 
with  God,  lest  you  be  confounded  ;  dispute  nor  with  Satan, 
lest  you  be  overcome.  And  I  say,  If  you  would  not  fail 
and  miscarry  in  your  work  of  meditation,  be  sure  that  when 
you  are  to  meditate  on  God,  the  nature,  the  names,  the  attri- 
butes of  God,  that  then  your  meditation  be  carried  on  in  a 
way  of  faith,  and  not  of  reason  only. 

And  then  be  sure  of  this,  that  you  never  think  of  God  out 
of  Christ.  "  I  thought  upon  God  and  was  troubled/'  saith 
the  psalmist.  Why  ?  He  did  not  think  of  Christ  too.  "  I 
thought  upon  God  and  was  troubled."  Aye,  but  think  upon 
God  in  Christ  and  you  will  not  be  troubled.  Never  think 
of  God  but  in  Christ.  It  is  an  horrible  thing,  saith  Luther, 
to  think  of  God  out  of  Christ.  This  is  the  first  thing,  in 
case  that  you  would  meditate  on  God,  the  nature,  the  names, 
and  attributes  of  God  ;  divide  your  thoughts,  meditate  in  a 
way  of  faith,  and  not  in  a  way  of  reason  ;  and  never  think 
of  God  out  of  Christ. 

In  case  that  you  would  meditate  on  Christ  the  Son  of  God, 
be  sure  of  this,  that  you  think  on  Christ,  and  meditate  on 
Christ  as  your  great  example  as  well  as  your  gift,  and  your 


.  7-]  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  141 

gift  as  well  as  your  example.  There  is  both  in  Christ :  when 
your  hearts  are  most  brisk,  think  on  Christ  as  your  example ; 
and  when  your  hearts  are  most  low,  think  on  Christ  as  your 
gift.  But  if  that  you  would  meditate  on  Christ,  carry  on 
both ;  think  on  Christ  as  well  for  your  example  as  for  your 
gift,  and  for  your  gift  as  well  as  for  your  example. 

And  never  think  on  Christ  oat  of  the  gospel;  for  as  you 
may  not  think  on  God  out  of  Christ,  so  you  may  not  medi* 
tate  on  Christ  out  of  the  gospel :  Christ  is  a  living  gospel  and 
the  gospel  a  dead  Christ. 

And  in  all  your  meditations  on  Christ,  be  sure  that  you 
observe  what  that  title  of  Christ  is  that  is  most  suitable  to 
your  condition,  and  then  meditate  thereupon. 

But  in  case  you  would  meditate  on  the  word  of  God,  know 
that  there  are  four  parts  of  the  wcrd.  There  is  the  command- 
ment, the  promise,  the  threatening,  the  example.  These  four 
divide  the  whole  word  of  God  :  precept,  promise,  threatening, 
example. 

If  you  have  to  deal  with  a  commandment,  or  precept,  re- 
member this,  that  there  is  no  precept  or  commandment  but 
is  backed  and  surrounded  with  several  promises ;  promises  of 
assistance  and  promises  of  reward. 

In  case  you  have  to  deal  with  a  promise,  know  this,  God 
is  as  punctual  in  performing  as  he  is  gracious  in  promising. 

In  case  you  have  to  deal  with  a  threatening,  then  remember 
this,  that  God  threatens  that  he  may  not  fulfil,  but  he  pro- 
mises that  he  may  fulfil :  as  God  promises  that  he  may  fulfil, 
so  he  threatens  that  he  may  not  fulfil. 

And  in  case  you  have  to  deal  with  an  example,  remember 
this,  that  there  is  no  example  but  hath  a  promise  or  a  threat- 
ening in  the  bowels  or  bosom  of  it. 

But  if  you  would  meditate  on  God  in  reference  to  his  word, 
then  look  upon  all  the  word  of  God  as  your  Father's  letter 
and  your  own  evidence.  If  a  child  be  beyond  sea,  and  a  let- 
ter come  from  the  father,  the  child  reads  it;  he  reads  it 
again  and  again,  and  thinks  on  it :  another,  that  is  a  stranger 
to  the  letter,  though  he  see  it,  he  does  not  read  it  so  often 
over,  nor  meditate  so  often  on  it,  but  the  son  doth.  Why  ? 
It  is  my  father's  letter,  saith  he,  and  so  I  will  read  it,  and 
meditate  on  it,  and  think  on  it.  So  some  men  do  not  look 
upon  the  Scriptures  as  their  Father's  letters  sent  from  heaven 


142  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SfiR.   7- 

to  them  ;  but  those  that  are  good,  they  look  upon  all  the 
chapters  there  as  their  Father's  letters :  and  I  will  read  it  over 
for  it  is  my  Father's  letter,  and  I  will  think  on  it  much  for  it 
is  ray  Father's  letter.  Thus,  then,  look  upon  the  word  as 
your  Father's  letter. 

And  look  upon  the  Scripture  also  as  your  own  evidence. 
A  man  hath  an  evidence  for  land,  and  it  may  be  the  parch- 
ment is  a  dusty  thing,  yet  he  takes  a  great  deal  of  pains  in 
reading  it  over  and  thinking  on  it.  Why,  saith  one  that 
stands  by,  why  will  you  spend  so  much  time  in  reading  of  a 
dusty  parchment  ?  But,  O  friend,  saith  he,  friend,  it  is  my 
evidence  for  my  inheritance.  So  now,  when  men  come  to  the 
word,  and  do  not  look  upon  it  as  their  evidence  for  their  land, 
they  have  no  list  to  meditate  on  it;  but  when  a  man  comes 
to  the  word,  and  can  look  upon  it  as  his  evidence  for  a  great 
inheritance,  then  he  loves  to  meditate  on  it.  Remember, 
therefore,  these  two  things,  that  all  that  is  in  the  word  is  either 
commandment  or  promise,  threatening  or  example.  And 
look  upon  the  word  as  your  Father's  letters  and  as  your  own 
evidence.  And  then, 

In  case  that  you  would  meditate  on  the  works  of  God,  be 
sure  of  this,  that  you  look  upon  all  the  works  of  God  as  en- 
amelled and  embroidered  with  so  many  attributes  of  God ; 
for  the  more  you  see  the  attributes  of  God  shining  forth  upon 
his  works,  the  more  sweetness  you  will  take  in  the  meditat- 
ing thereof.  But  if  you  do  not  see  the  attributes  of  God 
shining  forth  upon  his  works,  you  will  take  no  sweetness  in 
meditating  thereon. 

Then  be  sure  that  you  do  not  take  things  apart  and  sepa- 
rate from  another,  but  take  all  together ;  they  are  set  one 
over  against  the  other.  If  you  part  the  works  of  God,  you 
will  find  no  beauty  nor  sweetness  in  the  consideration  of 
them  ;  but  put  all  together,  the  design  and  end  of  the  work, 
and  the  wholeness  of  the  work  gives  a  beauty  to  it.  Take 
heed,  therefore,  that  you  do  not  separate  between  piece  and 
piece,  but  carry  all  together,  and  the  end  thereof. 

If  you  would  meditate  on  God  in  reference  to  his  works,  be 
sure  of  this,  that  you  never  go  to  read  God's  work  but  by 
God's  candle.  The  work  of  God  is  a  great  book,  but  the 
work  of  God  cannot  be  read  but  by  God's  word  ;  God  hath 
a  candle  of  his  own  to  read  his  work  by.  When  you  go  to 


SER.  8.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  14.J 

read  his  work,  be  sure  you  carry  his  candle  along  with  you, 
and  so  shall  you  be  sure  to  read  it  the  better.  I  have  done. 

Be  sure  you  look  upon  every  work  of  God  as  coming  out 
of  the  hand  of  your  Father,  that  you  may  say,  Oh,  this  is  my 
Father's  work,  and  this  is  my  Father's  work.  London  is  des- 
troyed, but  this  is  my  Father's  work.  You  have  heard  of  that 
honest,  good  man  of  Chelmsford,  when  it  thundered  and 
lightened,  insomuch  as  all  the  town  were  afraid  that  dooms- 
day was  come ;  how  he  got  upon  a  stall  in  the  street,  and  said, 
This  is  my  Father's  voice.  And  so  when  you  look  upon  any 
work  of  the  Lord,  look  upon  it  as  your  Father's  work,  and 
then  yon  will  take  a  sweetness  and  contentment  in  the  medi- 
tation thereof. 

And  thus  I  have  given  you  some  taste.  But  how  this  work 
of  meditation  is  to  be  carried  on  with  sweetness  I  reserve  for 
the  next  exercise  ;  only  for  the  present  you  have  heard  what 
a  profitable  thing  it  is  to  meditate  on  the  things  of  God. 
What  now  remains  but  to  get  up  and  be  thinking  and  medi- 
tating on  God  and  the  things  of  God. 


SERMON  VIII. 

THE  WORK  AND  WAY  OF  MEDITATION. 
"  My  meditation  of  him  shall  be  sweet."  PSALM  civ.  34. 

HAVING  shewed  how  sweet  and  profitable  the  work  of 
meditation  is,  to  meditate  on  God  and  the  things  of  God  ; 
we  came  the  last  day  to  this  question  or  objection : 

But  if  the  work  of  meditation  be  so  sweet  and  profitable, 
what  shall  we  do  that  this  work  of  meditation  may  be  carried 
on  \*  ith  sweetness  and  profit  ? 

I  am  a  stranger  to  this  work  of  meditation :  I  have  often 
read  the  Scriptures  and  not  meditated  on  them ;  I  have  often 
heard  the  word  and  not  meditated  thereon ;  I  have  sometimes 
begun  to  meditate,  but  finding  it  a  hard  work  I  have  left  it 
off  again.  And  sometimes  I  have  thought  that  this  work 
is  incumbent  only  upon  students  and  preachers.  But  if  it  be 
our  duty  to  meditate  on  God,  and  the  things  of  God,  what 


144  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVEXAXT.  [SKR.  8. 

shall  we  do  that  the  work  of  holy  meditation  may  be  carried 
on  with  profit  and  with  sweetness  ? 

For  answer  hereunto,  four  or  five  things  I  shall  speak  unto. 

First,  I  shall  labour  to  shew  you,  that  it  is  our  duty  to 
meditate  on  God  and  the  things  of  God. 

Secondly,  That  this  work  of  meditation  is  every  man's 
work,  and  every  day's  work,  and  such  a  work  as  is  consistent 
with  every  business  and  condition. 

Thirdly,  I  shall  lay  down  some  means  for  the  right  per- 
formance of  this  work. 

Fourthly,  Give  you  some  rules  and  directions,  how  this 
work  of  meditation  should  be  carried  on  with  sweetness  and 
profit,  in  a  right  manner. 

And  then  draw  forth  some  arguments  or  motives  to  press 
you  all  hereunto. 

First,  It  is  our  work  and  duty  to  meditate  on  God  and  the 
things  of  God.  Will  you  instance  according  to  our  explica- 
tion at  the  first. 

Will  you  instance  in  the  nature,  titles  and  attributes  of 
God  ?  Why,  it  is  our  work  and  duty  so  to  meditate  on  God; 
for  wicked  men  are  blamed  that  God  is  not  in  all  their 
thoughts.  If  they  be  blamed  for  this,  that  God  is  not  in  all 
their  thoughts,  then  surely  God  is  to  be  in  all  our  thoughts. 

Good  and  holy  men  are  commended  and  rewarded  for 
this.  "  They  that  feared  the  Lord  spake  often  one  to  an- 
other, and  a  book  of  remembrance  was  written  for  them  that 
feared  the  Lord,  and  that  thought  on  his  name/'  They  are 
commended,  and  they  are  rewarded.  In  the  day  when  God 
makes  up  his  jewels,  they  shall  be  found  among  them. 
Mai.  iii. 

And  who  doth  not  know  that  it  is  our  duty  to  praise  the 
Lord.  Not  only  to  be  thankful  to  God  upon  the  account  of 
benefits  received,  but  to  praise  the  Lord  upon  the  account  of 
his  own  excellencies.  And  how  should  the  heart  be  tuned 
and  framed  unto  this  praising  of  God,  but  by  meditation  on 
the  name  and  nature  and  titles  of  God?  "  Great  is  the 
Lord,  and  greatly  to  be  praised,"  Psalm  xlviii.  1.  How  doth 
he  tune  his  heart  to  this  praise  ?  "  We  have  thought  of  thy 
loving-kindness,  O  God." 

The  more  that  the  heart  of  any  man  is  laid  in  with  medi- 
tation, the  more  pregnant  will  his  words  be  in  the  praises  of 


SttR.  8.]  CHRIST  AND  THB  COVENANT.  145 

God.  So  that  thus  then,  it  is  our  duty  for  to  meditate  upon 
this  account. 

But  will  you  instance  in  Christ  the  Son  of  God  ?  As  it  is 
our  work  and  duty  to  meditate  on  the  nature,  titles,  and 
attributes  of  God ;  so  to  spend  and  to  lay  out  our  thoughts 
upon  Christ  the  Son  of  God.  You  may  observe  therefore, 
that  this  word  "  Behold,"  is  oftener  prefixed  and  set  before 
the  mystery  of  Christ,  than  before  any  other  depth  or  mys- 
tery in  Scripture.  And  why  so  ?  But  to  show  that  this 
depth  and  this  mystery  is  that  especially  that  calls  forth  our 
consideration  and  our  meditation.  There  are  four  things 
concerning  Christ  which  do  call  for  our  meditation. 

The  personal  excellency  of  Christ.  The  offices  of  Christ. 
The  life,  and  the  death  of  Christ. 

As  for  the  personal  excellencies  of  Christ,  you  read  what 
the  apostle  saith,  Heb.  vii.  4,  "  Now  consider  how  great  this 
man  was,"  Melchizedek,  the  type  of  Christ ;  and  if  the  type 
were  so  great,  Christ  is  greater.  And  if  we  are  to  consider 
the  greatness  of  the  type,  much  more  to  consider  and  medi- 
tate on  the  greatness  and  personal  excellencies  of  Christ 
typified. 

And  as  for  the  offices  of  Christ,  you  read  what  the  apostle 
saith  in  chap.  iii.  1,  "  Wherefore,  holy  brethren,  partakers  of 
the  heavenly  calling,  consider  the  Apostle  and  High  Priest  of 
our  profession,  Christ  Jesus." 

And  as  for  the  life  of  Christ,  you  know  what  the  apostle 
saith,  in  chap.  xii.  2,  u  Looking  unto  Jesus,  the  Author  and 
Finisher  of  our  faith." 

And  for  the  sufferings  of  Christ,  you  read  what  follows  : 
"  Who  for  the  joy  that  was  set  before  him,  endured  the 
cross,  despising  the  shame ;  for  consider  him  (verse  3)  that 
endured  such  contradiction  of  sinners  against  himself,"  &c. 
So  that  thus  then,  we  are  to  meditate  on  God  upon  this 
account ;  laying  out  and  spending  our  thoughts  and  medita- 
tions upon  Christ  the  Son  of  God. 

But,  will  you  instance  in  the  word  of  God  ?  Why,  as  we  are 
to  meditate  on  Christ,  the  Son  of  God,  so  we  are  to  meditate 
on  the  word  of  God.  Psalm  cxix.  15,  "  I  will  meditate  on 
thy  precepts."  Verse  23,  k£  Thy  servant  did  meditate  on  thy 
statutes."  Verse  48,  "  And  I  will  meditate  on  thy  statutes." 
At  the  93rd  verse,  "  Oh  how  I  love  thy  law,  it  is  my  medita- 

VOL.  HI.  L, 


146  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  [SfiR.  8. 

tion  all  the  day."  The  word  of  God  we  are  to  meditate  on ; 
to  meditate  on  God,  and  the  things  of  God  upon  this  ac- 
count, Now  here  are  four  things  that  will  lead  you  out  to 
meditation : 

The  exactness  of  the  commandment. 

The  faithfulness  of  the  promise. 

The  terror  of  the  threatening. 

And  the  weightiness  of  the  examples ;  all  which  meet  in 
the  Scriptures,  and  in  the  word  of  God.  And  accordingly 
We  are  to  meditate  on  the  word  of  God,  upon  this  account. 

Will  you  instance  in  the  works  of  God  ?  Why,  as  we  are  to 
meditate  on  the  word,  so  we  are  also  to  meditate  on  the 
works  of  God.  The  work  of  creation,  the  work  of  provi- 
dence, and  the  work  of  redemption.  The  works  of  God  are 
sought  out  of  all  those  that  have  pleasure  in  them.  "  I 
remember  the  days  of  old,  I  meditate  on  all  thy  works,  I 
muse  on  the  work  of  thy  hands,"  Psalm  cxliii.  Thus  David 
did,  and  thus  should  we  also  do ;  so  that  thus  then  you  see, 
that  it  is  our  work  and  our  duty  to  meditate  on  God  and  the 
things  of  God,  in  reference  to  his  nature,  name  and  attri- 
butes ;  in  reference  to  his  Son ;  in  reference  to  his  word  ;  and 
in  reference  to  the  works  of  God.  And  that  is  the  first 
general. 

Secondly,  Now  this  work  of  meditation  is  every  man's 
work,  it  is  every  day's  work,  and  it  is  that  work  that  is  con- 
sistent with  every  business  and  condition. 

I  say  it  is  every  man's  work  ;  it  is  the  work  of  the  wicked, 
and  it  is  the  work,  of  the  godly. 

It  is  the  work  of  the  wicked,  for  it  is  their  first  step  unto 
conversion.  The  prodigal  bethought  himself,  and  returned 
unto  his  Father's  house.  The  prophet  Haggai  calling  upon 
the  Jews  to  repent  saith,  "  Consider  your  ways."  f(  I  con- 
sidered my  ways,  and  turned  my  feet  unto  thy  testimonies," 
saith  David.  Consider  your  ways ;  or,  as  in  the  Hebrew, 
set  your  heart  upon  your  ways.  And  when  doth  a  man  set 
his  heart  upon  his  ways,  but  when  he  doth  seriously  ponder 
and  meditate  on  his  ways  ?  This  work  of  meditation  there- 
fore, I  say,  it  is  the  work  of  the  wicked,  it  is  their  first  step 
unto  conversion. 

And  it  is  the  work  of  the  godly;  meditation  work  is  a 
godly  man's  work.  For  either  he  is  weak  or  strong : 


SER.  8.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  14? 

If  he  be  weak,  he  hath  need  of  it  that  he  may  be  strength- 
ened. 

If  he  be  strong,  he  hath  need  of  it  that  he  may  be  quick- 
ened. There  is  no  man  but  hath  need  of  meditation. 

If  a  man  be  a  beginner,  he  ought  to  meditate  that  he  may 
proceed. 

If  he  be  a  proficient,  he  ought  to  meditate  that  he  may  be 
perfect. 

If  he  be  perfect  with  gospel  perfection,  he  ought  to  medi- 
tate that  he  may  hold  on  his  perfection.  Psalm  i.  it  is  made 
the  general  description  of  a  good  man,  "  He  delighteth  in 
the  law  of  the  Lord ;  and  in  that  law  doth  he  meditate." 

And  as  it  is  every  man's  work,  so  it  is  every  day's  work. 
There  are  some  special  times,  as  you  will  hear,  which  are 
more  fit  for  meditation.  But  this  work  of  meditation  is 
every  day's  work.  "  When  I  awake  (saitfr  the  psalmist)  I 
am  ever  with  thee."  How  ?  By  prayer  and  meditation. 
"  I  have  set  the  Lord  always  before  me."  How,  but  by  me- 
ditation and  prayer  ?  What  time  is  there  that  is  not  fit  for 
this  work  of  meditation  ? 

Is  the  sabbath  day  unfit  for  it  ?  No  ;  there  is  a  prayer  for 
the  sabbath,  Psalm  xcii.,  to  meditate  on  the  works  of  God. 

Is  the  week  day  unfit  for  this  work  of  meditation  ?  No. 
The  sabbath  day  is  our  market  day  ;  and  then  after  we  have 
bought  our  market  on  the  sabbath,  we  should  roast  it  by  me- 
ditation on  the  week.  We  do  not  go  to  the  market  on  the 
market  day, to  buy  meat  into  the  house  only  for  the  market  day, 
but  for  all  the  time  until  the  market  day  comes  about  again. 
Indeed  Solomon  saith  of  the  sluggard,  that  he  is  so  sluggish 
and  slothful,  that  "  he  doth  not  roast  what  he  hath  taken  in 
hunting."  The  sabbath  day  is  the  hunting  day  for  souls 
wherein  the  venison  is  taken  :  on  the  week  day  we  are  to 
roast  it,  and  to  live  upon  it  by  meditation,  and  otherwise. 
And  what  is  the  reason  that  many  do  not  live  upon  their 
venison,  that  they  have  taken  on  the  Lord's  day  ?  but  because 
they  do  not  roast  it  by  meditation  on  the  week  day,  and  so 
are  in  the  number  of  Solomon's  sluggards :  the  sluggard 
roasteth  not  the  venison  that  he  hath  taken  in  hunting.  I 
am  sure  that  David  in  the  cxixth  Psalm  saith,  that  his  medi- 
tation was  at  work  all  the  day  long :  "  It  is  my  meditation 
all  the  day  ;"  not  a  piece  of  it,  it  is  every  day's  work,  it  is 

L2 


148  CHRIST    AM)    THK    COVKNANT.  [SfiR.  8. 

all  the  day's  work.  Yea  in  Psalm  i.  he  takes  in  the  night 
too.  "  He  delighteth  in  the  law  of  the  Lord,  and  therein 
doth  he  meditate  day  and  night."  So  that  that  is  the  second 
thing,  meditation  work  is  every  day's  work.  As  it  is  every 
man's  work,  so  it  is  every  day's  work.  And, 

As  it  is  every  day's  work,  so  it  is  that  work  that  is  con- 
sistent with  every  business  and  with  every  condition :  a 
garment  that  will  fit  the  back  of  every  condition.  What 
dunghill  condition,  but  this  flower  of  meditation  may  grow 
thereupon?  In  Judges  v.  11,  it  is  said  there,  "  They  that 
are  delivered  from  the  noise  of  archers,  in  the  places  of 
drawing  water ;  there  shall  they  rehearse  the  righteous  acts 
of  the  Lord."  There,  where  ?  Why  in  "  the  places  of 
drawing  water ;"  when  they  are  in  the  field  drawing  water : 
and  if  that  be  a  fit  place  to  rehearse  the  righteous  acts  of  the 
Lord,  certainly  then  it  is  a  place  fit  for  meditation.  And  if 
that  the  place  of  drawing  water,  then  the  very  place  of 
scraping  trenchers,  and  sweeping  the  kennel,  may  be  a  place 
fit  for  meditation.  If  that  the  place  of  drawing  water,  be  a 
place  fit  for  rehearsing  the  acts  of  the  Lord ;  what  place,  what 
condition,  what  business,  but  meditation  may  accompany  it  ? 
Possibly  a  man  may  be  sick,  and  he  may  be  kept  from 
books,  or  he  may  be  kept  from  hearing ;  but  yet  he  may 
meditate  on  God  and  the  things  of  God. 

Possibly  he  may  be  thrown  into  prison,  and  he  may  be 
kept  from  books  and  Bible,  yet  he  cannot  be  kept  from 
meditation.  It  is  said  of  Mr.  Glover,  that  great  martyr  in 
queen  Mary's  time,  that  lying  in  prison  at  Coventry,  it  was 
told  him  he  should  be  removed  to  a  close  prison  at  Lichfield, 
and  all  books  taken  away  from  him.  At  that  he  was  much 
troubled  ;  but,  saith  he,  I  sat  down  and  considered,  and 
meditated  with  myself,  Is  God  the  God  of  Coventry,  and 
not  of  Lichfield  ?  is  not  God  the  God  of  Lichfield  as  well  as 
of  Coventry  ?  And  when  I  had  thought  on  this  thing,  and 
meditated  thus,  my  heart  was  quiet  within  me.  Surely  there 
is  no  condition  so  sour,  but  sweet  meditation  may  grow 
thereon.  Now  if  this  work  of  meditation  be  a  work  that  is 
consistent  with  every  business  and  every  condition,  every 
day's  work  and  every  man's  work ;  why  should  we  not  be 
found  in  the  practice  of  it  ? 

Thirdly,  But  you  will  say,  What  help  or  what  means  to 


SER.  8.J  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  149 

this  work  of  meditation  ?  What  shall  I  do,  how  and  by 
what  means  should  this  work  of  meditation  be  performed  ? 

If  you  could  meditate  on  God  rightly  and  duly,  (to  speak 
first  by  way  of  means,  and  then  for  the  rules  of  direction 
afterwards ;)  be  very  sensible  of  your  want,  and  of  your 
neglect  herein.  A  man  is  never  more  fit  for  a  duty,  than 
when  he  is  very  sensible  of  his  neglect  therein ;  sensibleness 
of  neglect  of  former  duty,  fits  one  for  future  duty.  If  a  man 
have  very  great  possessions,  and  he  lose  them,  he  is  very 
sensible  of  the  loss  thereof.  Why  now  look  into  Job  xvii., 
and  you  shall  find  there  are  thought-possessions  :  saith  he, 
"  My  days  are  past,  my  purposes  are  broken  off,  even  the 
thoughts  of  my  heart."  In  the  Hebrew,  even  the  "  posses- 
sions of  my  heart."  As  if  he  should  say  thus  :  Time  was 
that  I  had  very  great  thought-possessions,  I  thought  on  God, 
I  enjo}  ed  God,  I  possessed  God ;  but  now  I  have  lost  these 
my  possessions  of  God,  and  the  thoughts  of  my  heart,  the 
possessions  of  my  heart  are  broken  off.  Thus  sensible,  Job 
was  of  the  loss  of  his  thought-possessions.  And  the  more 
rich  our  thought-possessions  are,  the  greater  is  our  loss. 
And  the  more  sensible  we  are  of  the  loss  of  our  thought- 
possessions,  and  of  our  meditations,  the  more  fit  we  shall  be 
for  this  work  of  meditation.  First  therefore  be  very  sensible 
of  your  want  and  neglect  of  this  work  of  meditation  thus 
long. 

If  you  would  meditate  indeed  on  God  and  the  things  of 
God,  labour  more  and  more  for  a  serious  spirit;  a  frothy, 
light  and  giggling  disposition,  is  never  fit  for  meditation  : 
labour  therefore  to  be  serious.  And  there  are  three  or  four 
things  that  will  poise  and  make  your  hearts  serious. 

The  sight  of  the  glorious  majesty  of  God. 

The  sense  of  your  eternal  condition ;  eternity,  eternity. 

Humiliation  for  sin. 

And  converse  with  those  that  are  serious.  Be  serious,  and 
you  will  be  more  fit  for  meditation. 

If  you  would  indeed  meditate  on  God  and  the  things  of 
God,  labour  more  and  more  for  a  fixed  spirit :  fixation  of 
spirit  is  a  great  friend  to  meditation.  An  unsettled,  an 
unfixed  soul,  cannot  meditate  :  fix  therefore  first.  And  there 
are  many  things  that  may  fix  your  spirits. 


150  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  [SfiB.  8. 

The  great  and  weighty  judgments  of  God  that  are  upon 
us,  may  help  to  fix  us,  and  hang  lead  upon  our  heels. 

In  case  you  are  to  come  to  meditation,  or  any  other 
work,  come  free,  and  do  not  leave  any  business  standing  at 
the  door  ;  for  a  hundred  to  one  but  your  hearts  will  step  out 
unto  it,  at  the  time  of  your  work,  whether  meditation,  or 
prayer,  or  any  thing  else.  Therefore  come  free  unto  every 
duty,  if  you  would  be  fixed. 

And  labour  for  intenseness  of  affection.  In  meditation, 
prayer,  or  any  other  work,  be  intense.  We  used  to  say, 
When  the  candle  burns,  the  mouse  doth  not  nibble;  but 
when  the  candle  is  out,  then  the  mouse  nibbles.  When  our 
hearts  are  warm  and  lively  in  prayer  and  meditation,  we  are 
free  from  distractions ;  the  mouse  nibbles  not. 

And  in  case  you  meet  with  any  distraction  in  meditation, 
or  other  duty,  do  not  stand  to  correct  your  heart  in  the  time 
of  the  duty,  but  go  on  with  your  work.  If  a  woman  carries 
a  child  abroad  among  friends,  and  the  child  cries  and  makes 
a  disturbance,  the  mother  does  not  then  correct  the  child 
there ;  but  calls  the  child  to  an  account  when  she  comes  at 
home :  for,  saith  she,  else  would  my  correction  be  a  further 
disturbance  to  the  company.  So  here,  when  you  meet  with 
distractions  in  duty,  if  you  call  your  hearts  to  an  account 
then,  it  will  be  a  further  disturbance  ;  but  on  with  your  pre- 
sent duty,  correct  afterward ;  and  thus  shall  your  hearts  be 
the  more  fixed,  and  fixation  of  heart  is  a  great  help  to  medi- 
tation. 

If  you  would  indeed  meditate  on  God  and  the  things  of 
God,  be  sure  that  you  lay  out  such  objects  as  may  give  en- 
tertainment to  your  thoughts.  For  if  there  be  no  corn  in  the 
quern,  what  grinding  will  there  be  ?  Have  therefore  objects 
laid  out  to  exercise  your  thoughts  withal,  upon  all  occasions; 
and  so  when  you  have  any  spare  time,  your  objects  lying  by, 
you  will  be  presently  upon  the  work  of  meditation  :  only  let 
those  objects  be  such  as  are  drawing,  alluring,  thought-beget- 
ting objects,  and  thought-entertaining  objects  :  but  then 

If  you  would  meditate  on  God  and  the  things  of  God, 
strengthen  yourlove  and  delight;  for  meditation  grows  upon  the 
stalk  of  love  and  delight :  and  the  more  a  man  doth  love  God 
and  the  things  of  God,  the  more  he  meditates  thereon  :  Psalm 
cxix.,  «  Oh  how  I  love  thy  law  ?"  What  then  ?  «  It  is  my 


SER.  8.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  151 

meditation  all  the  day  :"  this  was  much ;  his  meditation  all 
the  day.  What  is  the  reason  ?  Why,  his  love  was  beyond 
expression ;  "  Oh  how  I  love  thy  law,  it  is  my  meditation  all 
the  day."  Love  loves  to  be  thinking  on  the  person  loved. 
It  carries  the  picture  of  the  person  or  thing  loved  up  and 
down  in  its  bosom  ;  the  more  you  love,  the  more  you  medi- 
tate ;  and  the  more  you  delight,  the  more  you  meditate.  Can 
a  woman  forget  her  child  ?  No.  Why  ?  Because  she  loves 
it.  Can  a  worldly  man  forget  the  world,  his  money  and  his 
house  or  land,  can  he  forget  this  ?  No,  why  ?  Because  he 
loves  them.  What  is  the  reason  we  meditate  no  more,  but 
because  we  love  God  no  more  ?  Do  but  strengthen  your 
love  to  God  and  the  things  of  God,  and  your  delight  in  God 
and  the  things  of  God,  and  you  will  meditate  more.  Strength- 
en therefore  your  love  to,  and  your  delight  in  the  Lord  :  and 
then 

If  you  would  meditate  on  God  and  the  things  of  God,  then 
labour  to  get  a  deep  impression  of  the  things  of  God  upon 
your  heart  and  soul.  It  is  a  deep  impression  that  calls  for 
meditation.  A  man  reads  the  word  of  God,  and  it  may  be 
he  understands  it,  but  he  does  not  meditate.  Why  ?  Be- 
cause the  word  made  no  impression  upon  his  heart  as  he 
went  along.  But  if  he  read  it,  and  understand  it,  and  hath 
an  impression  made  upon  his  soul  as  he  reads  it,  then  he 
thinks  on  it  afterwards :  as  in  hearing  the  word  of  God,  a 
man  hears  the  word  of  God  in  public  or  in  private,  and  he 
meditates  not  thereupon.  Why  ?  why,  because  it  has  no  im- 
pression upon  him.  Possibly  a  man  may  think  of  the  free 
grace  of  God,  yet  if  it  make  no  impression  upon  his  soul,  he 
does  not  go  away  and  meditate  on  it.  If  a  man  think  on  the 
wrath  of  God,  and  it  make  an  impression  upon  him,  he  goes 
away,  and  is  still  in  the  thoughts  thereof.  What  is  the  rea- 
son that  many  poor  souls,  troubled  in  conscience  are  always 
thinking  of  hell,  and  judgment,  and  wrath,  but  because  the 
wrath  of  God  hath  made  a  deep  impression  upon  their  souls; 
and  the  more  deep  the  impression  is  upon  your  soul,  the 
more  full  will  your  meditation  be.  You  see  how  it  was  in 
the  former  times,  when  they  went  in  procession  at  the  end  of 
the  parish,  they  would  take  up  a  boy  and  whip  him.  Why  ? 
that  he  might  remember  the  bounds  of  the  parish  :  for,  pas- 
sion is  the  best  door-keeper  of  memory.  And  as  passion  is 


152  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SfiR.  3 

the  door-keeper  of  memory,  so  impression  is  the  door-keeper 
of  meditation. 

If  you  would  meditate  on  God  and  the  things  of  God, 
take  heed  that  your  hearts  and  your  hands,  he  not  too  full  of 
the  world,  and  the  employments  thereof.  The  more  full  your 
hand  is  of  worldly  employments,  the  more  you  will  think 
thereon ;  and  the  more  you  think  thereon,  the  less  you  will 
think  of  God  and  the  things  of  God.  And  what  is  the  rea- 
son that  many  meditate  and  think  so  little  of  God  and  the 
things  of  God,  but  because  their  hearts  are  so  full  of  the 
world,  "  Where  their  treasure  is,  there  will  their  hearts  be." 

Oh,  saith  one,  I  would  think  on  God,  and  I  would  medi- 
tate on  God  with  all  my  heart,  but  meditation  work  is  a  work 
of  time,  it  will  cost  time,  and  I  have  no  time;  my  hands  are 
so  full  of  business,  and  so  full  of  employment,  I  have  no  time 
for  this  work.  Meditation  is  not  a  transient  thought,  but  it 
is  a  work  of  time,  and  will  ask  time,  and  I  have  no  time. 
Mark  therefore  what  David  saith  in  Psalm  cxix.,  "  Lord  in- 
cline my  heart  unto  thy  testimonies,"  how  so  ?  "  Turn  away 
mine  eyes  from  beholding  vanity."  The  way  to  have  one's 
heart  inclined  to  the  testimonies  of  God,  is  to  turn  away 
one's  eyes  from  these  outward  vanities.  Would  you  there- 
fore meditate  on  God  and  the  things  of  God,  then  take  heed 
that  your  hearts,  and  your  hands,  be  not  too  full  of  the  world 
and  the  employments  thereof. 

If  you  would  meditate  on  God,  and  the  things  of  God,  go 
then  to  God  for  this  skill  of  meditation.  Friends,  there  is  an 
art,  and  a  divine  skill  of  meditation,  which  none  can  teach 
but  God  alone.  Would  you  have  it,  go  then  to  God,  and 
beg  of  God  these  things. 

Beg  of  God  that  he  would  change  your  nature  :  for  if  your 
soil  be  not  changed,  nothing  but  weeds  will  grow  still,  not 
the  flowers  of  meditation,  but  the  weeds  of  vain  thoughts  ;  go 
first  to  God  to  change  your  nature,  to  change  your  soil. 

Go  to  God  and  beg  of  him  that  he  would  sanctify  and  se- 
quester your  mind  unto  himself,  that  your  whole  mind  may 
be  under  God's  sequestration.  Every  man  is  as  his  mind 
is.  A  man's  mind  is  a  profuse  thing,  and  it  is  as  full  of 
thoughts,  as  the  sun  is  full  of  beams.  If  God  do  not  take  it 
in,  and  bring  it  under  his  sequesteration,  it  will  be  full  of 


SER.  8.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  153 

evil;  go  then  to  God,  and  desire  him  to  sanctify  your  devi- 
sing, your  thinking,  and  your  projecting  faculty. 

Go  to  God  and  beg  of  him  that  he  would  lay  out  drawing 
objects  before  you,  that  may  draw  out  your  thoughts,  and 
your  meditations.  It  is  God  that  must  present  such  objects. 
Go  and  beg  of  God  your  thoughts  also,  and  beg  of  God 
these  thought-possessions,  that  God  would  give  you  thoughts. 
And  then, 

Beg  of  God  a  fixed  heart :  for  fixation  of  heart  is  a  great 
friend  to  meditation.  And  then, 

Beg  of  God  the  Spirit,  for  the  Spirit  is  our  remembrancer, 
to  bring  all  things  to  our  remembrance.  Thus  do,  and  you  shall 
in  some  measure  be  able  to  carry  on  this  work  of  meditation 
in  a  right  way,  M'ith  comfort  and  sweetness.  These  things  by 
way  of  means:  by  way  of  means;  be  sensible  of  your  former 
want  of  meditation ;  labour  to  be  more  serious ;  get  a  fixed 
heart  and  spirit;  lay  out  objects  that  may  entertain  your 
thoughts  upon  all  occasions ;  strengthen  your  love  to,  and 
delight  in  God;  labour  to  get  impressions,  deep  impress- 
ions made  upon  your  souls  to  the  things  of  God,  and  take 
heed  that  your  hearts  and  hands  be  not  too  full  of  the  world; 
and  then  go  to  God  for  this  skill  of  meditation. 

Fourthly,  But  then  what  are  those  rules  and  directions 
that  will  help  therein  ?  How  and  in  what  way  and  manner 
should  this  work  of  meditation  be  carried  on,  with  sweetness 
and  success  ? 

In  all  your  retirements,  for  the  work  of  meditation  is  a 
work  of  retirement,  in  all  your  retirements,  be  sure  that  you 
retire  in  to  God  himself.  Do  not  retire  into  your  retirements 
as  the  monks  and  those  do  retire  into  a  monkish  devotion. 
But  in  all  your  retirements  be  sure  that  you  retire  into  God 
himself. 

Take  heed  that  you  be  not  legal  in  this  work  of  meditation. 
Legal  work  is  sour  work ;  meditation  work  is  sweet  work. 
A  man  is  legal  in  this  work  of  meditation  when  he  doth 
make  it  a  mere  task,  when  he  doth  in  his  meditation  think  on 
God  out  of  Christ.  "  I  thought  upon  God  and  was  troubled  ;J* 
to  think  upon  God  out  of  Christ  is  sour  work  ;  I  thought 
upon  God  and  was  not  comforted,  but  was  troubled,  saith 
the  Psalmist.  So  that  to  make  our  meditation  work  a  mere 
task,  is  a  legal  work  ;  to  think  upon  God  out  of  Christ  is  a 


154  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SER.    8. 

legal  work  ;  and  to  pass  through  God  unto  Christ  also  is 
legal.  For,  in  the  times  of  the  old  testament  they  came  to 
Christ  through  God,  but  in  the  time  of  the  new  testament 
we  go  to  God  through  Christ.  An  old  testament  way  is  a 
legal  way,  would  you  therefore  have  this  work  of  meditation 
carried  on  with  sweetness  ?  take  heed  of  a  legal  spirit  in  this 
work  of  meditation,  which  will  sour  all. 

Be  sure  of  this,  that  nothing  fall  within  the  compass  of 
your  meditation,  but  what  falls  within  the  compass  of  the 
Scripture.  It  may  be  you  may  think  of  God,  and  you  may 
think  what  God  was  doing  before  the  world  was  made,  this 
you  have  no  Scripture  for,  therefore  it  is  no  work  for  your 
meditation.  It  may  be  you  think  you  are  a  reprobate ;  for 
say  you,  I  have  the  marks  of  a  reprobate  upon  me.  But 
where  doth  the  Scripture  give  any  marks  of  a  reprobate  ? 
The  Scripture  gives  marks  of  a  wicked  man  that  possibly 
may  be  converted.  But  now,  if  you  would  carry  on  the 
work  of  meditation  in  such  a  way  as  it  may  be  done  with 
sweetness,  be  sure  that  it  be  bounded  with  the  Scripture  ;  and 
let  nothing  fall  within  the  compass  of  your  meditation,  but 
what  falls  within  the  compass  of  the  Scripture. 

In  all  your  settled  meditation,  begin  with  reading  or 
hearing.  Go  on  with  meditation ;  end  in  prayer.  For  as 
Mr.  Greenham  saith  well :  Reading  without  meditation  is 
unfruitful ;  meditation  without  reading  is  hurtful ;  to  meditate 
and  to  read  without  prayer  upon  both,  is  without  blessing. 

If  you  do  read  and  not  meditate,  then  you  will  want  good 
affections. 

If  you  do  meditate  and  not  read  or  hear,  you  will  want 
good  judgment,  and  be  apt  to  fall  into  some  ill  opinions. 

If  you  do  read,  or  hear,  or  meditate,  and  not  pray,  you 
will  want  the  blessing  of  the  Lord  upon  both.  Read  or  hear 
first;  then  meditate;  and  then  pray  upon  both.  I  speak  of 
settled  meditation,  and  let  one  be  proportioned  unto  another. 
There  must  be  a  proportion  between  the  one  and  the  other 
in  a  settled  meditation;  and  therefore  if  that  you  would 
meditate  rightly,  I  say,  in  all  your  meditations,  begin  with 
reading,  go  on  with  meditation,  and  end  with  prayer. 

If  you  would  have  this  work  of  meditation  carried  on  with 
profit  and  sweetness,  join  with  your  meditation  the  examination 
of  your  own  souls;  in  case  you  meditate  on  God  and  Christ, 


SER.  8.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  155 

think  with  yourselves  by  way  of  examination,  But  have  I  an  in- 
terest in  this  ?  I  have  been  now  thinking  and  meditating 
on  the  excellencies  of  Christ,  but  have  I  an  interest  in  him  ? 
Come,  O  my  soul,  thou  hast  been  meditating  on  God,  and 
on  the  excellencies  of  Christ,  but  hast  thou  any  share,  hast 
thou  any  interest  therein  ?  Join  examination  with  your 
meditation,  then  it  will  be  profitable,  then  it  will  be  sweet ; 
otherwise  it  is  but  contemplation,  or  but  a  study ;  but  join 
examination  with  your  meditation,  so  it  is  sweet,  and  so  it  is 
profitable. 

Observe  what  those  times  and  seasons  are  that  are  most 
fit  for  meditation,  and  be  sure  you  lay  hold  thereon.  Though 
meditation  work  is  every  day's  work,  yet  there  are  some 
times  and  seasons  that  are  more  fit  for  meditation.  Shall  I 
name  four  or  five : 

Look  when  the  Lord  hath  made  any  deep  impression  upon 
your  soul  by  word  or  work,  then  is  a  time  for  your  medita- 
tion ;  for  impression  calls  for  meditation. 

The  morning  is  a  fit  time  for  meditation  before  the  world 
come  in.  What  more  fit  for  God  than  the  best  of  time ; 
the  morning  is  the  best  of  time,  therefore  a  fit  time  for 
meditation  on  God. 

The  sabbath  day  is  a  fit  time  also  for  meditation,  therefore 
the  xciind  Psalm  is  appointed  for  the  sabbath.  A  Psalm 
for  the  sabbath  day,  saith  the  title  to  the  Psalm. 

The  time  of  God's  special  dispensations  is  a  fit  time  for 
it ;  look  when  there  is  a  special  dispensation  of  God  abroad, 
either  of  mercy  or  judgment,  then  is  a  fit  time  for  meditation. 
In  the  ixth  Psalm  :  "  The  Lord  is  known  by  the  judgment 
which  he  executeth,  the  wicked  is  snared  in  the  work  of  his 
own  hands,  Higgaion  Selah."  What  is  that  ?  It  comes  from 
the  Hebrew  Hagah,  which  signifies  to  meditate.  When  the 
wicked  are  snared  in  the  work  of  their  own  hands,  here  is 
work  for  meditation.  Look,  I  say,  when  there  is  a  special 
dispensation  of  God  either  in  mercy  or  judgment,  that  is  a 
fit  time  for  meditation. 

Look  what  time  that  is  that  lies  next,  or  near,  or  close  to 
any  great  work  or  service ;  that  is  a  fit  time  for  meditation. 
As  for  example :  Suppose  we  be  to  receive  the  Lord's  supper ; 
the  time  that  lies  next  before  it  is  a  fit  time  for  meditation. 
Suppose  a  man  be  to  be  called  out  for  some  great  service  or 


156  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SER.  8. 

employment ;  the  time  that  goes  close  before  it  is  a  'fit  time 
for  him  to  sit  down  and  meditate  with  himself  upon  the 
work ;  for  the  more  a  man  doth  prepare  for  a  work,  the  more 
likely  he  is  in  reason  to  perform  it  well.  Now,  meditation 
is  a  good  preparation.  Look  therefore  what  that  time  is  that 
goes  immediately  before  or  close  to  the  work  of  the  Lord,  that 
is  a  fit  time  for  meditation.  Thus  now  you  see  what  the 
special  times  are  for  the  work  of  meditation.  The  time  of 
impressions.  The  morning  time.  The  sabbath  day.  The 
time  of  special  dispensations,  either  of  mercy  or  judgment. 
And  the  time  that  goes  immediately,  or  next,  or  close  before 
the  great  work  and  service  of  the  Lord.  And,  if  you  would 
meditate  rightly,  observe  what  the  fit  times  for  meditation 
are,  and  be  sure  you  lay  hold  thereon. 

I  will  name  but  one  more.  Though  there  is  a  great  deal  of 
profit  and  sweetness  to  be  found  in  this  work  of  meditation, 
and  it  is  every  day's  work,  yet  take  heed  that  you  do  not  so 
meditate  on  one  of  God's  excellencies  as  to  neglect  another ; 
nor  do  not  so  spend  your  whole  time  in  the  work  of  medita- 
tion, that  this  work  of  meditation  should  eat  up  other  duties  : 
God  would  have  us  rise  from  this  work  of  meditation,  as  from 
any  other  duty,  with  an  hungry  appetite.  Friends,  God 
would  have  us  rise  hungry  from  every  duty,  and  not  glutted ; 
variety  is  refreshing;  he  hath  given  many  duties  that  we  may 
not  pore  upon  one.  In  case,  therefore,  you  have  been  at  the 
work  of  meditation,  either  God  hath  come  in  upon  you  with 
his  special  influence  or  not :  if  he  hath,  praise  the  Lord  for 
his  assistance,  it  is  a  mercy  that  you  have  had  one  good 
thought  of  God,  but  meditation  is  more  than  a  thought,  me- 
ditation is  thought  upon  thought;  praise  God,  that  is  the  way 
to  have  more.  And  in  case  that  God  hath  not  come  in  upon 
you  in  the  work  of  meditation,  then  yet  be  not  discouraged, 
for  God  would  not  have  you  glutted,  and  God  would  lead  you 
to  some  other  work;  and  one  duty,  one  work  is  not  to  eat  up 
and  devour  another.  I  say  with  one,  Let  not  your  time  be 
the  measure  or  rule  of  your  meditation,  but  your  meditation 
the  rule  of  your  time.  Yet  take  heed  that  you  do  not  spend 
so  much  time  in  musing  and  considering  and  meditating  as 
that  this  work  of  meditation  should  eat  up  any  other  duty, 
but  quicken  thereunto.  And  thus  you  see  some  means,  some 
helps  to  this  work  of  meditation ;  some  rules  and  directions 


SKR.  8.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  157 

for  the  right  carrying  it  on  sweetly  ;  what  now  remains,  but 
that  you  up  and  be  doing  ;  turn  your  hand  to  it.  You  have 
heard  the  duty  proved ;  you  have  heard  the  sweetness  and 
profitableness  thereof  cleared;  you  have  heard  what  objects 
we  are  to  lay  our  thoughts  out  upon ;  and  you  have  heard 
some  means  as  helps  unto  the  work,  and  some  rules  and  di- 
rections for  the  carrying  of  it  on :  oh,  then,  you  that  have 
never  spent  an  hour  in  meditation  all  your  days,  if  there  be 
any  such  here,  now  bethink  yourselves,  and  now  give  up  your 
thoughts  to  God.  You  that  have  gone  one  year  after  another, 
and  one  week  after  another,  and  never  spent  any  time  in  me- 
ditating on  God  or  the  things  of  God,  oh,  now  bethink  your- 
selves :  and  that  you  may  do  so,  and  be  provoked  hereunto, 
give  me  leave  to  lay  down  some  arguments  and  motives  to 
press  both  your  souls  and  mine  unto  this  great  work  of  me- 
ditation. The  arguments  are  divers.  Thus, 

Friends,  the  more  acquaintance  you  have  with  this  work  of 
meditation,  the  more  time  you  will  get,  and  the  less  you  will 
lose.  A  man  that  hath  the  skill  on  it  need  never  lose  an  hour. 
Who  knows  the  worth  of  tince  ?  This  little  spot  of  time  doth 
our  eternity  depend  upon ;  yet,  Lord,  how  many  are  there 
that  lose  their  precious  hours  and  time  !  But  what  is  the 
reason  ?  They  have  no  hand  at  this  work  of  meditation : 
when  their  business  is  over  they  might,  otherwise,  turn  their 
hand  to  this  work,  and  lose  no  time.  The  more  acquaintance 
you  have  with  this  work  of  meditation,  the  more  time  you 
will  get,  and  the  less  you  will  lose. 

Hereby,  even  by  this  work  of  meditation,  you  shall  get  into 
the  secrets  of  divine  things.  There  is  a  secret  and  a  mystery 
in  every  trade :  a  man  does  not  know  the  trade  till  he  knows 
the  secret  and  the  mystery  of  it :  it  is  said,  "  The  secret  of 
the  Lord  is  with  them  that  fear  him."  Knowledge  brings  us 
to  the  door  of  truth,  but  meditation  hath  us  into  the  house, 
and  into  all  the  rooms  thereof :  thereby,  I  say,  you  shall  get 
into  the  inwards  and  the  secrets  of  the  things  of  God. 

Thereby,  also,  you  shall  suck  out  the  sweetness  of  all  those 
divine  and  precious  things  that  you  know.  As  a  man  by 
musing  on  his  sins,  sucks  out  the  sweetness  thereof;  so  by 
meditating  on  the  things  of  God  you  suck  out  the  sweetness 
of  the  things  of  God  into  your  own  souls. 

By  this  work  of  meditation  you  shall  have   a  testimony  in 


158  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SER.  8. 

your  own  souls  that  you  are  truly  godly.  Every  man  is  what 
he  is  most  in  private.  A  good  man's  work  lies  most  under- 
ground, lies  most  out  of  sight.  In  the  time  of  Moses,  the 
beasts  were  clean  that  chewed  the  cud,  and  unclean  that  did 
not  chew  the  cud.  In  the  time  of  David  it  is  made  the  des- 
cription of  a  godly  man ;  "  He  delighteth  in  the  law  of  the 
Lord,  and  therein  doth  he  meditate/'  Hereby,  then,  you 
shall  have  a  testimony  in  your  own  hearts  that  you  are  truly 
godly.  But  you  shall  not  only  have  a  testimony  that  you  are 
truly  'godly,  but  practice  it,  and  thereby  you  shall  be  very 
godly :  for  the  more  constant  you  are  in  godliness,  the  more 
godly  you  are.  By  the  work  of  meditation,  you  will  be 
constant  in  the  work  of  godliness.  The  more  extensive  your 
godliness  is,  the  more  godly  you  are.  Now  by  meditation 
you  can  extend  your  thoughts  beyond  your  hands.  As  by 
sinful  musings  a  man  can  extend  his  thoughts  beyond  his 
power  to  practice  ;  so  by  meditation  on  God  and  the  things 
of  God,  a  man  may  extend  his  thoughts  concerning  godliness 
beyond  his  power  to  act.  As  in  sin,  a  man  by  his  thoughts 
may  be  naught  where  he  hath  not  an  outward  power  to  be 
naught;  so  by  holy  meditation,  a  man  may  be  good  where 
he  hath  not  a  power  in  his  hand  to  practice.  The  psalmist 
saith  in  the  xlvth  Psalm :  "  The  king's  daughter  is  all  glo- 
rious within,  her  garment  is  of  wrought  gold,"  verse  13.  Her 
clothing  is  of  wrought  gold,  is  not  that  glorious  ?  clothing 
is  outward,  but  saith  he,  "  She  is  all  glorious  within ;"  it  is 
not  the  wrought  gold  without  makes  her  glorious,  but  she  is 
all  glorious  within  ;  though  the  garment,  and  though  her 
clothing  be  of  wrought  gold,  yet  her  glory  lies  within.  Here 
lies  the  glory  of  a  Christian,  to  be  glorious  within.  And 
how  can  we  have  this  inward  holiness,  grace,  and  goodness, 
and  glory,  unless  we  be  versed  in  this  work  of  meditation  ? 
Thereby  also,  you  shall  oifer  up  yourselves  unto  divine 
embraces ;  and  upon  this  ground  of  meditation  will  God 
give  out  his  loves  unto  you.  In  Cant.  vii.  12,  saith  Christ: 
"  There  will  I  give  thee  my  loves."  There ;  where  ?  "  Let 
us  get  up  early  to  the  vineyards,  let  us  see  if  the  vine  flou- 
rish, whether  the  tender  grape  appear,  and  the  pomegranates 
bud  forth/'  Here  is  the  public  assembly.  What  is  this  to 
meditation  ?  Yes,  in  the  former  verse  :  "  Come  my  beloved, 
let  us  go  forth  into  the  field,  let  us  lodge  in  the  villages ;" 


SER.  8.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  159 

places  of  retirement ;  "  There  will  I  give  thee  my  loves/' 
upon  the  ground  of  retirement.  There  will  he  give  forth  his 
loves.  Oh,  what  a  great  mercy  is  here,  by  this  work  of 
meditation,  you  do  not  only  offer  up  yourselves  unto  divine 
embraces  ;  but  there,  upon  meditation  ground,  will  God  give 
out  his  loves  unto  you. 

Thereby  also  your  souls  and  hearts  shall  be  subdued  unto 
God :  as  in  sin,  so  here,  friends,  it  is  not  a  sinful  thought 
that  doth  subdue  my  heart  into  sin ;  it  is  not  a  sinful  sugges- 
tion that  subdues  my  heart  into  sin  :  but,  a  complacential 
dwelling  of  sinful  thoughts  in  my  heart,  subdues  my  heart 
into  sin.  So  it  is  not  a  transient  good  thought  that  will  sub- 
due the  soul,  or  the  heart  unto  God ;  but  it  is  a  complacential 
dwelling  of  good  thoughts  in  the  heart  that  doth  subdue  the 
heart  unto  God,  and  that  is  done  by  meditation.  Thereby 
therefore,  I  say,  your  very  hearts  shall  be  subdued  unto  the 
Lord.  Oh  what  a  mercy  is  this. 

By  this  work  of  meditation  on  God,  and  the  things  of 
God ;  you  shall  live  on  God.  Possibly  a  man  may  come  to 
the  court  where  the  king  is,  and  not  live  upon  the  king,  be- 
cause he  does  not  stay  there ;  but  those  that  stay  at  the 
court,  they  live  upon  the  king,  for  they  stay  there.  Now  by 
a  thought,  I  do  not  stay  upon  God ;  but  by  a  frequent 
meditation  on  God,  I  shall  live  in  God ;  for  then  I  stay  by 
God,  and  I  do  stay  on  him. 

Thereby  also  you  shall  have  a  constant  relief  against  all 
your  afflictions  both  inward  and  outward. 

Inward,  Psalm  cxliii.,  "  Have  mercy  upon  me,  O  Lord, 
(for  saith  he,  verse  4.)  My  spirit  is  overwhelmed  within  me, 
my  heart  within  me  is  desolate  :"  what  then  ?  "  I  remem- 
ber the  days  of  old,  I  meditate  on  all  thy  works/7  Here 
lies  the  relief  against  spiritual  fears,  and  overwhelmings  of 
soul,  even  to  meditate  on  God  as  one  ought  to  do  in  a  right 
manner :  I  am  overwhelmed,  but  I  will  meditate  on  all  thy 
works,  and  muse  on  the  work  of  thy  hands. 

As  for  the  outward  afflictions,  Psalm  cxix.,  the  place  cited 
before  verse  23.  "Princes  also  did  sit  and  speak  against  me,  but 
thy  servant  did  meditate  in  thy  statutes."  Reproach  from  an 
ordinary  man,  is  affliction  enough  ;  but  for  kings  and  princes 
to  speak  against  one,  this  is  a  great  matter.  What  relief  then? 
"  But  thy  servant  did  meditate  on  thy  statutes."  So  that  by 


160  CHRIST    AND    TUB    COVKNA.NT.  [SfiR.   3. 

this,  you  have  a  constant  relief  against  both  outward,  and  in- 
ward afflictions.  And, 

Thereby  also  you  shall  be  freed  from  that  unkindness,  that 
God  will  take  at  your  hands  if  you  do  not  meditate  on  God 
and  the  things  of  God.  Friends,  if  you  do  not  meditate 
on  God  and  the  things  of  God,  God  will  take  it  very  un- 
kindly at  your  hands.  What  man  that  is  abroad  beyond  sea, 
hearing  that  his  wife  frolicks  it  at  home  and  never  thinks  on 
him,  will  not  take  it  unkindly  ?  We  are  absent  now  from 
God,  and  to  frolick  and  be  vain,  and  go  up  and  down,  and 
have  no  thoughts  on  God,  no  meditation  on  God ;  how  un- 
kindly must  God  take  this  at  our  hands  ?  It  is  a  slight,  if  a 
man  speak  unto  you,  and  you  do  not  think  of  what  he  speaks, 
it  is  a  slight  to  him.  So  to  read  what  God  saith,  or  see  what 
God  doth,  and  not  think  on  it,  not  to  meditate  on  it  j  what 
is  this  but  a  slight  unto  God  ? 

Respect  and  meditation  go  together.  Psalm  cxix.  15,  "  I 
will  meditate  on  thy  precepts,  and  have  respect  unto  thy 
ways."  So  then,  the  want  of  meditation  and  thinking  on 
what  God  saith  and  what  God  doth,  is  a  great  slighting  of 
him,  it  is  a  \*ant  of  respect,  and  God  will  take  it  unkindly. 
And  what  then  ?  Why  he  will  deal  by  you  as  you  deal  by 
him  :  if  you  think  not  on  him,  he  will  not  think  on  you ;  and 
in  the  day  of  your  extremity,  when  you  call  and  cry  to  him, 
because  you  thought  not  of  him,  he  will  not  think  of  you. 
But  to  end  all. 

God  knows,  and  your  own  souls  know,  how  you  have  lain 
musing  in  the  way  of  sin ;  how  sometimes  you  have  lain 
devising  mischief  upon  your  beds ;  how  often  you  have 
chewed  the  devil's  cud ;  what  swarms  of  unclean  thoughts, 
of  proud  thoughts,  of  unbelieving  thoughts,  have  possessed 
your  hearts.  Oh,  friends,  shall  we  lie  musing  upon  our  bed 
in  a  way  of  sin,  and  shall  we  not  think  and  muse  and  medi- 
tate on  God  and  the  things  of  God  ?  What,  shall  we  not  be 
the  same  for  God,  that  ever  we  have  been  for  sin  ?  Oh,  we 
have  had  our  sinful  musing  times,  therefore  now  why  should 
we  not  have  our  holy  musings  also  ? 

And  to  conclude  all ;  meditation,  holy  meditation,  is  a  very 
great  friend  to  heavenly  conversation.  Sweet  meditation  of 
God,  is  a  very  great  friend  to  holy  conversation  ;  private 
meditation,  a  great  friend  to  an  outward  holy  conversation. 


SER.  9.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  161 

Now  then,  as  ever  you  desire  that  the  holiness  of  your  con- 
versation may  be  advanced ;  that  you  may  be  as  godly  now 
in  your  thoughts,  as  ever  you  have  been  ungodly ;  that  God 
may  take  nothing  unkindly  from  you  ;  that  you  may  have  a 
constant  relief  against  all  afflictions,  both  inward  and  out- 
ward ;  that  you  may  live  on  God ;  that  your  hearts  may  be 
subdued  unto  God ;  that  God  may  give  out  his  loves  unto 
you ;  that  you  may  be  very  godly ;  that  you  may  have  a  tes- 
timony in  your  own  souls  that  you  are  truly  godly ;  that  you 
may  suck  out  the  sweetness  of  all  the  things  you  know ;  that 
you  may  be  let  into  the  secret  of  godliness,  aud  not  stand  at 
the  door  of  knowledge  only ;  that  you  may  never  lose  a  pre- 
cious hour,  but  redeem  your  time :  now  to  the  work  of  medi- 
tation ;  and  you  that  have  neglected  it  so  long,  be  not 
ashamed  to  begin  it  at  last. 


SERMON   IX. 

GOD'S  RETURN  TO  THE   SOUL  OR  NATION. 

"  Return,  O  Lord,  how  long,  and  let  it  repent  thee  concerning  thy 
servants,"  PSALK  xc.  13. 

THIS  psalm  is  a  "  psalm  of  Moses  the  man  of  God," 
saith  the  title. 

Wherein  he  doth  strengthen  his  faith,  and  the  Israelites' 
faith  in  God ;  shews  the  misery  and  frailty  of  man's  life, 
and  petitions  God  for  his  mercy. 

He  sets  down  the  misery  and  frailty  of  man's  life,  in  the 
body  of  the  psalm.  But  before,  in  the  beginning  of  the 
psalm,  he  doth  strengthen  his  own  and  others'  faith  in  God. 

A  man  is  never  fit  to  look  upon  the  troubles  of  this  world, 
and  the  miseries  thereof,  until  his  heart  be  established  in 
God  by  believing.  This  therefore  he  doth,  in  the  first  place, 
by  several  arguments  of  comfort. 

First  drawn  from  their  interest  in  God.  Verse  1,  "  T.r>rd, 
thou  hast  been  our  dwelling  place  in  all  generations."  As  if 
he  should  sav,  We  are  now  in  the  wilderness,  and  so  no 


162  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SER.  9. 

abiding  place  ;  well,  "  Thou  hast  been  our  dwelling  place  in 
all  generations." 

Faith  finds  that  in  God  which  we  want  here  below,  and 
that  is  the  way  to  true  comfort. 

The  second  is  drawn  from  the  eternity  of  God's  essence 
and  being:  "Before  the  mountains  were  brought  forth,  or 
ever  thou  hadst  formed  the  earth  and  the  world,  even  from 
everlasting  to  everlasting,  thou  art  God/'  verse  2. 

The  third  is  drawn  from  our  resurrection.  Though  now 
we  die,  and  are  destroyed,  yet,  at  verse  3,  "  Thou  turnest 
man  to  destruction,  and  sayest,  Return,  ye  children  of  men." 

Our  resurrection  is  an  easy  work  with  God ;  it  is  but  say- 
ing, "  thou  sayest,  Return,  ye  children  of  men." 

The  fourth  is  drawn  from  the  shortness  of  the  time  that 
lies  between  our  death  and  the  resurrection :  for  it  will  be 
said,  there  is  a  great  deal  of  time  between  our  death  and  the 
resurrection ;  but,  saith  he,  you  must  account  as  God  ac- 
counts, for  at  verse  4,  "  A  thousand  years  in  thy  sight  are 
but  as  yesterday,  when  it  is  past;  and  as  a  watch  in  the 
night."  These  things  being  thus  premised,  now  you  may 
read  over  the  miseries  and  troubles  of  this  world,  which  you 
have  at  large  from  the  5th  unto  the  12th  verse. 

But  what  then,  what  is  the  work  and  duty  of  the  psalmist 
then  ?  Why,  then  he  petitions  God. 

He  petitions  first  for  wisdom ;  that  by  all  the  troubles  and 
miseries  of  this  life,  he  may  provide  and  lay  in  for  eternity. 
"  So  teach  us  to  number  our  days,  that  we  may  apply  our 
hearts  unto  wisdom,"  verse  12. 

And  then  he  petitions  for  the  return  of  God's  love. 
"  Return  (O  Lord)  how  long,  and  let  it  repent  thee  concern- 
ing thy  servants."  Where  you  have  the  matter  of  the 
petition,  the  explication,  and  the  reason  thereof. 

The  matter  of  the  petition  in  those  words,  "  Return,  O 
Lord." 

The  explication  thereof,  "  And  let  it  repent  thee  concern- 
ing thy  servants." 

And  the  reason,  "How  long."  Thou  hast  been  long  absent ; 
O  Lord,  how  long  wilt  thou  be  absent,  how  long  wilt  thou 
be  angry  ?  Return,  O  Lord ;  how  long ;  and  let  it  repent 
thee  concerning  thy  servants. 


SEB.  9.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  163 

God  is  said  to  return,  when  after  some  judgments  for  sin, 
he  doth  shew  forth  some  fresh  tokens  of  his  love  and  favour. 

God  is  said  to  repent,  when  he  doth  change  his  dispensations 
of  anger  into  love.  And  this  is  that  which  the  psalmist  doth 
here  most  desire ;  from  whence  I  take  up  this  doctrine  or 
observation  : 

When  God  is  in  any  measure  departed  from  his  people,  it 
is  their  great  desire  that  God  would  return  unto  them,  and 
repent  him  concerning  his  servants.  For  the  clearing  and 
prosecuting  of  which, 

First,  I  shall  labour  to  shew  you,  that  God  doth  sometimes 
forsake,  desert,  and  depart  from  his  own  people  for  a  time. 

Secondly,  That  they  are  very  sensible  of  such  departures, 
and  think  it  long. 

Thirdly,  That  then,  in  the  time  of  those  departures,  their 
great  desire  is  that  God  would  return.  And, 

Fourthly,  That  when  God  doth  return  unto  his  people, 
then  he  doth  repent  him  concerning  his  servants.  And, 

Fifthly,  What  we  should  do  in  case  God  should  be  in  any 
measure  departed  from  us,  that  he  may  return  again  unto  us. 

First.  As  for  the  first :  God  doth  sometimes  desert  and 
forsake  and  depart  from  his  people  for  a  time.  Not  in  re- 
gard of  their  union,  so  he  never  departs ;  but  in  regard  of 
communion  and  manifestation,  so  sometimes  he  doth. 
Though  nothing  is  hid  from  the  heat  of  this  sun,  yet  our 
souls  may  be  hid  from  the  light  of  this  sun  :  God  doth  some- 
times depart  from  his  own  people. 

For  he  is  the  sovereign  Lord  of  all.  And  what  if  God 
will,  to  make  his  power  and  sovereignty  known  among  his 
own  people,  sometimes  withdraw,  forsake  and  depart  from 
them.  Twice  you  read  in  the  book  of  the  Canticles,  that 
Christ  withdraws  from  the  spouse :  once  upon  occasion  of 
her  sin  and  security,  and  then  she  meets  with  blows,  Cant, 
v. ;  once  upon  an  account  of  his  mere  pleasure,  Cant.  iii. 

As  whom  God  will  he  shews  mercy  to,  and  whom  he  will 
he  hardens  ;  so  whom  God  will  he  is  present  with,  and  whom 
he  wil  he  is  absent  from.  He  is  the  sovereign  Lord  over 
all.  But, 

What  if  God  will  that  his  people  should  have  a  taste  of  hell 
in  this  life,  that  so  they  may  be  sensible  of  and  very  thankful 
for  their  deliverance  from  hell  and  the  wrath  to  come.  There 


164  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SeR.  9. 

are  three  things   in   hell :  torment  of   body,  horror  of  con- 
science, loss  of  God. 

By  our  pains  and  torments,  gouts  and  stone,  we  think  of 
the  torments  of  hell,  or  may  think. 

By  the  horror  of  conscience  that  we  meet  withal,  we  may 
think  of  the  horror  of  conscience  there. 

And  by  God's  withdrawing  and  God's  departing  from  us 
here,  we  may  think  of  the  loss  of  God  for  ever  there. 

These  things  are  not  in  perfection  here.  In  heaven  there 
is  nothing  but  the  presence  of  God,  and  all  the  comforts  there 
flow  from  that  fountain.  In  hell  there  is  nothing  but  the 
absence  of  God,  and  all  the  miseries  there  flow  from  that 
fountain.  This  life  lies  between  both.  And  what  if  God 
will,  that  we  may  be  sensible  of  the  great  deliverance  from 
the  wrath  to  come,  give  us  a  taste  of  hell,  by  his  withdrawings 
and  by  his  departings  from  us  for  a  season. 

I  am  sure  it  is  very  fit  that  we  should  be  conformed  unto 
Jesus  Christ.  As  Christ  was  conformed  unto  us,  in  reference 
to  our  ten:  ptations,  so  it  is  fit  we  should  be  conformed  to  him 
in  reference  to  his  desertions.  Christ  was  deserted,  Christ 
was  forsaken :  "  My  God,  my  God,  why  hast  thou  forsaken 
me  ?"  Surely  the  disciple  is  not  above  his  Master. 

But  I  am  sure  of  this,  that  God  loves  to  see  the  workings 
of  all  our  graces,  our  faith  and  love  especially.  There  are 
some  graces  that  do  not  open  nor  shew  themselves  but  in  the 
sun-shining  day  of  God's  presence.  When  the  sun  shines 
the  marigold  opens.  When  the  sun  shines,  the  fish  that  lay 
at  the  bottom  of  the  water  in  a  cloudy  day,  swim  at  the  top 
of  the  water,  and  are  seen.  In  the  sun-shining  day  of  God's 
presence,  then,  our  thankfulness,  our  joy,  our  assurance  float 
and  are  to  be  seen  upon  the  top  of  the  water.  But  there  are 
other  graces,  that  are  best  seen  when  God  withdraws,  and 
when  God  is  absent — faith  in  God,  and  love  to  God  especially. 
Faith  in  God ;  for  faith  works  best  when  it  works  all  alone, 
without  the  auxiliaries  of  comfort.  It  is  no  great  matter  for 
a  wife  to  believe  her  husband's  love  when  he  is  at  home  and 
daily  and  hourly  shewing  kindness ;  but  when  he  is  abroad, 
and  absent,  and  she  hears  not  from  him,  then  to  believe  his 
love  is  somewhat.  So  to  believe  the  love  of  God  toward  us 
when  he  is  present  is  no  great  matter,  though  it  is  good  ;  but 


SEH.  9.J  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  165 

when  God  is  gone,  when  God  is  absent,  then  to  believe  his 
love,  is  faith  worthy  of  God,  as  Parisiensis  speaks. 

Thus,  also,  our  love  unto  God  doth  and  will  appear.  For 
when  God  is  present  with  us,  and  shines  upon  us,  then  we 
see  God's  love  to  us ;  but  when  God  is  absent  from  us,  by  our 
longings  after  him,  then  we  see  our  love  unto  God.  Now,  I 
say,  what  if  God  will,  to  draw  out  all  our  graces,  and  that  he 
may  see  the  workings  of  our  graces,  faith  and  love  especially  ; 
what  if  he  will  withdraw  and  absent  himself  from  his  people 
for  a  time  ?  But, 

What  if  God  will,  for  the  good  and  benefit  of  others,  with- 
draw and  absent  himself  and  depart  from  his  own  people  ? 
In  the  book  of  Canticles  we  find  that  when  Christ  doth  with- 
draw from  his  spouse,  and  she  could  not  find  him,  chap.  v.  6, 
she  searches  after  him,  inquires  for  him,  makes  great  com- 
plaint. Then  the  daughters  of  Jerusalem  say,  "  Whither  is 
thy  Beloved  gone,  O  thou  fairest  among  women ;  whither  is 
thy  Beloved  turned  aside,  that  we  may  seek  him  with  thee  ?" 
So  long  as  he  was  present  others  were  not  drawn  on  for  to 
seek  him  with  her ;  but  now  he  is  absent,  and  she  looks  after 
him,  and  complains  for  want  of  him,  now  others  are  drawn  to 
inquire  after  him. 

And  why  so  ?  But  to  teach  us  thus  much  ;  that  God  wil 
so  overrule  the  desertions  of  his  people,  that  his  withdraw- 
ment  from  them  shall  draw  others  to  him.  And  thus  now 
you  see,  there  is  reason,  and  good  reason  why  God  should 
sometimes  depart  from,  forsake,  and  be  absent  even  from  his 
own  people  for  a  time.  And  that  is  the  first  thing. 

Secondly,  The  saints  and  people  of  God  are  very  sensible 
of  his  displeasure.  "  How  long,  Lord?"  They  are  most 
sensible  of  this,  they  look  upon  it  as  a  very  tedious  thing, 
and  most  afflictive,  to  lie  under  God's  departure.  "  How 
long,  Lord  ? " 

Words  of  expostulation  note  affection,  especially  if  they 
come  with  an  ingemination  ;  and  so  you  have  it  in  the  xiiith 
Psalm  :  "  How  long  wilt  thou  forget  me,  O  Lord,  for  ever  ; 
how  long  wilt  thou  hide  thy  face  from  me,  how  long  shall  I 
take  counsel  in  my  soul  ?"  Four  how  longs.  How  long, 
how  long,  how  long,  how  long.  It  is  a  very  tedious  thing, 
and  most  afflictive  to  the  people  of  God,  to  lie  under  God's 
departures. 


166  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SfiR.    9. 

It  was  so  with  Christ:  ye  may  measure  the  hearts  of  the 
saints  by  the  heart  of  Christ.  The  first  in  every  kind  is  the 
rule  of  the  rest.  Christ  was  the  first  of  saints.  Now  though 
our  Saviour  Christ  met  with  many  afflictions  and  troubles  in 
his  death,  you  shall  find  he  is  most  sensible  of  God's  depar- 
ture :  "  My  God,  my  God,  why  hast  thou  forsaken  me  ? " 
He  doth  not  say,  Oh,  my  disciples,  why  have  you  left  me,  and 
why  have  you  forsaken  me  ;  but,  "  My  God,  my  God,  why 
hast  thou  forsaken  me  ?"  That  is  not  the  greatest  affliction 
that  weak  men  account  the  greatest :  that  is  not  the  greatest 
burthen  that  a  weak  man  accounts  the  greatest ;  but  that 
which  a  strong  man  accounts  the  greatest  burthen  is  the  great- 
est burthen.  Why  now  that  the  Rock  of  Ages,  Christ  him- 
self should  complain  under  this  of  God's  forsaking,  what 
doth  this  argue  ?  When  Paul  cries  out,  "  Oh  wretched  man 
that  I  am,  who  shall  deliver  me  from  this  body  of  death ;" 
will  you  not  conclude  thereby  that  the  body  of  death  was  a 
great  burthen,  that  the  sin  of  our  nature  was  a  great  burthen  ? 
So  when  Christ  himself  shall  cry  out  and  complain  of  God's 
forsaking  and  departing,  will  you  not  conclude,  then,  surely 
this  is  a  burthen  indeed  ?  This  is  that  the  saints  and  people 
of  God  are  the  most  sensible  of. 

It  is  the  property  of  a  gracious  soul  to  be  most  affected 
with  the  inside  and  the  spiritual  part  of  mercies  and  of  deli- 
verances. Though  God  give  them  outward  deliverances,  they 
are  not  so  much  affected  with  the  outward  part  as  with  the 
inside  and  the  spiritual  part  of  the  deliverance.  And  there- 
fore, in  Micah  vii.  18,  "  Who  is  a  God  like  unto  thee,  that 
pardoneth  iniquity,  and  passeth  by  the  transgression  of  the 
remnant  of  his  heritage :  he  retaineth  not  his  anger  for  ever, 
because  he  delighteth  in  mercy."  It  was  an  outward  delive- 
rance that  God  gave  them,  but  the  church  is  most  affected 
with  the  spiritual  part  of  it. 

And  as  they  are  most  affected  with  the  spiritual  part  of  a 
deliverance,  so  they  are  always  most  affected  with  the  inward 
and  the  spiritual  part  of  an  affliction.  What  is  that  ?  The  an- 
ger of  God,  the  displeasure  of  God,  the  desertion  of  God,  the 
departing  of  God.  This  is  the  thing  that  the  saints,  there- 
fore, are  the  most  affected  with  and  the  most  sensible  of. 

That  is  most  afflictive  to  a  gracious  soul  which  is  most  con- 
trary to  him  and  to  his  will :  all  that  is  affliction  which  is 


SER.  9.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  167 

contrary  to  one's  will.  It  was  no  great  matter,  in  itself,  that 
Mordecai  did  not  pull  off  his  hat  and  bow  his  knee  to  Ha- 
man ;  it  was  no  great  affliction  in  itself,  but  it  was  contrary 
to  Hainan's  pride,  and  that  is  an  affliction  that  is  contrary  to 
one's  will.  Now  what  is  the  will  and  what  is  the  desire  of 
the  saints  but  the  presence  of  God  ?  That  they  may  ever  be 
at  their  Father's  knee,  that  they  may  ever  be  in  his  arms,  and 
held  in  the  embraces  of  his  love,  held  in  his  smiles ;  this  is 
the  thing  that  they  do  most  desire.  And  therefore  in  the 
very  beginning  of  the  Canticles,  "  Kiss  me  with  the  kisses  of 
thy  mouth."  This,  therefore,  being  the  thing  that  they  do 
most  desire,  the  contrary  must  be  the  most  afflictive. 

That  must  needs  be  most  afflictive  which  hinders  them  in  all 
their  enjoyments.  Without  the  presence  of  God  they  have 
no  enjoyment,  their  enjoyments  are  as  no  enjoyments :  the  pre- 
sence of  God  with  them  is  the  top  of  all  their  enjoyments. 
If  the  sun  be  down,  it  is  not  all  the  torches  and  candles 
lighted  up  that  will  give  you  a  day  ;  and  if  God  be  gone,  it  is 
not  all  your  creature  comforts  will  give  you  joy.  Take  away 
the  word  my,  take  it  away  from  the  word  God,  you  take  away 
the  comfort  of  the  word  God  if  you  take  away  the  word  my. 
And  therefore,  whereas  the  Lord  had  used  to  call  the  Israel- 
ites his  people,  and  God  had  a  little  forsaken  them  ;  he  saith 
to  Moses,  Thy  people,  and,  the  people ;  but  not,  my  people. 
But  then, 

Thereby  the  saints  and  people  of  God  are  exposed  to  great 
temptations.  When  God  goes  the  devil  comes.  And  so  far 
as  God  doth  go,  so  much  the  devil  comes.  If  God  do  for- 
sake and  depart  from  a  man  as  to  final  rejection,  then  the 
devil  comes  in  a  way  of  possession.  If  God  departs  from  a 
man  in  a  way  of  desertion,  then  the  devil  comes  in  a  way  of 
temptation.  As  God  goes  so  the  devil  comes.  Now  is  it  not 
a  grievous  thing  for  the  saints  and  people  of  God  to  be  ex- 
posed to  temptations  ?  Thus  they  are  by  the  departure  of 
God,  and  by  the  absence  of  God  ;  by  the  withdrawments  of 
God.  No  wonder,  therefore,  that  God's  departure  is  the  most 
afflictive  to  them.  And  thac  is  the  second. 

Thirdly.  But,  then,  as  the  departings  of  God  are  the 
most  afflictive  to  a  gracious  soul ;  so  when  the  Lord  is  in  any 
measure  departed,  it  is  the  great  desire  of  the  saints  and  peo- 
ple of  God  that  God  would  return.  Not  that  God  would 


*68  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  [SttR.  9. 

take  away  his  hand,  the  psalmist  doth  not  say  so :  We  are 
afflicted,  Lord,  take  away  our  affliction;  no,  but  "  Return, 
O  Lord,  how  long/'  They  did  not  say,  We  are  in  this  or 
that  distress  ;  take  away  this  distress  and  misery  from  us : 
no,  but  "  Return,  O  Lord."  This  is  the  great  thing  that  they 
do  most  desire.  When  God  is  gone  in  any  measure,  or  de- 
parted from  them,  their  great  desire  is  that  God  would  return 
unto  them  :  and  it  must  needs  be  so.  For, 

What  is  the  presence  of  God  but  the  most  desirable  thing 
in  the  world  :  "  When  the  days  of  refreshing  shall  come 
from  his  presence."  It  is  the  presence  of  Christ  that  will 
make  the  day  of  judgment,  a  day  of  refreshing.  God's 
presence  is  the  saint's  pleasure.  In  it  there  is  a  filling  up  of 
our  indigent  nature.  In  it  there  is  the  obtainment  of  our 
last  end,  with  the  knowledge  thereof.  In  it  there  is  an  uni- 
versal good.  God's  presence  is  the  most  desirable  thing  in 
all  the  world.  No  wonder  then  that  when  God  is  departed 
in  any  measure,  the  saints  should  above  all  things  in  the 
world,  desire  that  God  would  return  again.  But, 

God  never  returns  empty  handed  to  his  people.  If  a 
husband  be  long  absent  from  his  wife,  he  will  not  return 
empty  handed  ;  I  am  sure  God  will  not  return  empty  handed 
unto  his  people.  When  he  hath  stricken  them,  he  will  let 
out  more  love  unto  them  than  ever  before.  It  was  a  sad 
and  a  sharp  dispensation,  that  the  basket  of  good  figs  should 
be  carried  away  captive  with  the  basket  of  bad  figs ;  but 
see  how  God  returns  unto  them,  not  empty  handed,  Jer. 
xxiv. :  "  The  word  of  the  Lord  came  unto  me,  saying,  Thus 
saith  the  Lord,  the  God  of  Israel,  like  these  good  figs,  so 
will  I  acknowledge  them  that  are  carried  away  captive  of 
Judah,  whom  I  have  sent  out  of  this  place,  into  the  land  of 
the  Chaldeans,  for  their  good;  for  I  will  set  mine  eyes  upon 
them  for  good,  and  I  will  bring  them  again  to  this  land ;  and 
I  will  build  them,  and  not  pull  them  down,  and  I  will  plant 
them,  and  not  pluck  them  up ;  and  I  will  give  them  an  heart 
to  know  me,  that  I  am  the  Lord,  and  they  shall  be  my  peo- 
ple, and  I  will  be  their  God ;  for  they  shall  return  unto  me 
with  their  whole  heart."  See  how  God  returns ;  when  he 
returns,  he  doth  not  return  empty  handed  unto  his  people. 
When  God  returns  unto  you,  he  will  not  only  pay  you  the 


SEH.  9.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  169 

principal  of  your  enjoyment ;  but  will  pay  you  all  your  for- 
bearance money  too.  But,  and  especially, 

Take  the  saints  and  people  of  God,  and  where  do  they 
live,  but  in  the  love  of  Christ's  person,  not  of  his  benefits, 
not  of  his  comforts,  but  they  live  in  the  love  of  his  person. 
Look  into  the  book  of  Canticles  and  you  shall  find,  how 
the  heart  of  Christ  is  drawn  out  in  love  to  the  person  of  the 
spouse  ;  "  Let  me  hear  thy  voice,"  saith  he,  "  for  thy  voice 
is  sweet,  and  thy  countenance  is  comely :  how  fair  is  thy 
love,  my  sister,  my  spouse ;  thy  lips,  oh  my  spouse,  drop 
as  the  honeycomb/'  and  so  he  goes  on  insisting  in  his  love 
upon  the  person. 

So  doth  the  spouse  also  towards  him,  "My  beloved  is  alto- 
gether lovely,"  and  as  you  read,  "  my  beloved  is  white  and 
ruddy,  the  chiefest  among  ten  thousand."  And  so  she  goes 
on.  Thus  love  is  drawn  out  towards  the  person  of  Christ. 
Now,  if  this  be  the  spirit,  and  if  this  be  the  disposition  of 
the  saints  and  people  of  God,  that  they  live  in  love  to  the 
person  of  Christ,  then  no  wonder  that  when  Christ  is  with- 
drawn, they  do  above  all  things  desire  that  he  would  return 
again.  This  must  needs  be,  for  they  live  in  the  love  of  his 
person,  and  not  of  his  benefits,  not  of  his  comforts  ;  there- 
fore above  all  things  they  say,  Return,  O  Lore,  return. 

Fourthly,  When  the  Lord  doth  return  unto  his  people, 
he  doth  then  repent  him  concerning  his  servants.  Return, 
O  Lord,  how  long,  and  let  it  repent  thee  concerning  thy 
servants.  For  the  opening  and  clearing  of  this,  four  things 
briefly  : 

What  it  is  for  God  to  repent. 

Whether  God  doth  at  any  time  repent,  or  will  at  any  time 
repent. 

How  it  may  appear  that  when  God  returns  unto  his  peo- 
ple, that  then  he  will  repent  him  concerning  his  servants. 
And, 

How  should  we  know  in  the  day  and  time  of  God's  de- 
parture from  us,  that  God  will  again  return  unto  us. 

If  you  ask  what  it  is  for  God  to  repent, 

I  answer,  It  is  to  change  the  dispensation  of  his  anger. 
God  doth  not  repent  by  the  changing  of  his  affecli  >n,  but 
he  repents  by  the  changing  of  his  dispensation.  As  when 
a  man  is  writing,  and  he  blots  out  what  lie  hath,  written,  he 


170  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SfiR.    9. 

repents  that  he  had  wrote  such  a  thing ;  so  when  God  is 
writing  hard  things  against  his  people  in  a  way  of  dispensa- 
tion, and  he  shall  blot  out  that  dispensation,  then  God  is 
said  to  repent.  So  it  repented  the  Lord  that  he  had  made 
man,  Gen.  vi. 

If  you  ask,  Whether  God  doth  or  will  at  any  time  repent  ? 

I  answer,  Yes,  expressly  in  Exod.  xxxii.  14 :  "And  the 
Lord  repented  of  the  evil  which  he  thought  to  do  unto 
his  people."  It  is  a  direct  answer  of  prayer  to  the  very 
words  at  the  12th  verse,  Moses  prays  :  "  Turn  from  thy  fierce 
wrath,  and  repent  of  this  evil  against  thy  people."  And 
at  the  14th  verse  :  "  The  Lord  repented  of  the  evil  which 
he  thought  to  do  unto  his  people."  God  doth  and  will 
sometimes  repent. 

Only  you  must  know,  God  will  more  easily  repent  of  his 
judgments  than  of  his  mercies.  And  you  must  know  that 
the  gifts  of  God  are  of  two  sorts :  ordinary  and  common 
gifts,  and  so  God  repents  of  them,  and  he  takes  them  away, 
"It  repented  the  Lord  that  he  had  made  man."  Of  the 
gifts  of  God  that  concern  effectual  vocation,  so  God  repenteth 
not;  for  the  gifts  and  callings  of  God  are  without  repen- 
tannce.  Those  gifts  that  concern  our  effectual  vocation, 
those  God  repents  not  of. 

But  then,  how  may  it  appear  that  when  the  Lord  doth 
return  unto  his  people,  that  then  he  will  repent  him  concern- 
ing his  servants  ? 

Why  that  appears  by  the  thing  itself.  If  a  man  say  he 
will  go  from  such  a  town  and  never  return  again,  and  then 
do  return,  he  doth  repent  him  concerning  the  thing,  by  his 
return  ;  and  so  concerning  God.  In  Jer.  xviii. :  "  At  what 
instant  I  shall  speak  concerning  a  nation,  and  concerning 
a  kingdom,  to  pluck  up,  and  to  pull  down,  and  to  destroy 
it,  if  that  nation  against  whom  I  have  pronounced,  turn 
from  their  evil,  I  will  repent  of  the  evil  that  I  thought  to 
do  unto  them."  WeU, 

But  then,  how  shall  we  know  in  case  God  be  absent,  or 
God  be  departed,  how  shall  we  be  able  in  the  time  of  God's 
absence,  or  departure,  to  know  that  God  will  return  again. 
Suppose  that  God  be  withdrawn  from  my  soul  in  particular, 
I  am  this  day  under  a  spiritual  desertion,  how  shall  I  know 
that  God  will  return  again  to  me.  Or  suppose  that  God 


SER.  9.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  171 

have  forsaken,  and  departed  much  from  the  nation,  how  shall 
we  know  whether  God  will  return  again  or  no  ? 

Indeed  it  is  a  very  hard  thing  to  bear  the  departures  of 
God  ;  but  yet  if  I  did  know  that  God  would  return  again, 
I  should  be  comforted ;  how  therefore  shall  I  know,  both  in 
reference  to  my  own  soul  in  particular,  and  in  reference  to 
the  nation,  that  God  will  return  again  ? 

Here  are  two  cases,  and  I  shall  speak  all  along  to  both. 

If  your  question  do  relate  unto  your  own  particular  case 
and  soul.  I  answer  thus ; 

You  may  know  it  by  your  relations.  If  you  be  in  cove- 
nant with  God ;  God  will  return  again  to  you  though  now  he 
be  absent;  "  Though  he  afflict  you  with  rods,  his  loving  kind- 
ness will  he  not  take  away,  nor  suffer  his  faithfulness  to  fail/' 
Will  a  father  or  mother  leave  their  child  ?  no ;  I  am  sure 
God  will  not.  Joseph  was  under  a  great  displeasure  with  his 
brethren,  yet  notwithstanding  at  the  last  he  could  hold 
no  longer,  but  he  bursts  out,  and  saith  "  I  am  your  brother 
Joseph."  And  so  though  you  be  under  some  great  displea- 
sure from  Christ,  yet  there  is  a  time  when  Christ  will  break 
forth  and  say  unto  you,  I  am  your  brother  Jesus.  And  I  say, 
if  you  be  in  covenant  with  God,  you  may  conclude  it,  for  so 
doth  the  Psalmist,  Psalm  xlii.  11.  "I  shall  yet  praise  him." 
My  soul,  thou  art  cast  down  and  disquieted,  but  be  quieted, 
«  for  I  shall  yet  praise  him."  Why, «  he  is  the  health  of  my 
countenance,  and  my  God."  You  may  know  it  then  by  your 
relations.  But 

Though  God  or  Christ  be  gone,  and  in  a  great  measure 
departed  from  your  souls,  yet  if  you  cannot  leave  God,  God 
cannot  leave  you.  In  our  conversion,  God  comes  to  us  be- 
fore we  come  to  him.  But  in  apostacy  we  depart  from  God, 
before  he  departs  from  us.  How  is  it  therefore  with  you  ? 
Can  you  say  truly,  my  soul  cannot  leave  God,  then  con- 
clude and  say,  God  will  return  again,  and  cannot  leave  you. 
But 

Though  God  be  very  imich  gone,  and  departed  from  you  in 
a  great  measure  ;  yet  if  in  the  time  of  his  absence  he  doth 
send  you  letters  and  tokens  of  love  you  may  know  for  certain 
he  will  return  again.  Possibly  God  or  Christ  may  appoint 
an  affliction  to  bring  you  a  token,  or  to  bring  you  a  message 
of  love  in  the  time  of  his  absence.  Possibly,  he  may  appoint 


1/2  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SfiR.  9. 

or  order  some  providence  to  bring  you  a  token,  or  some  mes- 
sage of  love.  Possibly  he  may  order  and  appoint  upholding 
mercy,  to  be  a  pledge  to  you  of  delivering  mercy.  And  be- 
lieve it,  upholding  mercy  is  always  a  pledge  of  delivering 
mercy.  How  is  it  therefore  with  you,  are  you  deserted,  is 
Christ  gone ;  yet  have  you  not  had  the  upholding  presence 
of  God  all  this  while  ?  then  be  of  good  comfort,  Christ  is  not 
so  gone  but  he  will  return  again. 

If  your  case  and  condition  be  such  that  although  you  can- 
not find  Christ,  Christ  is  gone :  though  Christ  be  gone  and 
departed  from  you  and  you  cannot  find  him,  yet  if  you  can 
direct  others  to  the  finding  of  him  when  you  cannot  find  him, 
then  certainly  he  is  not  gone,  but  he  will  return  again  unto 
you.  The  spouse  in  the  Canticles  seeks  after  Christ :  saith 
she,  "  He  hath  withdrawn  himself  and  I  cannot  find  him." 
(chap,  v.)  The  daughters  of  Jerusalem  say,  "  Whither  is 
thy  beloved  turned  aside,  that  we  may  seek  him  with  thee  ? 
My  beloved  is  gone  down  into  his  garden  to  the  beds  of  spices." 
Mark,  she  could  not  find  him  herself,  and  yet  she  can  direct 
others  to  the  finding  of  him.  What  doth  this  signify,  but 
plainly  teach  us  thus  much,  that  though  Christ  be  gone,  and 
we  cannot  find  him,  yet  if  we  can  direct  others  to  the  finding  of 
him,  he  is  not  quite  gone,  but  he  will  return  again.  Now  is 
it  thus  with  you,  when  Christ  is  gone,  cannot  you  direct 
others  to  the  finding  of  him  ":  If  you  can,  then  build  upon  it, 
he  is  not  so  gone  but  he  will  return  again. 

But  then,  suppose  that  the  Lord  be  departed  from  this  na- 
tion much ;  we  are  under  a  very  great  displeasure  of  the  Lord 
this  day :  God  is  departed  from  us,  how  shall  we  know  now 
in  the  time  of  God's  departure,  that  he  will  return  again  to 
this  nation  ? 

You  know  how  it  is  with  a  man  that  doth  leave  his  house  : 
though  he  go  away,  yet  if  his  children  be  there,  and  his  goods 
be  there,  his  plate  and  his  jewels  there,  he  will  either  come 
again  to  them,  or  send  for  them  to  himself.  Believe  it  chris- 
tians,  God  hath  a  very  great  cupboard  of  plate  in  this  nation, 
Christ  hath  much  plate  in  England,  as  much  as  in  any  nation  in 
the  world,  and  he  will  not  lose  his  plate.  There  are  three 
things  very  precious  in  the  eyes  of  God,  his  truth,  his  wor- 
ship, his  children  :  such  plate  the  Lord  hath  much  of  here, 
and  he  will  not  lose  his  plate,  therefore  he  will  return  again. 


SER.  9.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  173 

Though  he  may  afflict,  and  afflict  sorely,  yet  he  will  return 
again. 

God  will  never  go  while  prayer  stays.  If  there  be  a  pray- 
ing spirit,  and  a  spirit  of  prayer  be  up  in  this  nation,  conclude 
that  God  is  not  quite  gone,  but  he  will  return  again. 

You  may  know  it  by  the  providential  pledges,  that  the 
Lord  sends  you.  God  was  very  much  displeased  with  Jo- 
nah ;  you  know,  he  threw  him  overboard  into  the  sea ;  but 
then  he  appointed  a  whale  to  receive  him,  to  give  him  enter- 
tainment :  to  provide  a  chamber  of  preservation,  even  in  the 
belly  of  destruction.  What  did  this  signify  ?  It  signified 
thus  much,  that  God  would  deliver  him  afterwards  ;  this  pro- 
vidence was  a  pledge  for  after  deliverance.  So  David  was 
hunted  in  the  wilderness  by  Saul,  but  in  the  wilderness,  God 
gave  Saul  into  his  hand.  What  did  that  signify  ?  That 
present  deliverance  did  signify  to  David,  an  after  deliver- 
ance. Now  though  God  be  gone  and  greatly  departed  from 
us  here  :  have  you  not  many  providential  pledges  of  his  love  ? 
What  think  you  of  the  house  that  should  have  been  blown 
up  with  fire  lately?  What  doth  it  signify,  but  thus  much, 
that  God  doth  mind  to  restrain  the  remnant  of  their  rage : 
How  many  pledges,  providential  pledges,  have  we  had  of 
God's  return  ;  therefore  let  us  say :  yet  God  will  return 
again.  But, 

If  your  estate  and  condition  be  such,  upon  which  the  Lord 
will  deliver  for  his  name's  sake,  and  with  a  notwithstanding  ; 
then  why  should  you  not  conclude  that  God  will  return 
again  :  friends,  there  is  a  time  when  God  will  deliver  his 
people,  for  his  name's  sake;  and  with  a  notwithstanding  all 
their  sins,  and  notwithstanding  all  his  own  displeasures; 
"  Nevertheless  he  saved  them  for  his  name's  sake,"  Psalm,  cvi. 
And  when  is  that,  that  God  will  deliver  a  people  for  his 
name's  sake  and  with  a  notwithstanding  ?  Look  into  Psalm 
xliv.,  and  you  shall  see  when.  Look,  when  a  people  do  suffer 
for  his  name's  sake,  then  God  will  deliver  them  for  his  name's 
sake.  "  Arise  for  our  help,  and  redeem  us  for  thy  mercy 
sake."  Why  ?  at  verse  22.  "  For  thy  sake  we  are  killed  all 
the  day  long,  and  accounted  as  sheep  for  the  slaughter." 
Therefore,  Lord,  arise  for  thy  name's  sake.  For  thy  sake  are 
we  killed.  When  a  people  suffer  for  God's  name's  sake, 
then  God  will  deliver  for  his  name's  sake,  then  God  will  de- 


174  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  [SER.  9. 

liver  with  a  notwithstanding.  How  is  it  with  you  now  ?  You 
are  in  a  suffering  day,  but  are  not  all  your  sufferings  for  the 
name  of  Christ  ?  Be  of  good  comfort  then,  though  God  may 
be  departed,  and  your  city  destroyed,  yet  he  is  not  quite  gone 
but  will  return  again.  But  then, 

Fifthly,  What  shall  we  do  that  God  may  return  again  ? 
In  answer,  I  will  still  carry  it  on  in  answer  to  both  the  cases. 

If  this  question  do  relate  unto  your  own  particular  souls ; 
if  you  say,  God  is  now  gone  from  me,  what  shall  I  do  that 
God  may  return  to  my  soul  again  ? 

I  answer  briefly,  Be  sure  of  this,  that  you  keep  your  door 
open,  the  door  of  your  hearts  open  for  Christ's  return. 
When  the  master  is  abroad,  the  servant  sits  up  to  keep  the 
door  open  for  his  coming  in. 

Be  sure  of  this,  that  now  in  the  time  of  Christ's  absence, 
you  neglect  no  duty,  though  very  unsavoury  to  you.  The 
more  unsavoury  the  duty  now  is  unto  you  through  the 
absence  of  Christ,  the  more  acceptable  unto  Christ. 

Be  sure  that  you  go  and  stand  there  where  Christ  uses  to 
be.  And  let  me  tell  you  this,  if  you  cannot  find  him  where 
he  uses  to  be,  you  shall  find  him  where  he  uses  not  to  be,  as 
you  read  in  Cant.  iii. 

Then  be  sure  of  this,  that  you  be  not  foolish  with  other 
lovers  in  the  time  of  his  absence,  lest  he  hear  thereof  and 
come  home  no  more. 

Be  sure  of  this  also,  that  you  do  gather  in  upon  Christ  by 
all  those  words  and  by  all  those  things  whereby  he  seems  to 
put  you  away  from  him.  As  the  woman  of  Canaan,  "  True, 
Lord,  but  the  dogs  eat  of  the  crumbs."  Which  made  Christ 
turn  in  again,  u  Oh,  woman,  great  is  thy  faith,  be  it  unto 
thee  even  as  thou  wilt."  But  then, 

Be  sure  that  you  send  unto  him  one  wray  or  other,  and 
tell  him  that  you  are  sick  of  love  unto  his  person.  Then  he 
returns.  And, 

Now  say,  Lord,  though  thou  killest  me,  yet  will  I  trust  in 
thee.  Friends,  it  was  faith  that  brought  Christ  and  your 
souls  together  at  the  first ;  and  it  must  be  faith  that  must 
bring  Christ  and  your  souls  together  after  a  desertion. 
Whatsoever  therefore  the  displeasure  of  the  Lord  be  upon 
you,  say,  Lord,  though  thou  killest  me  I  will  trust  in  thee  ; 


SER.  9.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  175 

though  I  cannot  see  thee,  yet  I  will  trust  in  thee,  and  wait 
upon  thee. 

But  then,  suppose  it  be  the  case  of  the  nation. 

God  is  departed  in  a  great  measure,  who  doth  not  see  it  ? 
What  shall  we  therefore  now  do  that  God  may  return  unto 
us  again  ? 

Friends,  truly  it  is  not  an  easy  thing  to  bring  God  back 
again,  when  he  is  in  a  way  of  displeasure  towards  a  people. 
The  Lord  was  angry,  and  sorely  displeased  with  Jonah ;  the 
mariners  prayed,  Jonah  confessed  his  sin,  and  yet  the  storm 
ceased  not,  yet  God  goes  on.  I  say  it  is  not  an  easy  thing 
to  bring  God  back  to  a  nation,  when  he  is  once  in  a  way  of 
displeasure  against  a  people. 

And  sometimes  the  Lord  will  never  return  unto  a  people 
again.  The  case  of  the  Gaderenes  in  the  matter  of  their 
hogs.  The  whole  city  came  unto  Christ,  and  "  besought  him 
to  be  gone."  And  away  he  went,  and  we  do  not  read  that 
ever  he  came  there  again. 

Sometimes  he  will  return  again,  but  with  reserves  of  after- 
judgments.  In  Exod.  xxxii.,  Moses  prayed,  and  the  Lord 
repented  of  the  evil  which  he  thought  to  do  unto  his  people, 
verse  14.  But,  saith  he,  verse  34 :  "  Nevertheless,  in  the 
day  when  I  visit,  I  will  visit  their  sin  upon  them."  Never- 
theless ;  for  all  I  thus  repent  me,  and  for  all  I  do  thus  return 
unto  them,  nevertheless  in  the  day  when  I  visit,  I  will  visit 
their  sin  upon  them.  Sometimes,  I  say,  he  doth  return  with 
reserves  of  after-judgments,  yet  if  you  look  into  Deut.  iii., 
the  thing  is  expressed :  "  The  Lord  will  judge  his  people, 
and  repent  himself  for  his  servants,  when  he  seeth  that  their 
power  is  gone,  and  there  is  none  shut  up  or  left." 

Well  but  then,  what  shall  we  do  ?  It  is  too  manifest,  God 
is  in  a  great  measure  gone  from  us,  and  departed  from  us, 
what  shall  we  do  now  that  God  may  reiurn  again  unto  this 
nation  ? 

Be  sure  that  you  make  your  peace  with  Christ.  Christ 
is  this  day  offended,  his  gospel  and  institutions  trampled 
upon.  A  prophet  will  the  Lord  your  God  raise  up  among 
you,  hear  ye  him  ;  if  not,  he  will  not  pardon  you ;  that  is 
Christ.  He  that  sins  against  the  great  remedy,  shall  be 
judged  without  remedy.  Christ  is  the  great  remedy ;  it  is  a 
dangerous  thing  to  sin  against  Christ.  "  O  Jerusalem,"  saith 


176  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  [SfiB.  9. 

Christ,  "  how  often  would  I  have  gathered  you,  and  you  would 
not  be  gathered ;  your  house  is  left  unto  you  desolate."  And 
in  Matt,  xxii.,  you  read  that  after  that  great  invitation  to  the 
supper,  those  that  were  invited  refused,  they  made  light 
of  it,  went  their  ways ;  and  the  remnant  took  his  servants, 
and  intreated  them  spitefully,  and  slew  them ;  but  when  the 
king  heard  thereof,  he  was  wroth,  and  he  sent  forth  his 
armies,  and  destroyed  those  murderers,  and  burnt  up  their 
city.  It  is  a  gospel  quarrel.  And  therefore,  I  say,  Is  the 
Lord  gone  and  departed  from  us  ?  Oh,  make  your  peace 
with  Christ,  it  is  Christ  that  is  offended.  Oh,  make  your 
peace  with  Christ,  else  never  look  the  Father  should  return 
again.  But  then, 

Jf  you  desire  that  God  may  return  again  unto  you,  then 
let  us  all  return  unto  the  Lord  with  all  our  hearts,  Joel  ii.  1 2, 
"  Therefore  also  now,  saith  the  Lord,  turn  ye  even  to  me 
with  all  your  heart,  with  fasting,  and  with  weeping,  and 
with  mourning :  who  knoweth  if  he  will  return,  and  repent, 
and  leave  a  blessing  behind  him  ?"  Who  knows  if  you  will  turn 
unto  him  with  all  your  heart,  but  he  will  return  to  you,  and 
leave  a  blessing  behind  him  ? 

But  look  into  Hosea  vi.,  "  Come,  and  let  us  return  unto 
the  Lord ;  for  he  hath  torn,  and  he  will  heal  us ;  he  hath 
smitten,  and  he  will  bind  us  up ;  after  two  days  will  he 
revive  us,  in  the  third  day  he  will  raise  us  up,  and  we  shall 
live  in  his  sight."  God  will  return. 

Well,  but  what  assurance  have  we  of  it ;  are  we  certain 
God  will  return  ?  Yes,  verse  3,  "  His  going  forth  is  pre- 
pared as  the  morning."  As  sure  as  a  morning  is  after  night, 
so  sure  will  God  return ;  his  going  forth  is  prepared  as  the 
morning  ;  as  certain  he  will  return  as  the  morning  doth. 

Aye,  but  when  will  God  return  ? 

In  due  season :  "  He  shall  come  unto  us  as  the  rain,  as 
the  latter  and  former  rain  unto  the  earth."  That  is,  he  will 
return  in  due  season,  his  return  of  love  shall  be  as  the  rain, 
as  the  former  and  the  latter  rain  in  their  season.  Would 
you  now  therefore  that  God  should  return  to  you.  oh,  now 
do  you  return  unto  God. 

And  that  you  may  do  so,  only  thus, 

Be  sure  of  this,  that  you  pray  and  believe,  believe  and 
pray.  Some  pray,  but  do  not  believe ;  some  say  they  believe, 


R.  9.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  177 

but  they  do  not  pray.  That  which  prayer  cannot  do,  nothing 
can  do  ;  and  that  which  faith  will  not  do,  prayer  cannot  do. 
The  prayer  of  faith  shall  heal  the  sick ;  and  who  knows  hut 
it  may  heal  a  poor  sick  nation  also.  And  therefore,  I  say, 
pray  and  believe,  and  believe  and  pray. 

Be  sure  of  this,  that  in  all  your  addresses  unto  God  in 
prayer,  you  come  to  the  bottom  in  the  matter  of  your  con- 
fession. If  you  have  days  of  fasting,  and  prayer,  and  hu- 
miliation, be  sure  that  you  come  to  the  bottom  in  the  matter 
of  your  confession,  to  confess  the  original  sin  of  all  the 
displeasure  that  is  come  upon  us.  Otherwise,  though  you 
fast,  and  pray,  and  confess,  yet  if  you  do  not  confess  and 
bewail  that  sin  which  is  the  original  of  all  our  miseries,  you 
do  but  cry  lapwing  cry,  farthest  off  from  the  nest,  and  it 
will  do  us  no  good. 

Be  sure  of  this  also,  that  you  put  away  the  evil  of  your 
doings,  and  do  the  contrary  good  ;  put  away  the  evil  of  your 
doings,  especially  your  Ashtaroth.  Friends,  though  you 
fast  and  pray,  and  humble  yourselves ;  if  you  do  not  reform, 
all  your  fasting  and  prayer  will  not  bring  God  back  again. 
All  the  days  of  fasting  and  prayer  that  you  keep,  will  do 
nothing  unless  there  be  reformation.  Yet  I  confess  still, 
God  must  have  a  latitude,  and  he  will  sometimes  save  and 
deliver  before  we  are  prepared  for  it ;  but,  I  say,  ordinarily, 
though  you  fast,  and  pray,  and  cry  never  so  much,  yet  if  you 
do  not  reform,  all  your  prayers  will  not  do.  And  though 
you  do  reform,  yet  if  you  do  not  reform  and  put  away  your 
Ashtaroth,  that  sin  that  hath  brought  this  displeasure,  your 
reformation  will  not  do.  And  though  you  do  thus  also,  yet 
if  you  do  not  do  the  contrary  good,  it  will  not  serve.  Look 
to  that  therefore. 

Be  sure  of  this,  that  you  go  out  of  yourselves,  and 
lay  down  all  your  worldly  interests  at  the  feet  of  the  Lord, 
saying,  Come  Lord,  return,  O  Lord  :  not,  Return,  O  my  trade 
return;  not,  Return,  O  our  ships  return  ;  not,  Return,  O  our 
peace  return  :  but,  Return,  O  Lord,  return,  O  Lord.  Friends, 
the  more  you  go  out  of  yourselves,  the  more  fit  you  are  for 
God  to  return  unto  you. 

And  to  conclude  it,  If  you  desire  that  God  should  return 
unto  you,  and  that  you  may  return  to  God,  go  then  to  God, 

VOL.  in.  x 


178  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SKR.  9. 

and  pray,  and  say,  Turn  us,  O  Lord,  and  we  shall  be  turned. 
And  thus  I  have  spoken  to  this  case. 

Yet  there  is  one  thing  more.  It  is  a  tedious  thing  tu  lie 
under  God's  departure.  There  may  be  hopes  that  God  may 
return  again ;  but  what  shall  we  do  in  the  interim  till  God 
returns  again  ? 

1  will  briefly  speak  to  it,  and  have  done. 
If  your  question  do  relate  unto  your  particular  souls,  and 
you  say,  God  is  now  gone  from  my  soul,  what  shall  I  do  in 
the  interim  till  God  return  again  ? 

Be  sure  that  you  carry  it  as  the  afflicted  spouse  of  Christ 
in  the  absence  of  your  husband ;  and  for  that  you  may  read 
at  large  in  the  book  of  the  Canticles. 

Be  sure  of  this,  that  you  maintain  your  interest,  and  let 
not  the  sense  of  your  interest  in  God  and  Christ  be  dis- 
solved. Return,  O  Lord,  how  long !  and  let  it  repent  thee 
concerning  thy  servants.  Still  they  keep  their  interest,  thy 
servants  still.  And  so  the  spouse,  "  I  am  my  beloved's,  and 
my  beloved  is  mine/' 

Be  sure  of  this,  that  you  never  come  to  say,  God  will 
never  return  again;  though  you  say,  Lord,  how  long  ?  yet 
never  say,  God  is  gone,  and  will  return  no  more.  Poor, 
drooping,  afflicted,  and  deserted  soul,  be  sure  of  this,  that 
you  never  say,  God  will  never  return ;  lo,  he  cometh  leaping 
over  the  mountains,  over  difficulties  to  you;  only  be  you  wil- 
ling to  go  leaping  over  the  mountains  of  difficulties  for  to  meet 
with  him. 

And  if  your  question  do  concern  the  public  or  the  nation, 
what  shall  we  do  till  God  do  return  again  ? 

I  answer,  Then  go  and  lament  after  God.  Is  God  gone, 
and  is  God  departed  in  a  great  measure  from  this  nation  ? 
now  go  and  lament  after  God.  Twenty  years,  when  the  ark 
was  taken,  the  children  of  Israel  lamented  after  God  in  the 
ark.  How  long,  how  long  God  may  stay  at  a  distance  from 
us,  God  only  knows ;  in  the  interim  let  us  all  now  go  and 
lament  after  God.  And 

Be  sure  that  you  keep  his  ambassadors  with  you.  When 
he  calls  home  his  ambassadors,  he  proclaims  war  against  a 
nation  ;  but  so  long  as  he  hath  any  agents  among  you,  he  is 
not  quite  gone.  And 

If  ever  God  begins  to  return  to  us  again,  be  thankful  for 


SER.  10.]          CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  179 

the  beginnings  of  his  return.  He  that  is  thankful  for  little, 
shall  have  much  ;  and  he  that  is  thankful  for  the  beginnings 
of  return,  shall  have  a  whole  return.  Thus  do  then,  and  who 
knowrs  but  that  the  Lord  may  yet  return,  and  leave  a  blessing 
behind  him  ?  That  he  may  do  so,  let  us  now  pray,  and  say 
with  the  Psalmist,  "  Return  O  Lord,  how  long,  and  let  it  re- 
pent thee  concerning  thy  servants." 


SERMON    X. 

PREVENTING    MERCY. 

"  For  thou  preventest  him  with  the  blessings  of  goodness. 

"  Thou  hast  given  him  his  heart's  desire,  and  hast  not  withholden 
the  request  of  his  lips.  Selah.  For  thou  preventest  him  with  the  bles- 
sings of  goodness." — PSALM  xxi.  2,  3. 

THIS  psalm  is  a  psalm  of  thanksgiving,  wherein  the  psalmist 
doth  profess,  that  he  will  joy  in  the  Lord,  verse  1.,  "  The 
king  shall  joy  in  thy  strength,  O  Lord,  and  in  thy  salvation 
how  greatly  shall  he  rejoice/'  Why  so  ?  because  that  the 
Lord  had  heard  and  granted  his  petition,  "  Thou  hast  not 
withholden  the  request  of  his  lips,"  verse  2.  Yea,  more  than 
so,  "  Thou  hast  given  him  his  heart's  desire,"  verse  2.,  yea, 
more  than  so,  thou  hast  given  him  more  than  he  asked,  for 
"  he  asked  life  of  thee,  and  thou  gavest  it  him,  even  length 
of  days  for  ever  and  ever,"  verse  4.  Yet  more  than  so,  thou 
hast  not  only  given  him  his  heart's  desire,  an  answer  to  his 
prayer,  and  more  than  he  prayed  for,  but  "  thou  hast  pre- 
vented him  with  the  blessings  of  goodness."  As  if  he  should 
say,  Lord,  I  never  asked  a  kingdom,  I  never  thought  of  a 
kingdom,  but  thou  hast  prevented  me  with  the  blessings  of 
thy  goodness,  and  thou  hast  set  "  a  crown  of  pure  gold  on  my 
head  ;"  blessings  of  goodness,  in  the  Hebrew,  is  put  for  good 
blessings,  wherewith  the  Lord  doth  anticipate  the  psalmist ; 
for  thou  preventest  him  with  the  blessings  of  goodness  ;  in 
the  consideration  of  which  preventing  love  and  grace,  his 
heart  was  much  warmed,  and  affected. 

From  whence  then  I  take  up  this  note  or  doctrine. 

N2 


180  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SER.    10. 

That  it  is  a  sweet  thing,  and  worthy  of  all  our  thankful 
acknowledgments  to  be  prevented  with  the  blessings  of  God's 
goodness,  or  God's  good  blessings. 

Preventing  mercy  is  sweet  mercy,  soul  refreshing  mercy, 
which  a  thankful  gracious  heart  doth  well  observe,  and  in  the 
observation  thereof  is  much  refreshed  therewithal. 
For  the  opening  and  prosecution  of  which  argument, 
First,  I   shall  labour  to  shew  that  it  is  no  new  thing  for 
God  to  walk  in  the  way  of  preventing  mercy  with  the  chil- 
dren of  men. 

Secondly,  How  and  in  what  respects  God  will  prevent  us 
with  his  mercies,  or  his  blessings. 

Thirdly,  What  those  choice  blessings  are,  wherewith  God 
will  prevent  the  children  of  men. 

Fourthly,  Why  God  will  carry  on  the  work  of  his  mercy  in 
a  way  of  preventing  love. 

Fifthly,  What  there  is  in  this  preventing  love,  that  should 
be  so  sweet  and  soul  refreshing  to  a  thankful  gracious  heart. 
And 

Sixthly,  In  case  that  God  hath  prevented  any  of  us 
with  his  love  or  mercy,  what  is  our  duty  that  doth  flow  from 
thence. 

First,  It  is  no  new  thing  for  God  to  walk  in  a  way  of  pre- 
venting love  and  mercy  with  the  children  of  men.  Thus  he 
hath  always  dealt,  doth  deal,  and  will  deal  so ;  thus  he  hath 
always  dealt,  so  with  the  world,  so  with  the  nations  of  the 
world,  so  with  great  towns  and  places,  so  with  families,  and 
so  with  particular  souls. 

As  for  the  world ;  did  not  God  first  come  with  his  mercy  to 
the  world,  before  the  world  made  after  it  ?  "  God  so  loved  the 
world,  that  he  gave  his  only  begotten  Son."  But  how  did  he 
give  this  gift  ?  Did  we  beg  it  first,  did  we  seek  it  first,  or 
did  he  first  prevent  us  with  it  ?  When  Adam,  and  all  the 
world  in  Adam  had  sinned,  fallen,  did  Adam  and  the  world 
first  go  to  God  for  Christ,  or  for  the  promise  of  Christ ;  or 
did  God  first  give  out  the  promise  of  Christ,  before  Adam  or 
the  world  sought  it  ?  "  The  seed  of  the  woman  shall  break 
the  serpent's  head ;"  God  first  gave  out  this  promise  of 
Christ,  before  Adam  or  the  world  sought  it.  Thus  in  regard 
of  the  world. 

And  as  he  hath  dealt  thus  with  the  world  in  regard  of  pre- 


SEP.  10.]  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  181 

venting  mercy,  so  with  the  nations  of  the  world  :  with  the 
nation  of  the  Jews  ;  so  in  Ezek  xvi.,  "  When  thou  layedst  in 
thy  blood,  and  no  eye  pitied  thee,  I  passed  by  thee,  and  said 
unto  thee,  live."  So  when  the  nation  of  the  Jews  shall  yet 
be  converted  again :  "  He  is  found  of  those  that  seek  him 
not :"  it  is  spoken  of  the  calling  of  the  Jews.  And  as  for 
the  nations  of  the  gentiles,  says  our  Saviour  Christ  to  his 
disciples,  u  Go,  teach  all  nations."  Did  the  nations  of  the 
gentiles  come  to  Christ,  and  say,  Lord,  the  nation  of  the 
Jews  have  rejected  thee,  now  then  let  the  gospel  come  to  us, 
and  we  will  receive  it  ?  No,  but  says  the  Saviour  Christ, 
"  Go,  feach  all  nations,"  whatever  they  be,  rich  or  poor,  high 
or  low,  whatever  they  be,  "  Go,  teach  all  nations,  and  I  will 
be  with  you,"  for  their  conversion,  for  their  salvation,  to  the 
end  of  Ihe  world.  Thus  in  regard  of  nations. 

So,  also,  in  regard  of  towns,  great  towns,  places,  corpora- 
tions. What  worse  town  than  that  of  Capernaum  which 
afterward  was  exalted  to  heaven  ?  But  did  Capernaum  first 
come  to  Christ,  or  did  Christ  first  go  to  Capernaum  ?  Christ 
first  went  to  them.  Matt.  iv.  Ye  read  of  several  towns  in 
the  Acts  of  the  Apostles  that  did  receive  the  gospel  by  the 
hands  of  the  apostles,  Icqnium,  Derbe,  Lystra ;  but  did  these 
towns  first  seek  to  the  apostles,  and  say,  Pray  come  and 
preach  Christ  to  us  ;  or  did  the  apostles  first  go  to  them  ? 
The  apostles  first  went  with  commission  from  God  to  them. 
Thus  in  regard  of  towns. 

And  as  God  dealt  thus  with  towns,  preventing  towns  and 
corporations  with  the  means  of  grace,  when  they  never 
thought  on  it,  so  in  regard  of  families.  Who  doth  not  know 
how  God  by  his  mercy  did  prevent  the  family  of  the  jailor, 
converting  that  family  by  his  preventing  love  ?  Who  dotli 
not  know  how  God  dealt  by  Zaccheus  and  his  family  :  Zac- 
cheus got  up  the  tree,  may  be  in  curiosity,  among  the  multi- 
tude to  see  Christ  go  by;  but  Christ  seeing  him,  invites 
himself  to  his  house  :  "  Come  down,  Zaccheus,  for  to  day  I 
must  abide  at  thy  house."  Did  Zaccheus  first  invite  Christ, 
or  did  Christ  first  invite  himself?  Christ  first  invited  him- 
self. Tims  in  regard  of  families. 

And  as  for  particular  souls,  you  know  how  it  was  with 
Matthew  the  publican,  sitting  at  the  receipt  of  custom  ; 
Come  and  follow  me,  says  Christ ;  preventing  of  him.  And 


182  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SflR.  10. 

you  know  how  it  was  with  Paul ;  "  I  was  a  blasphemer,  and  I 
was  a  persecutor,  but  I  obtained  mercy."  How  so  ?  Did  he 
seek  it  first  ?  No,  says  he,  I  went  breathing  out  threatenings 
against  the  people  of  God,  and  God  met  me,  and  unhorsed 
me ;  God  prevented  me  with  his  grace  and  mercy.  Thus 
Paul.  And  pray  tell  me  what  do  you  think  of  that  whole  chap- 
ter of  Luke,  the  xvth  ?  There  are  three  parables :  the  parable 
of  the  lost  groat,  of  the  lost  sheep,  and  of  the  lost  son.  The 
woman  lost  her  groat,  and  swept  to  find  it;  but  did  the  groat 
make  first  towards  the  \toman  or  the  woman  make  after  the 
groat  first  ?  The  shepherd  lost  his  sheep,  but  did  the  sheep 
make  first  after  the  shepherd  or  the  shepherd  after  the  sheep  ? 
Indeed  it  is  said  concerning  the  lost  son  that  he  first  takes  up 
a  resolution,  <:  I  will  return  home  to  my  father ;"  but  when 
his  father  saw  him  afar  off,  he  ran  and  met  him  and  embraced 
him  and  welcomed  him  home.  Why  ?  But  to  shew  that  the 
work  of  grace  and  mercy  shall  be  all  along  carried  on  in  a 
way  of  preventing  love.  Thus  it  was  with  the  world  from  the 
beginning,  thus  with  the  nations  of  the  Jews  and  gentiles, 
thus  with  great  towns  and  corporations,  thus  with  whole  fami- 
lies, and  thus  with  particular  souls.  It  is  no  new  thing, 
therefore,  for  God  to  walk  in  a  way  of  preventing  love  towards 
the  children  of  men.  That  is  the  first. 

Secondly.  Well  but,  then,  how  and  in  what  respects  will 
God  prevent  us  with  his  mercies,  or  with  his  good  blessings  ? 

He  will  prevent  us  with  his  mercies  in  reference  to  our 
own  deservings;  when  we  deserve  evil  we  shall  receive  good. 
Is  it  not  a  great  prevention  when  a  man  shall  deserve  evil,  to 
receive  good  ?  Thus  will  God  deal  with  men  sometimes  : 
"  He  hath  not  dealt  with  us  after  our  sins,  nor  rewarded  us 
according  to  our  iniquities."  Did  not  Moses  deserve  a  sharp 
chiding  and  to  be  beaten  out  of  his  excuses,  when  God  sent  him 
upon  his  work,  and  he  stood  excusing  the  matter  so  long  ? 
Exod.  iv.  "  He  said,  Oh,  my  Lord,  send  I  pray  thee  by  the 
hand  of  him  whom  thou  wilt  send :  and  the  anger  of  the 
Lord  was  kindled  against  Moses."  What  was  the  issue  of  it  ? 
Instead  of  blows,  mercy;  instead  of  chiding  and  threatening, 
a  promise.  "  And  he  said,  Is  not  Aaron  the  Levite  thy  bro- 
ther? I  know  that  he  can  speak  well,  and  lo,  behold  he 
cometh  forth  to  meet  thee,  and  when  he  seeth  thee  he  will  be 
glad  in  his  heart;  and  thou  shalt  speak  unto  him,  and  put 


10.]  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  183 

words  in  his  mouth,  and  I  will  be  with  thy  mouth  and  with 
his  mouth,  and  will  teach  ye  what  ye  shall  do."  Here  is  good 
in  the  stead  of  evil.  Thus  God  prevents  us  with  his  mercies 
in  reference  to  our  own  deservings. 

As  God  doth  prevent  us  thus  in  reference  to  our  own  de- 
servings,  so  he  doth  prevent  us  also  in  reference  to  his  own 
proceedings  of  common  providence.  Look  when  God  doth 
give  in  a  mercy  that  is  beyond  the  reach  of  the  second  cause, 
that  is  stronger  or  greater  than  the  root  of  the  second  cause 
will  bear,  or  beyond  common  providence,  then  God  is  said  to 
prevent  us  with  his  mercy.  Now  thus  God  doth  many 
times  give  in  a  mercy  that  the  root  of  the  second  cause  can- 
not bear.  So  he  gave  Elizabeth  a  child  and  Sarah  a  child 
when  they  were  old.  "  With  this  staff  came  I  over  this 
brook  (says  Jacob),  and  lo  I  am  become  two  bands."  And 
thus  Israel  said,  "  A  Syrian  ready  to  perish  was  my  father, 
(Deut.  xxvi.  5,)  and  he  went  down  into  Egypt,  and  sojourned 
there  with  a  few,  and  became  there  a  nation,  great,  mighty 
and  populous."  A  Syrian  ready  to  perish  was  my  father. 
As  if  a  man  should  say,  I  came  here  to  London,  poor,  having 
but  my  pen  and  inkhorn  by  my  side,  and  now  I  am  risen  up 
to  a  great  estate,  beyond  all  my  own  parts,  wits  and  endea- 
vours, for  the  Lord  hath  prevented  me  with  the  blessings  of 
his  goodness.  Thus  God  doth  sometimes  prevent  us  with  his 
mercy  in  reference  to  his  own  proceedings  of  common  provi- 
dence, or  the  course  of  nature. 

And  then,  again,  as  the  Lord  doth  thus  prevent  us  with  his 
rnercy  in  reference  to  his  own  proceedings  of  common  provi- 
dsnce,  so  he  doth  prevent  us  with  his  mercy  in  reference  to 
our  own  preparedness.  Look  when  God  doth  give  in  a  mercy 
that  we  are  not  prepared  for,  then  God  is  said  to  prevent  us 
with  his  mercy.  Now  was  it  not  a  great  and  choice  mercy 
for  the  ark  to  be  brought  home  again  to  Israel  ?  Yet,  not- 
withstanding, you  shall  find  they  were  not  prepared  for  it ; 
before  they  were  prepared  God  gave  them  in  the  mercy :  the 
ark  came  back,  1  Sam.  vi.,  but  their  preparation  you  read  of 
in  the  viith  chapter  :  "  And  Samuel  said  to  all  the  house  of 
Israel,  If  you  do  return  unto  the  Lord  with  all  your  hearts, 
then  put  away  the  strange  gods,  and  Ashtaroth  ;  and  the 
children  of  Israel  did  put  away  Baalim  and  Ashtaroth  and 
served  the  Lord  only."  This  was  after  the  ark  come  home  ; 


184  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  [SfiR.  10* 

so  then  the  ark  returned  before  they  were  thus  prepared. 
And  you  know  what  is  said  in  the  Iviith  of  Isaiah  :  "  For  the 
iniquity  of  his  covetousness  I  was  wroth  and  smote  him,  I 
hid  me  and  was  wroth,  and  he  went  on  frowardly  in  the  way 
of  his  heart."  What  then  ?  Verse  18,  "I  have  seen  his 
ways  and  will  heal  him  ;  I  will  lead  him,  also,  and  restore 
comforts  to  him  and  to  his  mourners  •"  over  and  beyond  all 
preparations,  for  he  went  on  frowardly  in  the  way  of  his 
heart,  and  he  was  not  prepared  ;  but  notwithstanding  his 
want  of  preparation,  I  have  seen  his  ways  and  will  heal  him, 
and  will  restore  comforts  to  him  and  to  his  mourners.  Thus 
God  doth  sometimes  prevent  us  with  his  mercy  in  reference 
to  our  own  preparedness  for  his  mercy. 

As  God  doth  prevent  us  with  his  mercy,  in  reference  to 
our  preparedness  for  his  mercy  ;  so  he  doth  prevent  us  with 
his  mercy,  in  reference  to  all  our  prayers.  Look  when  God 
gives  in  a  mercy  before  we  pray  for  it,  then  God  is  truly 
said  to  prevent  us  with  his  mercy.  It  is  ordinarily  said,  God 
will  not  set  in  his  mercy  before  our  oven  be  hot;  but  if  God 
should  never  set  in  his  mercy,  until  our  oven  and  hearts  be 
hot  in  prayer,  we  had  been  an  unredeemed  people  to  this 
day.  Though  God  will  answer  prayer,  yet  he  will  be  found 
also  of  them  that  seek  him  not.  Do  ye  say,  Why  then  should 
we  pray?  I  answer,  that  you  are  to  pray,  not  only  because 
it  is  your  duty  to  pray,  but,  the  more  God  works  in  an  extra- 
ordinary way,  the  more  it  is  our  duty  to  be  found  in  the  use 
of  ordinary  means.  And  what  if  I  say,  that  the  same  mercy 
may  come  as  an  answer  to  prayer,  and  yet  in  a  way  of  pre- 
venting love  too  ?  What  say  you  to  the  case  of  Hezekiah  ? 
When  he  was  sick  he  prayed,  and  God  heard  his  prayer,  and 
health  came  as  an  answer  of  prayer ;  and  yet  he  was  pre- 
vented, for  fifteen  years  more  God  gave  in  to  him,  which  was 
beyond  his  prayer.  You  know  how  it  was  with  Zacharias  ; 
says  the  Lord,  "  I  have  heard  thy  prayer,"  and  gave  him  a 
child,  yet  he  did  not  pray  for  a  child,  for  he  could  not  believe 
that  he  should  have  a  child ;  so  that  God  gave  him  a  child  in 
a  way  of  preventing  mercy,  and  yet  it  was  in  answer  of 
prayer  too.  So  here  in  the  text :  "  Thou  hast  given  him  his 
heart's  desire,  and  hast  not  withholden  the  request  of  his 
lips,  for  thou  hast  prevented  him  with  the  blessings  of  thy 
goodness."  Why  ?  Why  although  the  mercy  received  may 


SttR.  10.]  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  185 

be  an  answer  of  prayer  in  regard  of  the  body  of  it,  yet  it 
may  come  in  a  way  of  preventing  love  as  to  the  moreness  of 
it.  So  it  was  with  David,  so  with  Hezekiah,  and  so  with 
Zacharias.  Thus  God  doth  sometimes  prevent,  as  in  refer- 
ence to  our  prayer,  giving  in  mercy  beyond  all  our  prayers. 

And  then,  as  God  doth  prevent  us  in  reference  to  our 
prayers,  so  in  reference  to  our  believing  thoughts  or  expec- 
tancies. "  When  the  Lord  turned  the  captivity  of  Zion,  we 
were  like  them  that  dreamed."  Why  were  we  as  them  that 
dreamed  ?  Why  truly  we  never  looked  for  it,  nor  expected 
it,  we  did  not  think  on  it,  it  was  beyond  all  our  expectations. 
Thus  God  doth  prevent  us  sometimes  in  reference  to  our 
expectancies,  to  our  faith,  and  to  our  thoughts. 

As  he  thus  prevents  us  with  his  mercy  in  reference  to  our 
thoughts,  and  faith,  and  expectance^  so  in  reference  to  his 
own  promises  and  the  conditions  thereof.  If  I  promise  a 
man  a  kindness  upon  a  condition,  and  do  that  kindness  for 
him  when  he  hath  not  performed  the  condition,  then  I  pre- 
vent him  with  kindness.  Now  the  Lord  hath  promise]  many 
a  mercy  upon  a  condition,  and  yet  given  the  mercy  when  we 
have  not  performed  the  condition  :  "  I  said  (says  David)  I 
would  confess  my  sin,  and  thou,  Lord,  forgavest  my  iniquity." 
Lord,  thou  hast  made  a  promise  of  forgiveness,  upon  condi- 
tion of  our  confession  and  humiliation ;  I  did  not  go  so 
far,  I  did  but  say,  I  would  confess  my  sin,  and  thou  pre- 
ventedst  me  with  thy  forgiving  love.  Thus  now  you  see,  how 
and  in  what  respects  God  doth  prevent  us  with  his  mercy. 
He  doth  prevent  us  with  his  mercy  in  reference  to  our 
deservings,  in  reference  to  his  own  proceedings  of  common 
providence,  in  reference  to  all  our  prayers,  in  reference  to 
our  faith  and  expectance,  in  reference  to  our  preparedness, 
and  in  reference  to  his  own  promises  and  the  conditions 
thereof.  That  is  the  second. 

Thirdly,  Well  but  then,  what  are  those  choice  blessings 
wherewith  God  will  prevent  his  people  ? 

What  not  ?  But  the  greater  the  blessing  is,  the  more  it  is 
steeped  in  preventing  love.  There  are  outward  blessings  and 
there  are  inward  blessings;  there  are  temporal  blessings  and 
there  are  eternal  blessings.  Now  though  the  preventing  love 
of  God  doth  shine  forth  in  all,  yet  the  greater  the  blessing 


186  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SfiR.   10. 

or  the  mercy  is,  the  more  it  is  irradiated  with  the  beams  of 
preventing  love. 

Will  ye  instance  ? 

Will  ye  instance  in  the  great  matter  of  our  redemption  ? 
What  greater  mercy  or  blessing,  than  our  redemption  in 
and  by  Jesus  Christ  ?  that  is  of  grace  :  "  In  whom  we  have 
redemption  through  his  blood,  the  forgiveness  of  our  sins, 
according  to  the  riches  of  his  grace."  And  when  Christ 
came  into  the  world,  in  reference  to  our  redemption  to  take 
our  nature  upon  him  ;  do  but  see  what  a  pack  of  wicked  men 
were  then  extant  upon  the  ground,  in  Luke  iii.  1,  "  Now  in 
the  fifteenth  year  of  the  reign  of  Tiberius  Ceesar,  (there  is 
one,)  Pontius  Pilate  being  governor  of  Judea,  (there  is  an- 
other,) and  Herod  being  tetrarch  of  Galilee,  (there  is  an- 
other,) and  his  brother  Philip  tetrarch  of  Iturea,  Annas  and 
Caiaphas  being  high  priests,  the  word  of  God  came  unto  John 
the  son  of  Zacharias  in  the  wilderness."  And  why  was 
Christ  born  in  such  a  time  as  this,  and  among  such  com- 
pany ?  but  all  to  shew  that  the  work  of  our  redemption  was 
to  be  carried  on  in  a  way  of  preventing  love. 

Or  will  ye  instance  in  the  matter  of  our  conversion  ? 
What  greater  mercy  or  blessing  than  our  conversion  ?  Yet 
look  into  Job  xxxiii.,  and  you  shall  see  how  that  mercy  comes 
swimming  down  the  stream  of  preventing  love.  "  God 
speaketh  once,  yea  twice,  yet  man  perceiveth  it  not."  What 
then  ?  "  In  a  dream,  in  a  vision  of  the  night,  when  deep 
sleep  falleth  upon  men,  in  slumberings  upon  the  bed,  then  he 
openeth  the  ears  of  men,  and  sealeth  their  instruction." 

Or  will  ye  instance  in  the  matter  of  our  justification  ? 
What  greater  mercy  or  blessing  than  that  of  our  justification? 
Yet  this  also  comes  swimming  down  the  stream  of  preventing 
love,  for  "  he  justifies  the  ungodly."  And  in  Rom.  iv.  it  is 
said  of  Abraham,  that  he  was  justified  not  yet  circumcised, 
for  we  say,  "  that  faith  was  reckoned  to  him  for  righteous- 
ness," verse  9.  How  was  it  then  reckoned,  when  he  was  in 
circumcision  or  in  uncircumcision ;  not  in  circumcision  but 
in  uncircumcision  ?  Why,  why  not  in  circumcision,  but  in 
his  uncircumcision  ?  but  to  shew  that  this  mercy  of  justifica- 
tion must  be  carried  on  in  a  way  of  preventing  love. 

Or  will  ye  instance  in  the  matter  of  our  sanctificatihn  ? 
What  greater  mercy  than  to  be  truly  sanctified  ?  Yet  this 


SER.  10.]  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  187 

also  comes  swimming  down  the  stream  of  preventing  love. 
"  I  will  wash  ye  with  clean  water."  u  Such  and  such  were 
some  of  you,  but  ye  are  washed,  but  ye  are  sanctified  in  the 
name  of  the  Lord."  This  also  in  a  way  of  preventing  love. 

Will  ye  instance  in  the  matter  of  consolation  ?  What 
greater  mercy  than  for  a  poor  drooping  soul  to  be  truly  com- 
forted ?  This  also  comes  in  a  way  of  preventing  love.  "  Or 
ever  I  was  aware,"  before  I  was  aware,  saith  the  spouse, "my 
soul  was  as  the  chariots  of  Amminadib."  I  was  unwilling  to 
receive  the  promise,  my  soul  refused  to  be  comforted  ;  but, 
"  Or  ever  I  was  aware,  my  soul  was  as  the  chariots  of  a 
willing  people,"  of  Amminadib,  that  is,  of  a  willing  people. 
When  Christ  was  dead,  how  sad  was  Mary ;  Christ  did  but 
come  unto  her,  and  say,  Mary,  and  she  was  comforted. 

Will  ye  instance  in  the  revelation  of  the  truths  of  the 
times  ?  What  greater  blessing  than  for  a  man  to  be  well 
acquainted  with  the  truth  of  the  times,  in  opposition  to  anti- 
christ ?  Now  says  John  in  Rev.  i.,  when  these  truths  were 
given  out,  "  I  heard  a  voice  behind  me  ;"  before  I  was  aware, 
God  prevented  me,  acquainting  me  with  these  truths  of  the 
Revelations. 

Or  will  ye  instance  in  outward  blessings  or  mercies  ?  Then 
I  will  appeal  to  you,  in  the  great  turnings  of  your  lives,  hath 
not  God  prevented  you  with  his  blessings  ?  It  is  true  we  are 
to  trade  in  a  way  of  prayer  to  gain  outward  blessings  and 
mercies  ;  but,  I  say,  when  ever  did  you  meet  with  any  great 
turn  of  your  life,  but  it  was  cast  by  preventing  love  before 
prayer  came  in  ?  So  that  do  ye  ask,  what  are  those  choice 
blessings  wherewith  God  will  prevent  his  people  ?  you  see 
here  what  they  are.  So  I  have  done  with  the  third  thing. 

Fourthly,  Now  why  will  God  carry  on  the  work  of  his 
mercy  in  a  way  of  preventing  love  ? 

Because  the  heart  of  God  is  full  of  love  to  the  children  of 
men.  Ordinary  love  will  shew  kindness  upon  kindness  ;  but 
when  the  heart  is  full  of  love,  it  delights  to  prevent  the  per- 
son loved  with  kindness.  Now  the  heart  of  God  is  full  of 
love  for  the  children  of  men. 

God  will  so  carry  on  the  work  of  his  grace  and  mercy, 
that  all  his  mercies  and  blessings  now  may  be  conformed 
to  the  womb  that  bare  them.  The  child  follows  the  womb 
that  bare  it ;  the  first  in  every  kind  is  the  rule  of  the  rest. 


188  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  [SfiR.  10. 

Now  election  is  the  womb  of  all  our  mercies ;  and  doth  not 
preventing  love  sway  there  ?  "  I  have  loved  Jacob,  and  hated 
Esau,"  before  they  had  done  either  good  or  evil ;  there  is 
preventing  love.  Now  I  say,  God  will  so  carry  on  the  work 
of  his  mercy,  that  all  his  mercies  and  blessings  may  be  con- 
formed to  their  first  original  election,  and  there  preventing 
mercy  is  very  sweet. 

But  God  will  so  carry  on  the  work  of  his  mercy,  as  it 
may  be  most  taking  and  effective  upon  the  souls  of  the 
children  of  men  ;  and  what  is  more  taking  than  preventing 
love  ?  What  more  operative,  what  more  powerful,  what 
more  taking  I  say  ?  You  know  the  parable ;  some  were 
invited  to  the  supper,  and  some  not  invited  ;  some  came  and 
some  came  not;  who  were  those  that  came  ?  who  were  those 
that  came  not  ?  those  that  came  not  were  such  as  were 
invited;  those  that  came  were  such  as  were  in  the  lanes, 
highways,  and  hedges,  compelled  to  come  in.  Aye,  pre- 
venting love  is  the  most  taking  ;  now  God  will  so  carry  on 
the  work  of  his  mercy^  as  it  may  be  most  taking,  and  most 
effective  upon  the  souls  of  the  children  of  men. 

Again,  God  will  so  carry  on  his  mercy,  as  that  it  may 
be  holding  and  sure.  The  more  any  mercy  is  laid  upon 
that  which  is  in  God  himself,  and  the  less  laid  upon  that 
which  is  in  us,  the  more  holding  and  sure  it  is.  Now 
mercy  laid  upon  grace  is  sure,  and  therefore  God  will 
carry  on  the  work  of  his  mercy  in  a  way  of  preventing  love, 
that  his  mercy  may  be  sure,  that  it  may  be  holding. 

Again,  God  will  so  carry  on  the  work  of  his  mercy,  as 
that  it  may  be  most  engaging,  and  most  obliging  with  the 
hearts  of  men.  What  is  there  in  all  the  world  that  is  more 
engaging  to  an  ingenuous  spirit  than  grace  ?  And  what  is 
there  more  gracious  than  preventing  love  ?  Thereby  a  soul 
is  engaged  to  God.  Aye,  says  a  poor  soul,  I  was  going  on 
in  the  way  of  my  sin,  lay  snorting  in  my  sin,  and  never 
thought  on  the  good  ways  of  God,  unless  it  were  to  oppose 
them,  and  speak  against  them ;  but  then,  before  I  was  aware, 
I  know  not  how,  God  did  reveal  himself  and  his  ways  to  me  ; 
oh,  now  what  shall  I  do  for  God  ?  I  will  spend  and  be 
spent  for  God  ;  "  anything  for  Christ,"  who  hath  thus  over- 
come me  with  his  preventing  love.  Of  all  those  that  are 
called  the  ancients,  Austin  did  most  magnify  the  grace  of 


SER.   10.]  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  189 

God  ;  Bradwardine  called  him  the  son  of  grace  ;  and  of  all 
in  those  days,  none  that  we  read  of  tasted  so  much  of  the 
preventing  mercy  of  God  as  he.  When  he  was  young  he 
prayed  for  the  mortification  of  his  sin,  and  yet  he  confesses 
that  he  secretly  desired  that  God  would  not  grant  his  prayer, 
yet  God  prevented  his  prayer.  Another  time  being  alone, 
he  heard  a  voice  saying,  Tolle  lege,  tolle  lege,  take  and  read, 
take  and  read ;  and  he  opened  the  bible,  and  pitched  upon 
some  words  in  the  first  of  John,  that  proved  the  beginning 
of  his  conversion.  Another  time  going  a  journey,  he  misses 
his  way,  and  missing  his  way  he  escaped  his  enemies  that 
lay  in  the  way  for  him ;  several  times  God  prevented  him, 
insomuch  that  he  brake  out  into  this  expression  :  Lord,  I  did 
not  first  come  to  thee,  but  thou  didst  first  come  and  stir  me 
up  to  come  unto  thee.  And  who  ever  magnified  the  freeness 
of  the  riches  of  the  grace  of  God  like  Paul  ?  And  why  ? 
Of  all  the  men  in  the  world,  he  lay  under  the  greatest 
preventions  of  divine  love;  no  wonder  therefore  Paul  of  all 
men  magnified  the  free  grace  of  God,  for  he  of  all  other  lay 
under  the  preventions  of  divine  love. 

Again  further,  God  will  so  carry  on  the  work  of  his  grace 
and  mercy,  that  no  flesh  may  glory  in  itself,  that  we  may 
not  rest  upon  any  thing  that  we  do,  or  have,  or  suffer.  When 
we  are  to  come  to  duty,  we  are  unwilling  to  it;  after  we  have 
performed  it,  we  are  as  apt  to  rest  upon  it,  as  before  we 
were  unwilling  to  come  unto  it.  What  is  the  reason  ?  but 
because  men  think  that  they  do  come  to  God  before  God 
comes  to  them ;  but  let  a  man  be  once  fully  convinced  of 
God's  preventing  love,  and  he  rests  no  more  upon  what  he 
doth,  but  says  he  then,  If  God  hath  prevented  me  in  reference 
to  my  prayer,  why  should  I  rest  on  my  prayer,  if  God  hath 
prevented  me  in  reference  to  my  duty,  why  should  I  rest 
on  my  duty ;  says  Paul  to  the  Corinthians,  "  He  calleth 
things  that  are  not,  that  no  flesh  may  glory  in  his  sight ;" 
And  in  Job  xxxiii.,  says  Elihu  there,  "  In  deep  sleep,  in  a 
dream,  in  a  vision  of  the  night,  when  deep  sleep  falleth  upon 
men,  in  slumberings  upon  the  bed,  then  he  openeth  the  ears 
of  men,  and  sealeth  their  instruction ;"  why  ?  "  That  he 
may  withdraw  man  from  his  purpose,  and  hide  pride  from 
man."  There  is  no  such  way  in  the  world  to  take  down  the 
pride  of  man,  to  keep  him  from  resting  upon  duty,  as  to  be 


190  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SfiR.     10. 

well  seen,  well  experienced,  in  the  preventing  love  of  God. 
And  therefore  God  carries  on  the  work  of  his  grace  and 
mercy  in  a  way  of  preventing  love,  that  no  flesh  may  glory 
in  itself. 

God  will  so  carry  on  the  work  of  his  mercy,  and  goodness, 
and  of  his  grace,  that  men  may  be  made  most  gracious,  and 
in  case  they  sin  against  him,  they  may  be  reduced  to  true 
repentance.  What  is  there  in  all  the  world  will  make  one 
so  gracious  as  a  sight  of  grace  ?  And  what  gives  one  a  greater 
sight  of  grace  than  preventing  love  ?  And  what  is  there  in 
all  the  world  that  will  reduce  a  soul  to  true  repentance, 
having  sinned,  like  preventing  love  ?  It  is  said  of  Peter, 
"  He  went  out  and  wept  bitterly ;"  all  his  tears  came  out 
of  the  eyes  of  preventing  grace;  Christ  looked  upon  him 
first,  it  was  preventing  love  that  brought  forth  that  repen- 
tance. I  say,  no  such  way  to  reduce  a  poor  soul  that  hath 
sinned  to  true  repentance,  as  the  consideration  of  God's 
preventing  love.  Do  you  therefore  ask  why  God  is  pleased 
to  carry  on  his  mercy  thus,  in  a  way  of  preventing  love? 
For  these  six  or  seven  reasons.  And  so  you  have  the  fourth 
thing. 

Fifthly,  Well  but  then  in  the  fifth  place,  What  is  there  in 
this  preventing  love  that  is  so  sweet  to  a  gracious  soul,  to  a 
thankful  heart  ? 

The  more  immediately  that  any  mercy  doth  come  out  of 
God's  hand,  and  the  less  it  runs  through  ours,  the  more 
sweet  it  is.  Water  is  sweetest  out  of  the  fountain.  Now 
preventing  mercy  comes  immediately  out  of  the  hands  of 
God,  and  runs  not  through  our  hand  at  all,  nor  through  the 
hand  of  the  second  cause  at  all,  therefore  must  needs  be  very 
sweet. 

But  the  more  costless,  or  less  costly  to  us  any  mercy  is, 
the  sweeter  it  is.  Possibly  a  kindness  may  cost  more  to  keep 
it  than  it  is  worth.  Suppose  a  man  promise  me  or  give  me 
wood ;  the  cutting  down  of  the  wood,  and  bringing  it  home, 
may  cost  me  more  than  the  wood  is  worth.  So  a  kindness 
may  cost  one  more  care  than  the  thing  itself  doth  amount 
unto.  But  now  preventing  mercy  cost  me  nothing,  it  is  cut 
down  to  my  hand,  it  is  brought  into  my  hand,  it  is  costless 
mercy,  it  cost  me  nothing,  surely  therefore  it  is  very  sweet. 

But  then  again,  the   more   perfect,    and    complete,  and 


10.J  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  191 

entire  any  mercy  is,  the  sweeter  it  is.  Half-mercies  are  not 
so  sweet  as  whole.  Preventing  mercy  is  complete  and  entire. 
In  Ezek.  xvi.  you  may  see  what  a  complete  mercy  is  there 
given  :  "  I  washed  thee  with  water  (verse  9)  I  thoroughly 
washed  away  thy  blood,  and  I  anointed  thee  with  ointment, 
I  clothed  thee  also  with  broidered  work,  and  shod  thee  with 
badger's  skin ;  and  I  girded  thee  about  with  fine  linen,  and 
I  covered  thee  with  silk ;  I  decked  thee  also  with  ornaments, 
and  I  put  bracelets  upon  thine  hands,  and  a  chain  on  thy 
neck,  and  I  'put  a  jewel  on  thy  forehead,  and  ear-rings  in 
thine  ears,  and  a  beautiful  crown  upon  thine  head ;"  and  so 
he  goes  on.  What  mercy  was  this  ?  It  was  preventing  mercy. 
"  I  passed  by  thee,  and  saw  thee  polluted  in  thy  own  blood, 
and  said  unto  thee  when  thou  wast  in  thy  blood,  live,  yea, 
I  said  unto  thee  when  thou  wast  in  thy  blood,  live."  So 
then,  preventing  mercy  is  the  most  complete  mercy ;  and  it 
must  needs  be  so,  for  it  comes  immediately  out  of  God's 
hand,  and  not  through  the  hand  of  the  second  cause.  That 
that  comes  immediately  out  of  God's  hand,  not  running 
through  the  hand  of  the  second  cause,  is  most  complete. 
Upon  this  account  our  justification  is  more  perfect  and  com- 
plete than  our  sanctification,  because  it  comes  immediately 
out  of  the  hand  of  God,  and  not  out  of  our  own  hand. 
In  justification  our  guilt  is  removed,  in  sanctification  OUT  filth 
is  removed ;  our  guilt  is  offensive  to  ourselves,  our  filth  is 
offensive  to  God.  Now  one  would  think,  God  would  rather 
take  away  all  our  filth  that  is  offensive  to  himself,  than  all 
our  guilt  that  is  offensive  to  us  ;  no,  but  our  justification 
is  perfect,  our  sanctification  not  perfect ;  why  ?  because  our 
justification  comes  immediately  out  of  the  hand  of  God, 
and  doth  not  run  through  our  own  hand  ;  for  though  we  be 
justified  by  our  faith,  yet  it  is  as  faith  is  God's  instrument, 
not  as  our  act.  Now  the  more  immediately  that  any  mercy 
comes  out  of  the  hand  of  God,  and  the  less  out  of  our 
hand,  the  more  perfect  and  complete  it  is.  So  doth  pre- 
venting mercy  do,  and  therefore  must  needs  be  very  sweet. 

Again,  The  more  that  any  mercy  doth  correct  difficulty 
and  sweeten  duty,  the  sweeter  is  that  mercy.  Now  prevent- 
ing love  doth  correct  difficulty,  and  it  doth  sweeten  duty. 
See  it  in  Zaccheus;  what  an  hard  and  great  work  was  he 
upon  !  "  Lord,"  says  he,  "the  hah'  of  .my  goods  I  give  to 


192  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SfiR.    10. 

the  poor."  Stay  then  :  suppose  his  estate  was  a  thousand 
pounds,  he  would  have  but  five  hundred  pounds  left ;  and 
"  Lord,"  says  he,  "  if  I  have  taken  any  thing  from  any  man 
by  false  accusation,  I  restore  him  fourfold."  Suppose  he  had 
wronged  men  to  the  value  of  a  hundred  pounds,  there  is 
four  hundred  pounds  more  gone,  so  there  is  but  a  hundred 
pounds  left  of  a  thousand.  What  an  hard  work  is  this ! 
Yet  mark  how  easily  he  comes  off  to  this  hard  work,  "  Be- 
hold Lord ;"  why  he  had  drunk  deep  of  preventing  love. 
"Zaccheus,  come  down,"  says  Christ,  "for  to  day  I  must 
abide  at  thine  house."  Christ  doth  not  come  and  say,  Zac- 
cheus, give  half  thy  goods  to  the  poor,  and  if  thou  hast 
wronged  any  man,  restore  him  fourfold,  and  then  I  will  come 
to  thy  house ;  no;  but :  "  Zaccheus,  come  down,  for  this  day 
I  must  abide  at  thy  house,"  preventing  him  with  his  love, 
and  then  this  hard  work  comes  off  easily.  There  is  nothing 
will  correct  difficulty  and  sweeten  duty  more  than  preventing 
love,  therefore  preventing  love  must  needs  be  sweet.  And 
thus  now  you  see  what  there  is  in  preventing  love,  that  is  so 
sweet  to  a  gracious  soul.  That  is  the  fifth. 

Sixthly,  But  now  lastly.  You  will  say,  Suppose  I  have 
tasted  of  preventing  love  and  mercy,  suppose  I  have  had 
experience  of  it,  for  I  must  needs  say,  this  is  my  case  ;  for 
I  was  going  on  in  the  way  of  my  sin,  and  God  prevented 
me  many  a  time  with  his  preventing  grace.  I  have  been 
backward  to,  and  dull  in  duty,  and  God  hath  many  a  time 
prevented  me  with  assisting  grace.  I  have  been  full  of  un- 
belief, and  said  :  I  am  cast  off,  and  shall  never  see  the  face 
of  God  again,  but  the  Lord  hath  prevented  me  with  his 
comforting  grace,  and  with  the  shines  of  his  face.  I  was 
galloping  to  hell  as  fast  as  I  could,  but  God  hath  prevented 
me  with  his  saving  grace.  And  as  for  my  outward  estate  in 
the  world,  I  was  low  and  knew  not  what  to  do,  and  God 
prevented  me  with  such  a  gift,  such  a  house  and  land ;  what 
hath  my  life  been  but  a  bundle  of  preventing  mercy;  if  any 
have  drank  deep  of  this  preventing  grace,  I  may  say,  I  have 
much  more.  Now  what  is  my  duty  that  doth  flow  from 
hence  ? 

If  you  have  tasted  of  God's  preventing  love  and  mercy,  if 
God  hath  indeed  prevented  you  with  the  "  blessings  of  his 
goodness,"  why  then  should  not  your  hearts  be  filled  with 


.   10.]  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  193 

the  sense  thereof;  why  should  not  your  thoughts  be  much 
thereupon  ?  How  God  hath  prevented  you  at  such  a  time, 
in  such  a  thing.  The  more  sense  you  have  of  God's  prevent- 
ing love  and  mercy,  the  more  humbly  you  will  walk  with 
God,  and  the  more  closely,  especially  considering  that  God 
will  not  upbraid  you.  If  a  man  takes  a  beggar  from  the 
dunghill,  and  makes  her  his  wife,  prevents  her  with  his  love 
and  kindness,  the  sense  of  his  preventing  love,  will  make 
her  walk  humbly  all  her  days,  unless  the  man  upbraid  her 
with  it;  if  he  upbraids  her  with  it,  it  will  not  make  her  walk 
humbly;  but  unless  he  upbraids  her  with  it,  the  sense  of  it 
will  make  her  walk  humbly  all  her  days.  Friends,  God  doth 
prevent  us  with  his  love,  and  will  not  upbraid  us  with  his 
preventions  ;  and  therefore  why  should  we  not  walk  humbly, 
and  why  should  we  not  think  much  thereon,  and  have  our 
hearts  filled  with  the  sense  thereof.  The  more  necessary 
and  useful  any  mercy  is,  the  more  we  are  engaged  to  think 
thereon.  Some  mercies  are  more  necessary,  and  some  less 
necessary.  Those  mercies  and  blessings  we  put  God  upon 
the  giving  of  with  our  own  desires,  we  may  suspect  are  less 
necessary;  but  those  that  God  gives  us  in  a  way  of  pre- 
venting love,  we  may  think  them  most  necessary.  This  is 
the  way  of  preventing  love,  surely  therefore  we  are  engaged 
to  think  much  thereon ;  thus  ye  become  God's  darlings  by 
his  preventing  love.  The  world  hath  its  darlings;  such  a 
one  lies  long  in  bed,  takes  little  pains,  yet  the  world  flows  in 
upon  him,  the  world  prevents  him,  he  is  the  world's  darling ; 
another  man  is  up  early  and  late,  takes  a  great  deal  of  pains, 
and  yet  is  poor;  but  here  is  a  man  do  what  he  will,  yet  he 
grows  rich,  for  he  is  the  world's  darling.  So  now  you  have 
blessing  upon  blessing,  and  in  a  way  of  prevention,  what 
doth  this  argue,  but  that  you  are  God's  darlings  ?  And 
will  you  not  think  much  of  this  ?  Oh,  think  much  thereon. 

If  you  have  tasted  of  this  preventing  love  and  mercy,  go 
away  and  be  very  thankful  to  God  upon  this  account.  Shall 
David  be  thankful  to  the  Lord  for  preventing  him,  taking 
him  from  the  sheep-fold,  and  will  not  you  be  thankful  for 
preventing  mercy  ?  Shall  Ruth  be  thankful  to  Boaz  for 
preventing  her  with  his  kindness,  spreading  his  skirt  over 
her,  and  will  not  you  be  thankful  to  the  Lord  for  his  pre- 
venting love  to  you  ?  Why  should  ye  not  all  say  with 

VOL.  nr.  o 


194  CHRIST    AND    THE    COVENANT.  [SfiB,  10. 

David  here :  "  He  hath  prevented  me  with  the  blessings  of 
his  goodness."  Indeed  I  was  a  great  sinner,  but  he  hath 
prevented  me  with  his  justifying  mercy ;  and  I  was  a  wan- 
dering creature,  as  a  lost  sheep,  but  he  hath  prevented  me 
with  his  redeeming  mercy ;  God  spake  once,  and  twice  unto 
me,  and  I  heard  it  not,  but  in  the  deep  sleep  of  my  soul, 
then  did  he  open  mine  ears,  and  seal  instruction  on  me  be- 
fore I  was  aware ;  therefore  all  that  is  within  me  bless  the 
Lord.  Oh,  you  that  are  thus  prevented,  bless  the  Lord  for 
this  his  preventing  mercy,  his  sweet  mercy. 

But  if  you  have  tasted  of  God's  preventing  mercy,  and 
have  indeed  been  prevented  with  the  blessings  of  his  good- 
ness, even  your  very  prayers  have  been  prevented  with  the 
blessings  of  his  goodness  ;  why  then  should  ye  not  be  early 
up,  and  sooner  at  your  prayers,  that  if  it  may  be,  you  may 
prevent  God's  mercy  with  your  prayers,  as  God  hath  pre- 
vented your  prayers  with  his  mercy.  When  a  master  comes 
into  the  chamber  where  his  servant  lies,  and  finds  him  in  bed, 
what  says  the  servant  if  he  be  ingenuous  ?  This  my  master's 
coming  into  my  bed-chamber  before  I  was  up,  is  a  plain  re- 
buke to  my  sloth,  I  will  be  up  the  sooner  hereafter.  So  says 
a  gracious,  ingenuous  soul,  God's  preventing  my  prayer  with 
his  mercy,  is  a  plain  rebuke  to  my  prayer ;  wherefore  awake 
prayer,  up  prayer,  through  the  grace  of  God  I  will  never  be 
so  tardy  again  with  my  prayer  and  duty,  but  as  God  hath 
prevented  my  prayer  with  his  mercy,  so  through  grace  I  will 
prevent  his  mercy  with  my  prayer  for  the  time  to  come. 

If  you  have  tasted  of  God's  preventing  mercy,  and  God 
hath  indeed  prevented  you  with  the  blessings  of  his  goodness, 
why  then  should  ye  not  all  labour  to  be  like  unto  God  in  your 
dealings  with  men,  preventing  them  with  your  loving  kind- 
ness. You  think  it  a  great  matter  to  forgive  a  man  that  hath 
injured  you  upon  acknowledging  of  his  fault,  but  God  pre- 
vents us  with  his  forgiveness  before  we  acknowledge  and  be 
humbled ;  therefore  why  should  you  not  labour  to  be  like  to 
God  therein  ?  If  a^man  hath  done  you  a  wrong  or  injury, 
do  not  stand  upon  it  to  have  his  acknowledgment,  but  say, 
I  will  be  like  to  God  5  God  prevents  me  with  his  love  before 
my  acknowledgment,  therefore  through  grace  I  will  prevent 
this  man  with  my  kindness  before  his  acknowledgment,  I  will 


.  10.]  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  195 

forgive  him.     Thus  labour  to  be  like  unto  God  in  all  your 
dealings  with  men. 

But,  If  you  have  tasted  of  this  preventing  love,  and 
God  hath  indeed  prevented  you  with  the  blessings  of  his 
goodness,  why,  then,  why  should  ye  not  trust  in  the  Lord  for 
ever  ?  Whatsoever  your  condition  be,  trust  in  the  Lord,  and 
believe  for  ever  now,  for  your  souls,  for  your  bodies.  Some 
there  are  that  doubt  of  their  salvation,  of  the  salvation  of 
their  souls.  Ah,  says  one,  I  am  afraid  I  shall  not  be  saved 
because  my  prayer  cannot  be  accepted.  But  will  the  Lord  be 
found  of  those  that  seek  him  not,  and  will  he  not  be  found 
of  you  that  seek  him,  though  your  prayers  are  poor  prayers  ? 
Ah,  says  another,  I  am  afraid  the  Lord  will  not  receive  me 
when  I  come  to  him,  he  will  not  receive  me.  No ;  but  if  the 
Lord  comes  to  us  first,  and  makes  a  tender  and  offer  of  his 
grace  to  us  ;  if  he  seeks  us,  will  he  not  receive  them,  think 
you,  that  seek  him  ?  Surely  he  will.  Some  there  are  that 
doubt  in  reference  to  their  outward  condition,  and  say  they 
shall  want  provision,  shall  want  estates  to  maintain  them ;  but 
hath  the  Lord  prevented  you  with  his  mercy  in  the  great 
turns  of  your  life,  why,  then,  should  you  not  trust  in  the 
Lord  though  you  see  no  means  at  all  how  you  should  be  sup- 
plied ?  Heretofore  God  hath  prevented  you  with  his  mer- 
cies ;  and  why  should  you  not  say,  God  hath  prevented  me 
heretofore,  therefore  now  I  will  trust  in  him  though  I  see  no 
means  of  supply  ?  Whatsoever  your  condition  be,  trust  in 
the  Lord  now  upon  this  account ;  believe,  believe.  Let  me 
say  this  to  you,  Would  you  believe  ?  Do  you  desire  to  be- 
lieve ?  Yes,  I  desire  to  believe.  Do  ye  ?  then  let  your  eye 
be  fixed  on  God's  preventing  love.  What  is  the  reason  that 
men  do  not  believe  ?  but  because  their  eyes  are  fixed  no  more 
steadily  upon  preventing  love.  The  more  you  know  God  is 
willing  to  help  you,  the  more  you  will  believe ;  J  believe  that, 
you  will  say.  Now  I  pray  then,  tell  me,  suppose  a  man  comes 
to  a  beggar,  and  before  the  beggar  asks,  the  man  gives  him 
money  ;  will  not  the  beggar  conclude  that  the  man  was  willing 
to  relieve  him  ?  Yes.  Thus  now  it  is,  we  beg  and  we  beg,  but 
it  is  as  no  begging,  then  comes  the  Lord  and  prevents  us  with 
his  mercy ;  will  you  not  say  the  Lord  is  willing  to  shew 
mercy  ?  surely  he  is.  Now,  therefore,  seeing  God  is  thus 
willing  to  shew  mercy,  oh,  then,  believe ;  you  that  have  gone 
o  2 


196  CHRIST  AND  THE  COVENANT.  [SfiR.  10. 

doubting  and  fearing  and  trembling  all  your  days,  for  shame 
now  believe.  Have  you  tasted  of  God's  preventing  mercy 
time  after  time,  in  the  matter  of  your  justification,  in  the 
matter  of  your  sanctification,  in  the  matter  of  your  consola- 
tion, and  in  reference  to  our  outward  concernments  ?  Oh, 
trust  in  the  Lord  for  ever  upon  this  account,  and  magnify  the 
riches  of  his  grace.  Now  go  away,  and  say,  through  free 
grace,  I  will  doubt  no  more.  Upon  all  occasions  trust  in  the 
Lord,  O  you  that  have  been  made  partakers  of  preventing 
mercy. 


CHRIST     IN     TRAVAIL. 

WHEREIN     IS    SHEWED, 

-THE  TRAVAIL  OF  CHRIST,  OR  CHRIST  IN  TRAVAIL.      2.     HIS 
ASSURANCE  OF  ISSUE.       3.— THE  CONTENTMENT 
THAT  HE  DOTH  AND  SHALL  FIND  THEREIN. 

IN  THREE  SERMONS. 

1656. 


CHRIST    IN    TRAVAIL. 


SERMON  I. 

"  He  shall  see  of  the  travail  of  his  soul  and  be  satisfied." 
ISAIAH  LIU.  11. 

IN  this  chapter  we  have  a  full  treatise  of  the  sufferings  of 
Christ,  wherein  the  prophet  Isaiah  speaks  with  such  clearness, 
as  if  he  rather  were  an  apostle  after  Christ  than  a  prophet 
before  him.  Bernard  tells  us  that  there  are  three  things 
which  we  are  especially  to  mind  and  behold  in  the  sufferings 
of  Christ — the  work,  the  manner,  and  the  cause  thereof:  in 
the  cause  he  was  innocent,  in  the  manner  patient,  and  in  the 
work  excellent,  saith  he.  But  the  prophet  Isaiah  doth  insist 
on  four  things  :  1.  The  greatness  of  Christ's  sufferings,  which 
he  expresseth  in  many  words ;  that  "  he  was  despised  and 
rejected  of  men,  a  man  of  sorrows  and  acquainted  with  griefs;" 
that  "  we  hid  our  faces  from  him,  despised  and  esteemed  him 
not,"  verse  3 ;  that  "  he  was  stricken,  smitten,  and  afflicted  of 
God,"  verse  4 ;  "  wounded  and  bruised,"  verse  5  ;  "  oppres- 
sed, afflicted,  and  brought  as  a  sheep  to  the  slaughter,"  verse 
7 ;  "  imprisoned  and  cut  off  from  the  land  of  the  living," 
verse  8 ;  "  bruised  by  his  Father  and  put  to  grief,"  verse  10 ; 
"  in  travail  of  soul  and  numbered  among  transgressors,"  ver- 
ses 11  and  12.  2.  The  cause  of  his  sufferings,  which,  as  the 
prophet  tells  us,  was  for  our  sins :  "  He  was  wounded  for  our 
transgressions,  he  was  bruised  for  our  iniquities,"  verse  5. 
3.  The  manner  of  his  sufferings  :  "  He  is  brought  as  a  lamb 
to  the  slaughter ;  and  as  a  sheep  before  the  shearers  is  dumb,  so 
he  opened  not  his  mouth,"  verse  7.  4.  The  fruit,  issue  and 
success  of  his  sufferings :  "  For  he  shall  see  his  seed,  and  the 
pleasure  of  the  Lord  shall  prosper  in  his  hand,"  verse  10 ; 
and  "  he  shall  see  of  the  travail  of  his  soul  and  be  satisfied," 
verse  11.  So  that  these  words  do  plainly  hold  forth  the  fruit 

and  issue  of  our  Lord's  sufferings,  and  the  certainty  thei-eof. 

The  sufferings  were  great,  for  they  are  here  called  a  travail, 


200  CHRIST    IN    TRAVAIL.  [SER.  1. 

and  the  travail  of  his  soul.  The  word  Vnp  signifies  a  toil- 
some, painful  and  wearisome  labour ;  such  a  labour,  say  some,* 
as  is  used  by  those  who  grind  in  a  mill ;  such  a  labour,  say 
others,f  as  Adam  was  to  use  in  the  sweat  of  his  brow  after 
the  fall  as  a  curse  for  sin,  unto  which  the  Holy  Ghost  doth 
here  relate,  because  our  Saviour  in  these  sufferings  was  made 
a  curse  for  us  ;  such  a  labour,  say  others,  J  so  great,  so  pain- 
ful, as  women  do  endure  in  their  sore  travail,  and  indeed  the 
word  signifies  as  much,  and  so  it  is  used  in  Psalm  vii.  14, 
"  Behold  he  travaileth  with  iniquity,  and  hath  conceived 
mischief,"  alluding  to  the  pains  of  a  woman  in  travail;  §  and 
so  it  may  be  well  translated  in  this  place ;  for  the  word  soul 
is  a  feminine  term,  as  if  the  Holy  Ghost  would  decipher  the 
sufferings  of  Christ  by  the  pangs  of  a  woman  in  travail. 
Now  this  travail  is  also  said  to  be  the  travail  of  the  soul,  not 
only  because  it  was  a  great  and  sore  travail,  but  because  it 
did  extend  to  his  soul.  The  word  soul  is  indeed  sometimes 
used  for  one's  life,  and  sometimes  for  the  person  of  a  man  ; 
but  then  it  doth  not  exclude  the  soul,  but  include  it  rather. 
So  here,  "  He  shall  see  of  the  travail  of  his  soul ;"  that  is,  that 
travail  which  is  not  only  in  his  body  but  his  soul  too.  This 
he  is  promised  to  see :  "He  shall  see  of  the  travail,"  that  is,  the 
fruit  thereof.  So  Psalm  cxxviii.  2,  "  Thou  shalt  eat  the  la- 
bour of  thine  hands,"  that  is,  the  fruit  of  thy  labour,  what 
thine  hand  hath  laboured  for.  Seeing  doth  note  enjoyment, 
and  the  enjoyment  of  the  thing  desired;  so  Psalm  liv.  7j 
"  Mine  eye  hath  seen  its  desire  upon  mine  enemy."  The  word 
desire  is  not  in  the  Hebrew,  but  the  original  runs  thus,  Mine 
eye  hath  seen  upon  mine  enemies.  We  add  desire  because 
that  is  the  sense  thereof;  for  seeing  notes  enjoyment  of  one's 
desires,  and  therefore  in  that  the  prophet  saith,  "  he  shall  see 
of  the  travail  of  his  soul  and  be  satisfied  ;"  the  meaning  is,  that 
Christ  shall  so  enjoy  the  issue  and  fruit  of  his  sufferings  as 
he  shall  have  full  content  and  delight  therein.  And  so  the 
doctrine  from  the  whole  is  this : 

That  Christ  shall  certainly  see  the  travail  of  his  soul  and 
be  satisfied. 

He  did  not  lay  down  his  life  at  a  venture,  nor  suffer  so 
many  things  at  uncertainties ;  but  he  had  assurance  of  suc- 

*  Mercerus.  f  Avenarius.  J  Forerius  Esa.  liii. 

§  English  Annotations. 


.  1.]  CHRIST    IN    TRAVAIL.  201 

cess.  "  He  shall  see,"  saith  the  Lord,  by  way  of  promise, 
both  to  him  and  us,  "  of  the  travail  of  his  soul,  and  be  satisfied." 

For  the  opening  and  clearing  hereof,  three  great  arguments 
will  fall  under  our  consideration. 

First,  The  travail  of  Christ,  or  Christ  in  travail. 

Secondly,  His  assurance  of  issue. 

Thirdly,  The  contentment  that  he  doth  and  shall  find 
therein. 

First,  As  for  the  travail  of  Christ.  His  sufferings  were 
very  painful ;  a  travail  and  a  hard  labour.  Acts  ii.  24.  It  is 
said  that  he  was  sometimes  in  the  pains  of  death ;  some 
books  read  it,  in  the  pains  of  hell :  but  the  word  rendered 
pains,  signifies  the  pains  and  pangs  of  a  woman  in  travail. 
It  is  the  same  word  that  is  used  by  Paul,  Gal.  iv.,  "  My  little 
children,  with  whom  1  travail  in  birth ;"  and  it  signifies,  not 
only  the  travail  of  the  woman  in  the  birth  of  the  child,  but 
the  painful  bearing  thereof  before  the  birth.  These  pains 
and  pangs  did  as  it  were  fall  on  Christ  in  his  sufferings.*  So 
that  in  all  the  sufferings  of  Christ,  ye  may  see  Christ  in  tra- 
vail. He  was  in  travail  for  us,  and  this  travail  was  a  hard 
labour.  For  it  was, 

I.  A  sore  trouble. 

II.  A  long  and  a  tedious  travail.     And 

III.  An  helpless  travail. 

I.  It  was  a  sore  travail,  both  in  regard  of  his  soul  and 
body. 

1.  As  for  his  body.  His  sufferings  were  very  painful;  for 
they  wrere  universal,  extreme  and  lingering. 

They  were  universal,  for  he  suffered  from  all  hands, 
Something  he  suffered  from  the  Jews,  and  something  from 
the  Gentiles;  sometimes  from  men,  and  sometimes  from 
women ;  from  and  by  the  hand  of  magistrates,  kings,  and 
princes  ;  from  and  by  the  hand  of  priests  ;  from  and  by  the 
hand  of  the  comrron  people  and  the  soldiers.  "  Why  do  the 
heathen  rage,  and  the  people  imagine  a  vain  thing  ?  the  kings 
of  the  earth  stood  up,  and  the  rulers  took  counsel  against  the 
Lord,  and  against  his  Christ,"  Acts  iv.  25,  26.  He  did  not 
only  suffer  by  the  hand  of  strangers,  but  from  his  own  friends 
and  familiars ;  according  to  that  of  the  psalmist,  "  Thou  hast 

*  Hrec  vox  ufiwu  et  partum  significat  et  dolorem  parturientem. — Viet.  Strigil. 
Perk.  Gal.  iv. 


202  CHRIST    IN    TRAVAIL.  [SER.  1. 

put  mine  acquaintance  far  from  me :  he  that  eateth  bread 
with  me,  hath  lifted  up  his  heel  against  me,"  Psalm  xli.  9  ; 
John  xiii.  18.  Amongst  his  own  disciples,  one  betrayed  him, 
another  denied  him,  and  they  all  forsook  him.  Thus  were 
his  sufferings  great  and  universal,  in  regard  of  the  persons  by 
whom  and  from  whom  he  suffered.  Universal  also  they 
were,  as  Aquinas  observes,  in  regard  of  the  things  which  he 
suffered.  Will  ye  instance  in  his  goods  ?  he  is  bereaved  of 
his  clothes,  and  they  cast  lots  for  his  garments.  Will  ye 
instance  in  his  name  and  honour  ?  he  is  crucified,  the  death 
of  the  cross  was  a  shameful  death ;  therefore  saith  the  apos- 
tle, "  He  endured  the  cross,  and  despised  the  shame,"  Heb. 
xii.  Yea,  he  was  not  only  crucified,  but  as  matter  of  further 
shame,  he  was  crucified  between  two  thieves ;  and  as  if  all 
this  were  not  enough,  they  reproached  and  jeered  him  ;  yea, 
and  he  was  reproached  by  all,  by  Jews,  soldiers,  and  the  thief 
on  the  cross.  The  Jews  spit  in  his  face  before  he  came  to 
the  cross,  as  if  Christ's  face  were  the  foulest  place  for  their 
spittle;  and  when  he  was  on  the  cross,  they  jeeringly  put  a 
reed  into  his  hand,  and  said,  Hail,  master,  king  of  the  Jews, 
with  an  inscription  on  the  cross,  "  This  is  the  king  of  the 
Jews."  Or  will  ye  instance  in  his  comforts  ?  He  was  trou- 
bled, saith  the  gospel,  began  to  be  afraid,  and  his  soul  was 
heavy  unto  death.  Thus  were  his  sufferings  great  and 
universal,  in  regard  of  the  thing  suffered.  Universal  also 
they  were,  in  regard  of  the  parts  and  members  of  his  body 
wherein  he  suffered.  For  what  part  was  there,  or  member  of 
his  precious  body,  which  suffered  not  ?  His  hands  pierced 
with  nails,  and  his  feet  also  ;  his  back  whipped  and  scourged ; 
his  side  run  through  with  a  spear ;  and  on  his  head  was  a 
crown  of  thorns.  All  his  senses  suffered  also,  and  that  at 
the  same  time  :  for  in  regard  of  his  feeling,  he  was  whipped, 
pierced  and  wounded ;  in  regard  of  his  taste,  they  gave  him 
vinegar  and  gall  to  drink ;  in  regard  of  his  smell,  they  cruci~ 
fied  him  in  a  filthy  place,  the  place  of  dead  men's  skulls, 
Golgotha ;  in  regard  of  his  hearing,  he  was  wearied  with  the 
blasphemies  and  derisions  of  the  wicked ;  and  in  regard  of 
his  sight,  he  saw  his  mother  and  his  disciple  whom  he  loved 
weeping.*  Thus  were  his  sufferings  universal,  both  in  regard 
of  the  things  that  he  suffered,  in  regard  of  persons  from 

*  Aquin.  Sum.  par.  iii.  q.  46.  Art.  5. 


SER.  1.]  CHRIST  IN  TRAVAIL.  203 

whom  he  suffered,  and  in  regard  of  his  own  parts  and  mem- 
bers wherein  he  suffered.  Surely?  therefore,  his  suffering  was 
very  great,  it  was  universal. 

As  it  was  universal,  so  it  was  most  extreme.  The  school- 
men tell  us,  that  his  grief  was  greater  than  all  other  griefs.* 
And  indeed  how  could  it  be  otherwise,  for  the  more  excellent 
and  worthy  the  person  is  that  doth  suffer  vile  things  from 
those  that  are  vile,  the  more  afflictive  is  his  affliction  to  him. 
Now  Christ  suffered  vile  things  from  the  vile,  and  he  was 
the  most  excellent  person  in  the  world,  the  Lord  of  life  and 
of  glory,  who  thought  it  no  robbery  to  be  equal  with  God. 
And  the  more  healthful  that  any  man  is,  the  more  afflictive 
is  his  death  to  him.  Sickness  doth  sometimes  benumb  a 
man,  and  takes  away  the  sense  of  his  sickness  :  but  Christ 
suffered  a  painful,  cruel  death,  in  his  full  strength  and  health, 
being  more  free  from  sicknesses  and  diseases  than  any  man ; 
yea,  the  more  sensitive  the  parts  are  wherein  a  man  suffers, 
the  more  extreme  is  his  pain.  Now  those  that  were  crucified, 
were  nailed  to  the  cross  by  their  hands  and  feet,  which  parts 
and  places  are  the  quickest  and  fullest  of  sense,  because  there 
is  a  meeting  of  all  the  ligaments  and  sinews ;  and  to  be  racked 
in  those  parts  where  our  sense  dwells,  what  extreme  torment 
is  it.f  Those  that  were  crucified,  though  they  had  something 
to  stay  their  feet,  did  hang  by  their  hands.  Now  to  have  the 
whole  weight  of  one's  body  hanging  thus  on  our  pierced 
hands,  and  so  to  die  by  degrees,  what  extreme  torment 
must  it  needs  be  ?  The  less  succour  the  inferior  part  of  man 
hath  from  the  superior  part  of  his  will  and  understanding, 
the  more  doleful  is  the  pain  in  the  senses.  Now  when  Christ 
suffered,  he  did  willingly  suspend  those  comforts  from  his 
sense,  which  by  way  of  sympathy  might  naturally  have  flowed 
in  from  his  understanding,  or  supernaturally  from  the  love  of 
God ;  and  therefore  his  sense  being  left  alone  as  it  were,  to 
conflict  with  those  pains,  they  must  be  exceeding  great,  and 
very  dreadful,  exceeding  doleful,  and  extremely  painful.J 

*  Dolor  passionis  Christi  fuit  major  omnibus  doloribus. — Aquin.  par.  iii.  Art.  6. 

t  Optima  complexionatus  erat  cum  corpus  ejus  fuit  formarum  miracuiose  ope- 
ratione  spiritus  sancti. — Aquin.  par.  iii.  Art.  6. 

t  Duin  pars  inferior  in  nobis  patitur  superior  compatitur,  et  dolorem  quantum 
potest  lenit,  et  tolerabiliua  sit ;  in  Christo  autem  qui  dominus  naturae  erat,  ex 
voluutate  sua  fuit  ista  discontinuatio  sell,  ut  vires  inferiores  perfectissime  et  ama- 
rissime  paterentur  et  partes  superiores  intdlectus  sci).  et  voluntas  totaliter  fini- 


204  CHRIST    IN    TRAVAIL.  [SfiR.  1. 

As  the  sufferings  of  his  body  were  extreme,  so  they  were 
long  and  lingering ;  crucified  persons  died  a  lingering  death, 
they  were  two  or  three  days  a  dying ;  indeed  our  Saviour 
gave  up  the  ghost  sooner ;  but  he  suffered  from  the  cradle ; 
and  though  he  sweat  drops  of  blood  in  the  garden  only,  yet 
he  never  was  fully  out  of  that  agony  till  he  gave  up  the 
ghost ;  for  a  little  before  his  death  he  cried  out :  "  My  God, 
my  God,  why  hast  thou  forsaken  me  ?  "  Now  if  his  suffer- 
ings were  universal,  extreme,  and  lingering,  then  surely  his 
travail  was  a  sore  travail  in  regard  of  his  body. 

2.  As  for  his  soul.  His  travail  was  a  sore  travail,  in  re- 
gard of  that,  his  travail  was  a  soul-travail.  It  is  here  in 
special  manner  called,  "The  travail  of  his  soul;"  the  soul, 
and  life,  and  spirit  of  his  sufferings,  was  in  the  sufferings  of 
his  soul,  there  was  the  vial  of  the  wrath  of  God  poured 
out,  and  there  especially.  The  papists  would  persuade  us 
that  Christ  did  not  suffer  in  his  soul  ;*  of  the  same  mind 
also  are  the  Socinians,f  and  others  J  (not  a  little  their  friends 
fighting,  though  it  may  be  ignorantly,  with  their  weapons 
and  arguments)  who  are  risen  amongst  us. 

For  the  clearing  therefore  of  this  profitable  truth  (Christ 
suffering  in  his  soul)  I  shall  deliver  myself  in  these  four 
propositions : 

1.  That  Christ  did  truly  suffer  in  his  soul. 

2.  That  he  did  suffer  in  his  soul  immediately. 

3.  That  he  did  suffer  and  encounter  with  the  wrath  of 
God. 

4.  That  he  did  suffer  and  endure  the  very  torments  of 
hell  in  this  life. 

1.  Our  Lord  and  Saviour  Christ  did  truly  suffer  in  his 
soul;  for  "it  pleased  the  Father  to  bruise  him,  and  hath 
put  him  to  grief,"  Isa.  liii.  10.  ||  And  saith  Christ  himself, 

rentur  et  nulla  consolatio  a  deitate  vel  ab  intellectu  saltern  naturaliter  redundabat 
illo  tempore  in  partem  sensitivam,  et  tune  potentise  sensativse  soli  dolori  vacantes 
acerrimum  dolorem  patiebantur  ideo  nullus  homo  tantum  dolorem  sensit  in  pjena- 
litatibus  sicut  Christus. — Abulens.  in  Epist.  D.  Hieron.  ad  Paulinum,  Cap.  vii. 
pag.  41.  Tom.  i.  in  Gen. 

*  Bellarmin.  de  Christ!  Anima,  Cap.  viii. 

•j"  Socinus  de  Christo  Servatore,  pars  ii.  pag.  3. 

+  Crellius  contra  Grotiutn,  Cap.  i.  p.  25. 

II  Perspicuum  est,  sicut  corpus  flagellatum,  ita  animam  vere  doluisse,  ne  ex 
parte  veritas,  et  ex  parte  mendaciuro  credatur  in  Christo.— Hierom,  in  Esa.  liii. 


SER.  1.]  CHRIST  IN   TRAVAIL.  205 

"My  soul  is  heavy  unto  death;"  he  was  in  great  agony, 
Luke  xxii.  42,  insomuch  as  he  "  sweat  great  drops  of  blood." 
Now  an  agony,  a-yona,  signifies  the  sorrows  of  combaters  enter- 
ing the  lists  with  the  sense  of  their  utmost  dangers  of  life. 
Matthew  tells  us  that  he  began  to  be  very  sorrowful;  ?r£p»\v7roc 
to  be  berounded,  or  besieged  with  sorrow ;  chap.  xxvi.  36,  37, 
"  My  soul,"  saith  Christ,  "  is  exceeding  sorrowful,  («rSaf*/3q«9) 
even  unto  death."  Mark  tells  us  that  he  was,  wXapeia,  «  sore 
amazed;"  amazement  notes  an  universal  cessation  of  the 
faculties  of  the  soul  from  their  several  functions ;  he  was 
afraid,  and  he  was  sore  afraid  ;*  the  apostle  says,  that  (<  he 
was  heard  (Heb.  v.  7)  in  the  thing  that  he  feared.  The 
word  tv\»ftfia  here  used,  doth  sometimes  signify  reverence  or 
piety  ;t  but  so  it  cannot  be  taken  in  this  place ;  for  it  is 
said  he  was  delivered,  or  heard,  OTTO  r»/e  tv\a€eta  from  his  fear.J 
But  amazement  is  more  than  fear.  Ajid  Mark  tells  us,  that 
he  "began  to  be  sore  amazed,"  chap.  xiv.  33.  Yea,  he  was 
not  only  amazed,  but  he  was  very  heavy ;  "  and  he  began 
to  be  very  heavy,"  so  we  read  it :  but  the  english  word  is 
too  short,  rjpfclo  aZrjpovftv,  he  began  to  be  so  aftected  with  evil, 
as  that  he  was,  as  it  were,  disabled  for  the  minding  of  any 
thing  else ;  the  word  is  compounded  of  a  privative,  and  %npo<;, 
people ;  as  if  he  began  to  be  out  of  the  body ;  it  is  the  same 
word  that  is  used  in  Phil.  ii.  26 :  "  And  was  full  of  heavi- 
ness." ||  Now  if  our  Lord  and  Saviour  Christ  was  thus  sor- 
rowful, and  exceeding  sorrowful;  amazed,  and  sore  amazed ; 
heavy,  and  his  soul  heavy  even  unto  death ;  then  surely,  he 
did  truly  suffer  in  his  soul.  But  it  may  be  that  Crellius, 
and  the  Socinians,  with  their  friends,  will  tell  us,  that  his 
soul  suffered  only  by  way  of  sympathy  and  fellow-feeling 
with  his  body.  Therefore, 

2.  I  add  in  the  second  place,  that  as  he  did  truly  suffer 

*  Timorem  significat  give  mctum  impendentis  mali  et  vixaliter  inveniri  apud 
bonos  authores  vereque  Grsecos. — Chamier  Cap.  16,  Lib.  v.  Tom.  ii. 

\  EuAa/BttSai   O.VTI   row    ^oXarlfSai,   ^>o/3«9cu. — Hesychius. 

J  Nam  scopus  loci  est  explicate  infirmitates  a  Christo  susceptas  :  et  quamvis 
aliquando  atro  causam  genitivo  notat  internam  causam  motus  vel  actionis  qute 
significatur  verbo  regente,  nunquam  taraen  significat  causam  externe  impellentem 
ad  actionein. — Ames.  Bellar.  enervat. 

||  Abqftoveiv  significat  maximam  consternationera,  adeo  ut  nulln  admittatur 
consolatio. — Nicol.  Arnold.  Relig.  Socinia,  pag.  501. 


206  CHRIST     IX     TRAVAIL.  [SfiB.   1. 

in  his  soul;  so  he  did  suffer  in  his  soul  immediately  :  for 
look  where  the  disobedience  of  the  first  Adam  began,  there 
the  obedience  of  the  second  Adam  did  begin  also.  Now 
the  disobedience  of  the  first  Adam,  was  not  only  in  his  body, 
in  eating  with  his  mouth,  the  forbidden  fruit ;  but  in  his  soul 
likewise,  and  he  did  eat  with  his  body,  because  he  did  affect 
with  his  soul  to  be  like  God  :  there  did  his  sin  begin,  namely 
in  the  pride  and  unbelief  of  his  heart ;  and  therefore  the  obe- 
dience of  the  second  Adam  was  not  only  to  be  performed 
with  his  body,  but  with  his  soul,  and  to  begin  there :  the  soul 
is  not  properly  said  to  suffer  when  the  body  suffers,  and  by 
way  of  sympathy ;  but  when  a  grief  is  taken,  or  an  affliction, 
which  doth  first  arrest  the  mind  and  heart  of  men.*  Now 
Christ  did  truly  suffer  in  his  soul ;  for  as  his  active  obedi- 
ence was  spiritual  in  his  soul,  as  well  as  corporal  in  his  body; 
so  was,  and  ought  to  be,  his  passive  also  :  and  if  Christ's 
sorrow  did  not  begin  in  his  soul,  why  is  it  said,  that  he  trou- 
bled himself  ?  John  xi.  33.,  "  When  he  saw  her  weeping,  and 
the  Jews  weeping,  he  groaned  in  the  spirit,  and  was  trou- 
bled ;"  but  according  to  the  original,  and  your  margin,  he 
troubled  himself;  t  why  so,  but  because  this  trouble  of  his 
did  begin  from  within  ?  and  upon  this  account  he  did  sweat 
drops  of  blood,  when  his  body  was  in  good  health,  and  free 
from  every  sickness  :  the  body  will  not  sweat,  but  when  na- 
ture is  oppressed,  when  it  is  under  some  outward  burden, 
then  it  sweats.J  Christ  was  under  no  outward  burden  of 
disease  ;  only  death  was  now  approaching,  the  fear  of  which 
alone,  simply  considered,  could  not  make  him  sweat  drops  of 
blood  ;  for  says  he,  "  I  have  a  baptism  to  be  baptized  with, 
and  how  am  I  straitened  till  it  be  accomplished."  Luke  xii. 
50.  Surely  there  was  some  other  evil,  the  apprehension 
whereof,  did  immediately  fall  upon  his  soul,  which  did  run 
and  flow  over  into  his  body.  Christ  did  suffer  in  his  soul 
immediately.  That  is  the  second  proposition. 

*  Et  sane  nisi  psenae  fuissit  particeps  anima  corporibus  tamen  fuisset  redemp- 
tor.  Calvini  Institut.  Lib.  ii.  Cap.  16. 

f  Kcu  ETretpafcv  tavlov. 

J  Quara  pudenda  fuisset  hsec  mollities  eousque  torqueri  ob  communis  mortis 
formidinem  ut  sanguineo  sudore  diffluerit,  neque  posset  recreari  nisi  angelorum 
conspectu  quod  ilia  precatio  ter  reperita,  transeat  cselix,  &c.,  annon  ex  incredibili 
amaritudine  animi  profecta  ostendit  asperius  et  majus  arduum  fuisse  Christi  cer- 
tamen  quam  cum  morte  communi. — Calvini  Institut.  Lib.  ii.  Cap.  16. 


SER.  1.]  CHRIST    IN*    TRAVAIL.  207 

3.  As  Christ  did  suffer  in  his  soul  immediately,  so  he  did 
suffer  and  conflict  with  the  wrath  of  God.  I  do  not  say  that 
the  Father  was  wroth,  or  angry  with  his  person ;  some  do 
here  distinguish  of  the  wrath  of  God  ;  sometimes  it  is  taken 
for  the  hatred  of  persons,  so  the  reprobates  are  called  "  Ves- 
sels of  wrath/'  Rom.  ix.  22.  Sometimes  it  is  taken  for  the 
execution  of  corrective  justice ;  so  God  is  said  to  be  "  wroth 
with  his  own  people,"  Deut.  iv.  21.  Sometimes  it  is  tor  the 
execution  of  vindicative  justice,  and  in  this  sense,  say  they, 
God  is  said  to  be  wroth  with  Christ.*  But  I  rather  choose  to 
say  that  Christ  is  considered  two  ways,  either  in  regard  of 
his  own  person ;  or  as  he  did  stand  for  us,  being  our  surety. 
There  is  a  difference  between  the  affection  of  God's  wrath, 
and  the  dispensation  of  it.  Now  Christ  standing  for  us,  and 
in  our  room  and  stead,  did  suffer  and  conflict  with  the  wrath 
of  God  :  that  is  the  vindicative  dispensation  of  it :  for  he  was 
"  made  a  curse  for  us,"  and  a  curse  is  a  vindicative  dispensa- 
tion of  wrath.  It  may  be  the  Socinians,  and  their  friends, 
will  say  that  he  was  made  a  curse  for  us,  because  he  died 
that  cursed  death  on  the  cross  for  our  good :  but  if  ye  look 
into  the  words,  ye  shall  find  that  he  was  made  a  curse  for  us, 
so  as  that  there  was  a  translation  of  the  curse  from  us  unto 
him,  which  curse  was  due  for  our  sin ;  for  says  the  apostle, 
Gal.  iii.  13.,  "  Christ  hath  redeemed  us  from  the  curse  of  the 
law,  being  made  a  curse  for  us,  as  it  is  written,  Cursed  is 
every  one  that  hangeth  on  a  tree  :"  for  it  is  written  again, 
verse  10.,  "  Cursed  is  every  one  that  continueth  not  in  all 
things  that  are  written  in  the  book  of  the  law  to  do  them/' 
Which  curse,  saith  the  apostle,  Christ  is  made  for  us,  we  be- 
ing thereby  redeemed  from  it,  verse  13.  Now  is  it  possible 
that  Christ  should  thus  be  made  a  curse  for  us,  but  he  must 
suffer,  and  conflict  with  the  wrath  of  God,  which  was  due  to 
us  ?  and  if  he  were  smitten  of  the  Father,  then  did  he  bear 
the  dispensation  of  the  Father's  wrath,  and  anger.  Now  it 
is  said  expressly  in  Isaiah  liii.,  "  It  pleased  the  Father  to 
bruise  him,"  verse  10.  "  He  was  smitten  of  God,  and  af- 
flicted," verse  4. 

*  Neque  tantum  innuimus  Deum  fuisse  unquam  illi  adversarium  vel  irratum, 
quando  enim  dilecto  filio  in  quo  animus  ejus  acquievit  irasceretur  sed  hoc  nos 
dicimus,  divinae  severitatis  gravitatem  euro  sustinuisse,  quoniam,  manu  Dei  per- 
cussus  et  afflictus,  omnta  irati  et  punientis  Dei  signa  expertus  est. — Calvin.  Insti- 
tut.  Lib.  ii.  Cap.  16. 


208  CHRIST    IN    TRAVAIL.  [SfiR.   1. 

4.  As  our  Lord  and  Saviour  Christ  did  suffer  and  conflict 
with  the  wrath  of  God,  so  he  did  endure  the  torments  of  hell 
whilst  he  was  in  this  life.     I  do  not  say  with  the  papists  that 
he  descended  into  hell  after  his  death,  nor  that  whilst  he  lived 
here  he  was  damned  for  us ;  that  were  blasphemy ;  for  a  man 
is  said  to  be  damned  that  doth  for  ever  bear  the  weight  of 
his  own  sins  :  nor  do  I  say  that  Christ  did  bear  all  that  mi- 
sery of  hell  which  we  should  have  born,  and  which  the  repro- 
bates do  and   shall  bear  in  hell,   for  they  lie  blespheming 
and  despairing ;  but  though  Christ  was  in  a  great  agony,  yet 
he  did  not  despair,  for   said  he,    "My   God,   my    God;" 
and   though    God  did  forsake   him,  yet  that  was    not    in 
regard  of  union,  as  it  is  with  the  damned  in  hell,  but  only  in 
regard  of  vision ;  yet  he  did  endure  and  suffer  for  us  the  very 
torments  and  misery  of  hell :  for  there  are  two  things  concur- 
rent to  the  misery  of  hell,  the  punishment  of  loss  and  the 
punishment  of  sense  j    now  both  these  did  our  Saviour  bear 
whilst  he  was  in  this  travail.*     The  punishment  of  loss  :   for 
he  did  lose  and  was  for  a  time  suspended  from  that  sweet  and 
comfortable  vision  and  fruition  of  God,  therefore  he  cried  out, 
"  My  God,  my  God,  why  hast  thou  forsaken  me  ?"   which 
cannot  be  understood  of  his  outward  afflictions,  as  being  left 
to  the  violence  of  men,  for  says  Paul,  2  Cor.  iv.  9,  "  We  are 
persecuted  but  not  forsaken  •"   they  were  left  to  the  violence 
of  men  and  persecutors,  yet  they  were  not  forsaken ;    and 
therefore  when  Christ  saith,  Why  hast  thou  forsaken  me  ?  he 
doth  not  mean,  so  as  to  be  left  to  the  persecutions  of  men, 
for  thus,  says  the  apostle,  we  may  be,  and  yet  not  forsaken.f 
And  as  he  did  bear  the  punishment  of  loss,  so  of  sense  also, 
for  he  sweat  drops  of  blood ;    not  blood  only,  but  drops  of 
blood,  nor  a  few  drops  only,  but  many,  insomuch  as  they  fell 
to  the  ground  in  so  great  a  quantity  as  ran  through  his  clothes, 

*  Christus  mortem  gehennalem  pro  nobis  sustinuit.  Calvin  in  Matth.  xxvi. 
39,  in  cap.  27,  46.  Institut.  lib.  ii.  16.  Chamier,  torn.  ii.  1.  5,  cap.  12—20. 
Sib.  Lubbertus  contra  Socinum,  lib.  1,  cap.  1.  Jon.  Piscator  contra  Vorstiutn 
notse  ad  Amic.  duplicat,  Sect.  1,  24.  Ames.  Bellarm.  enervat,lib.  2,  de  Christo. 
Maccovius  de  Mediator,  Disp.  17.  Willet  Synops.  part 4,  quests.  Cartwright 
Harmon,  page  985,  988.  Nico.  Arnold  Relig.  Socinian,  page  502. 

t  Est  genus  psenarum  quod  patiuntur  damnati  in  inferno,  qui  omni  solatio 
carent,  quidam  huic  simile  redemptor  noster  sustinere  dignatus  est,  qui  omni  a 
se  solatium  et  consolationis  remedium  in  passione  abdicavit.  Medina  in  Thorn, 
part  3,  q.  46,  a,  6. 


SKR.  1.]  CHRIST   ix  TRAVAIL.  209 

as  some  conceive,  to  the  ground.  Now  can  we  imagine  that 
he  should  be  in  this  agony,  sweating  these  drops  of  blood, 
heavy  in  his  soul  unto  death  and  to  sore  amazement,  crying 
out,  "  My  God,  my  God,  why  hast  thou  forsaken  me,"  only 
from  the  fear  of  death  ?  What,  was  our  Saviour  more  afraid 
of  death  than  the  martyrs  ?  They  went  triumphing  and  some 
of  them  singing  to  their  more  cruel  deaths  and  clapped  their 
hands  in  their  flames;  had  they  more  courage,  faith  or  reso- 
lution than  our  Saviour  ?  *  If  it  were  only  a  corporal  death 
that  Christ  thus  feared,  then  they  should  suffer  with  more  bold- 
ness and  courage  than  our  Saviour :  But  come,  says  Gerard,  t 
and  I  will  tell  you  what  is  the  reason  that  our  Saviour  was 
thus  afraid,  and  they  so  bold :  our  Saviour,  saith  he,  drank 
of  the  brook  in  the  way  :  but  their  drink  was  sweetened  with 
his  death;  Christ  did  conflict  with  sin,  Satan,  death  and  hell; 
enemies  whose  force  was  never  broken  before  :  but  the  mar- 
tyrs only  grappled  with  death ;  a  broken  troop  of  sorrows, 
that  rallied  again,  but  was  broken,  and  overcame  before. 
Christ  did  sustain  the  malediction,  and  curse  of  the  law.J 
There  was  a  curse  in  his  death,  but  the  curse  was  taken  out 
of  the  death  of  martyrs.  ||  Christ  did  not  only  conflict 
with  a  temporal,  but  eternal  death ;  but  the  martyrs  knew 
that  they  were  free  from  eternal  death  ;  Christ  bare  all  their 
sins  :  but  when  they  came  to  suffer,  the  sting  of  death,  which 
is  sin,  was  taken  out,  and  upon  this  account,  one  of  the  mar- 
tyrs said,  when  he  came  to  suffer:  Christ  grieved  at  his  death, 
that  I  might  rejoice  in  mine ;  he  had  my  sin  on  him,  and  I 
have  his  righteousness,  and  merits  on  me.§  Yea,  he  did 

*  Videmus  alios  homines  non  tamen  sine  dolore  et  raotu  sed  etiam  cum 
magno  gaudio  et  laetitia  mortem  obire  ex  quo  sequitur  aut  Christum  qui  est 
Dominus  cicli  et  terras,  minus  animi,  minus  roboris,  minus  fiduciae,  minus  fortu- 
dinis  et  minus  constantise  tabuisse  quam  gregarios  homine,  aut  sustinuisse  mor- 
tem multo  acerbiorem  horribiliorem  quam  quemvis  martyrum,  sed  illud  dicere 
est  impiura  :  sustinuit  itaque  aliud  genus  mortis  quam  alii  homines  et  atrocius 
et  sita  fuit  ilia  atrocitas  in  sensu  irse  Dei  in  propossione  execrationis.  Sib.  Lub- 
bert  contra  Socinum,  lib.  2,  cap.  1,  p.  115. 

•f  Gerardi  Harm. 

J  Quod  autem  ad  pios  attinet,  sciendum  est  longe  alia  in  arena  versari  quam 
Christus  nara  rem  habent  cum  morte  et  inferis  devicti  et  profligatis  Chrislus 
autem  cum  illis  jam  vegetis  et  armatis  ira  divina  luctatus  est.  Carlw.  Har.  p.  985. 

||  VniDS  in  mortibus  suis.     Isa.  liii.  9. 

§  Christus  dolebat  ut  ego  esse  hilaris  et  Isetus,  ille  habebat  mea  pcccata  et  ego 
vere  illius  merita  et  justitiam.     Essen,  de  Satis.  Christi,  page  56. 
VOL.  III.  P 


210  CHRIST    IX    TRAVAIL.  [SfiR.    1. 

then  endure  the  torments  of  hell  in  his  sufferings,  that  by  our 
sufferings  we  might  go  to  heaven. 

But  is  it  possible  that  one  may  endure  the  very  torments 
of  hell  in  this  life  ? 

Yes ;  for  as  a  man  may  have  a  taste  of  heaven  before  he 
come  there,  so  possibly  a  man  may  have  a  taste  of  hell  even 
in  this  life  also.  The  wrath  of  God  in  scripture,  is  compared 
to  and  called  fire,  Ps.  Ixxxiv.  46.  And  if  ye  look  into  the 
parable  of  Dives  and  Lazarus,  ye  shall  find  that  Dives  cries 
out  to  Abraham,  to  send  one  with  a  drop  of  water  to  cool  his 
tongue.  Why,  but,  says  Austin,  the  body  of  Dives  is  not  yet 
in  hell ;  what  fire  therefore  is  this  that  doth  so  torment  him  ? 
to  which  he  answers,  Quails  lingua  tails  flamma,  as  the  eyes, 
wherewith  he  sees  Abraham  afar  off,  such  is  the  fire ;  and  as 
his  tongue,  such  is  the  fire  that  he  is  tormented  in,  the  fire  of 
the  wrath  of  God :  this  fire  of  God's  wrath,  was  our  dear 
Saviour  scorched  with,  whilst  he  was  in  his  travail :  for  by 
way  of  reason  and  argument,  whereby  the  former  propositions 
also  shall  be  the  more  fully  proved,  if  Christ  did  bear  our 
griefs,  then  whatever  miseries  were  inflicted  upon  us,  and 
our  nature,  by  virtue  of  the  threatening  itself,  under  which 
we  were,  those  Christ  did  bear,  and  endure  for  us.  But  he 
did  bear  our  griefs,  I  do  not  say  that  he  did  bear  and 
endure  all  that  we  should  have  done.  Whatever  misery  or 
punishment  we  should  have  born,  or  the  reprobates  do,  or 
shall  bear  in  hell,  doth  either  proceed  from  the  threatening 
itself  as  the  proper  effect  thereof;  or  it  doth  proceed  from 
the  disposition  and  condition  of  the  person  whom  the  execu- 
tion of  the  threatening  doth  fall  upon  :  the  threatening  itself 
doth  produce  death,  "  The  day  that  thou  eatest  thereof,  thou 
shalt  die  the  death."  Therefore  death,  evil,  and  the  wrath 
of  God  for  sin,  doth  proceed  from  the  threatening  itself. 
Now  when  this  falls  upon  man,  he  despairs,  and  blasphemes, 
and  lies  under  the  wrath  of  God  for  ever :  yet  despair  and 
eternal  blasphemy,  is  not  the  punishment  of  the  threatening 
itself,  proceeding  from  the  threat  in  itself  considered,  but  pro- 
ceeds from  the  disposition  of  man,  upon  whom  the  execution 
of  the  curse  falls  :  for  no  sin  comes  from  God's  threatening 
in  itself  considered.*  Punishment  properly,  is  satisfaction 
for  injury  done,  but  sin  is  a  continuing  of  the  injury.  Des- 

*  Desperado  nou   est  de  essentia  psense  infernalis,  paente  author  est  Deus, 


SGI*.   1.]  CHRIST    IN    TRAVAIL.  211 

pair,  blasphemy,  and  death  in  sin  is  an  action,  the  action  of 
man ;  but  punishment  is  the  passion  and  suffering  of 
man  ;  so  that  death  in  sin,  despair  and  blasphemy,  are  not  of 
the  essence  of  the  punishment  threatened ;  but  the  wrath  of 
God,  death,  and  God's  withdrawing  of  himself  from  man,  are 
of  the  essence  of  the  punishment,  proceeding  from  the  threat- 
ening in  itself  considered.  Now  look  what  the  threatening 
in  itself  doth  produce,  that  Christ  suffered  for  us,  but  it  will 
not  therefore  follow,  that  he  should  despair,  blaspheme,  or  die 
in  sin,  because  these  do  proceed  from  the  condition,  arid  dis- 
position of  our  persons,  that  the  curse  of  the  threatening  falls 
upon  :  as  ye  see  it  is  with  the  beams  of  the  sun  ;  if  they  fall 
on  wax,  they  soften  that ;  but  if  they  fall  on  the  clay  they 
harden  that.  So  the  wrath  of  God,  and  his  withdrawance 
frilling  upon  us,  there  doth  ensue,  despair,  blasphemy,  and 
dying  in  sin  ;  but  falling  on  Christ,  it  is  not  so";  Why  ?  be- 
cause these  do  not  proceed  from  the  threatening  in  itself  con- 
sidered. Now,  I  say,  look  what  we  should  have  borne  as  due 
to  us  from  the  threatening  itself,  that  Christ  did  bear  for  us : 
for  saith  the  prophet  Isaiah,  chap,  liii.,  "  He  hath  borne  our 
griefs;"  that  is,  those  griefs  that  were  due  to  us  from  the 
threatening  in  itself  considered.  But  if  we  had  perished,  and 
gone  to  hell  ourselves,  we  should  have  suffered  in  our  souls, 
and  in  our  souls  immediately,  the  wrath  of  God,  and  the  very 
torments  of  hell,  upon  the  account  of  the  threatening :  and 
therefore  all  these  things  did  Christ  suffer  for  us. 

Look  what  Christ  delivered  us  from,  that  he  endured  for 
us ;  for  he  delivered  us  by  suffering ;  he  delivered  us  from 
death,  and  he  endured  that;  he  delivered  us  from  Satan, 
and  his  temptations,  therefore  he  endured  them ;  he  deli- 
vered us  from  the  law,  therefore  he  was  made  under  the 
law ;  he  delivered  us  from  sin,  and  he  bare  our  sin ;  he  deli- 
vered us  from  the  wrath  of  God,  therefore  he  did  conflict 
with  that ;  and  from  the  torments  of  hell  therefore  he  did 
suffer  them.* 

Diabolus  et  peccator  desperationis,  peena  est  hominis  passio  desperatio  eat  hominis 
actio.     Ames.     Bellar.  enervat.  lib.  ii.  de  Christo,  cap.  2. 

*  Quod  cairn,  nos  pro  nostris  debebamus  sceleribus  sustinere  ille  pro  nobis 
passus  cst,  &c. 

Ut  quod   propter  itnbecillitatem  virium  ferre  non  poteramus  pro  nobis  ille 
portaret.     llierom.  in  Esa.  liii. 

TD1D  quidam  codices  in  plurali  legunt  11'OlBn  ut  sit  caatigatio 
P2 


212  CHRIST    IN   TRAVAIL.  [SfiR.   I. 

Our  Lord  and  Saviour  Christ,  did  establish  the  law  by  his 
death.  So  says  the  apostle,  speaking  of  Christ's  death  in  his 
being  made  a  propitiation  for  sin.  "  We  do  establish  the 
law,"  Rom.  iii.  31.  Look  therefore,  whatever  the  law  did  re- 
quire of  us,  for  whom  he  died,  that  hath  Christ  done,  and 
performed,  and  suffered  for  us  ;  but  according  to  the  law,  we 
were  to  suffer  in  our  souls,  and  that  immediately,  yea,  the 
wrath  of  God,  with  the  torments  of  hell,  and  therefore  here- 
in and  thus  hath  Christ  suffered  for  us. 

Either  Christ  hath  suffered  the  wrath,  and  justice  of  God 
for  the  elect  denounced  against  sin,  Gen.  ii.  17.;  or  God 
doth  dispense  with  the  execution  thereof;  or  the  elect  are 
still  to  suffer  it.  But  the  elect  are  not  still  to  suffer  it,  and 
God  doth  not,  will  not,  cannot,  by  his  ordinate  power,  dis- 
pense with  the  execution  of  it,  and  therefore  Christ  hath  suf- 
fered it  for  them  :  but  the  execution  of  that  law,  did  extend 
to  the  wrath  of  God,  and  torments  of  hell  upon  soul  and 
body ;  certainly  therefore,  our  Lord  and  Saviour  Christ,  hath 
not  only  suffered  in  his  body,  but  in  his  soul  to,  and  that 
immediately.  Neither  can  the  strength  of  these  arguments 
and  reasons,  be  waved,  by  saying  that  Christ  did  or  might 
satisfy  the  law,  by  enduring  somewhat  equivalent  to  the  pun- 
ishment due,  according  to  the  letter  of  it.  For 

The  law  is  not  satisfied,  unless  the  thing  be  paid,  or  endured 
in  the  kind  which  the  law  doth  require,  although  something 
be  paid,  or  endured,  which  is  equivalent  to  the  damage  made 
by  the  trespass  :  as  in  case,  the  law  requiring  an  eye  for  an 
eye,  and  a  tooth  for  a  tooth,  that  a  Jew  did  strike  out  his 
brother's  tooth,  and  the  judge  did  order  that  his  eye  should 
be  put  out  for  it ;  though  the  eye  be  equivalent  to  a  tooth,  yet 
the  law  should  not  be  satisfied  with  that  judgment:  and  in  case 
that  a  man  stole  an  ox  from  another,  five  oxen  being  to  be  res- 
tored by  the  law,  if  the  judge  had  given  the  wronged  person 


retributionum  nostrarum  (uti  illud  plurale  nomen  usurpatur,  Psalm  Lxix.  23  )  h.  e. 
costigatio  quse  peccatorum  nostrorum  est  justa  retributio  seu  quse  justse  retribu- 
tionis  ac  paense  loco  ob  peccata  nostra  super  nos  venire  debebat  venit  super  eum 
sett.  Christum  Glass.  Philolog.  Sacr.  lib.  3,  tr.  1,  p.  107. 

Disciplina  ictributionis  nostrse  super  eum  id  est  supplicium,  quod  nos  retri- 
buere  ac  rependere  debuimus  pro  peccatis  nostris  super  eum  imposuit  Deus, 
id  est  quicquid  paenarum  Deus  a  nobis  exigere  debuit  pro  peccatis,  id  ab  inno- 
cente  filio  pater  exegit.  Sanctius  in  Esa.  liii.  5. 


1.]  CHRIST  IN  TRAVAIL.  213 

one  ox  every  way  as  good  as  his  own,  yet  the  law  should  not 
have  been  satisfied  :  so  that  an  equivalent  may  be  paid  or 
endured,  yet  the  law  not  satisfied. 

The  punishment  which  the  law,  "  The  day  that  thou  eatest 
thereof  thou  shalt  die  the  death,"  doth  threaten,  is  death  and 
the  wrath  of  God,  pana  sensus,  et  poena  damni.  Now  those 
those  that  oppose  the  truth  in  hand,  say  that  Christ  did  not 
bear  the  wrath  of  God,  nor  was  forsaken  by  God  as  to  his 
soul :  and  is  an  outward  forsaking,  being  left  to  the  malice  of 
men,  equivalent  to  the  wrath  of  God. 

Either  Christ  did  bear  the  wrath  of  God,  or  not ;  either  he 
did  endure  the  punishment  of  loss  and  sense  upon  his  soul 
and  body,  or  not ;  if  he  did,  then  he  did  endure  the  same 
punishment  in  kind,  that  we  should  have  done  ;  if  he  did  not, 
but  somewhat  equivalent,  then  there  is  some  evil  that  is  equi- 
valent to  the  wrath  of  God.  But  there  is  no  evil  equivalent 
to  the  wrath  of  God,  surely  therefore  he  did  endure  our  pun- 
ishment in  kind,  even  the  wrath  of  God,  and  the  torments  of 
hell  for  us  :  so  far  as  they  were  due  to  us  by  the  threatening 
in  itself  considered.  And  if  Christ  have  thus  suffered  for  us, 
both  in  his  soul  and  body,  then  his  travail  was  a  sore  travail. 
But, 

As  the  travail  of  Christ  was  a  sore  travail ;  so  it  was  a  long 
and  tedious  travail ;  he  was  in  the  pains  of  this  travail  from 
his  cradle,  to  the  last  breath  of  his  cross ;  not  only  in  his 
death,  but  in  his  life  all  along  :  upon  which  account  Matthew 
doth  apply  those  words  of  the  prophet  Isaiah,  "  Surely  he 
hath  borne  our  griefs,  and  carried  our  sins"  unto  what  Christ 
did,  and  suffered  in  his  life  ;  for,  saith  the  gospel  of  Matthew, 
chap.  viii.  16.,  "  When  evening  was  come  they  brought  unto 
him,  many  that  were  possessed  with  devils,  and  he  cast  out 
the  spirits  with  his  word,  and  healed  all  that  were  sick  :" 
Mark  tells  us,  that  "  all  the  city  was  gathered  together  at  the 
door,"  chap.  i.  32,  33.  So  that  he  did  cure,  and  heal  them 
with  his  own  trouble;  according  to  that  of  John  xi.  33.,  when 
Lazarus  was  dead,  and  he  saw  them  weeping,  he  groaned  and 
he  wept,  and  so  he  raised  Lazarus  :  well  thcrefoie  might  the 
evangelist  apply  that  of  Isaiah  to  this  occasion ;  for  he  took 
away  the  diseases  of  the  people  by  his  own  suffering  with  them, 
and  cast  out  the  devils  by  his  conflicting  with  them  ;  and  so 
though  he  did  not  come  into  the  extremity  of  this  travail,  till 


214  CHRIST    IX    TRAVAIL.  [SfiR.   1. 

the  last,  yet  he  had  many  pains  and  pangs  all  along  whilst  he 
lived.  He  wept,  and  he  wept,  and  he  wept  again :  three 
times  we  read  of  his  weeping  ;  once  at  the  raising  of  Lazarus, 
those  were  his  regal  tears  ;  once  at  his  coming  into  Jerusa- 
lem, when  he  said  "  Thy  house  is  left  to  thee  desolate," 
those  were  his  prophetical  tears ;  once  at  the  last  in  his 
agony,  when  he  "  prayed  with  cries  and  tears,"  Heb.  v.,  those 
were  his  priestly  tears :  his  whole  time  was  a  weeping  time, 
a  sorrowful  time ;  and  therefore  the  apostle  counts  of  his  suf- 
ferings from  the  time  of  his  coming  into  the  world,  Heb.  x. 
5.,  "  Wherefore,  when  he  cometh  into  the  world,  he  saith, 
Sacrifice  and  offering  thou  wouldest  not,  but  a  body  hast 
thou  prepared  me."  This  travail  then  was  a  long  and  tedious 
travail.* 

III.  As  it  was  a  long  and  tedious  travail,  so  it  was  an 
helpless  travail ;  helpless  in  regard  of  men,  "  and  they  all 
forsook  him,"  saith  the  text.  When  a  woman  is  in  travail, 
friends  come,  and  midwife  comes,  and  helpers  come.  But 
when  Christ  was  in  travail,  even  his  very  friends  forsook 
him,  yea,  God  himself  did  forsake  him  :  no  friend,  nor  mid- 
wife, nor  helper,  but  in  this  matter  he  trode  the  wine-press 
of  his  Father's  wrath  alone.  Oh,  what  an  hard  labour  was 
here !  yet  thus,  thus  in  regard  of  his  body,  thus  in  regard  of 
his  soul,  Christ  was  in  travail  for  us. 

But  suppose  that  Christ  was  in  travail,  and  thus  in  travail 
for  us,  what  then  ? 

Then  it  is  our  duty  to  come  in,  and  behold  this  hard  and 
sore  labour.  When  Moses  saw  the  bush  burning  that  was 
not  consumed,  he  said,  I  will  stand  still,  and  behold  this 
wonder.  But  behold  a  greater  wonder  is  here,  Christ  bearing 
our  sins  in  the  fire  of  the  wrath  of  God,  and  yet  not  con- 
sumed ;  shall  we  not  then  stand  still,  and  behold  this  wonder 
of  love  ? 

t  Locus  Esaise  dicitur  ad  impleri  avaywyiKUQ  avaywyrj  enim  docet  quid 
speres,  uti  Lyranus ;  litera  gesta  docet ;  quid  credas,  allegoria,  moralis,  quid 
agas  ;  quid  speres  anagogia ;  cum  enim  multa  miracula  edere  incipiebat  Christus 
fieri  potuisset  ut  vulgus  existimasset  Christum  tamen  excellentem  et  mirificum 
esse  chyrurgum,  ad  hoc  precavendum.  Mattheus  hominum  mentes  elevare  per 
avaXwyijv  de  Christo  altius  quid  sperare  voluit. 

Chemnit.  Harmon,  sic  Rupertus  Ferus,  Flaccius  in  glos.  super  8 c. Matth.  1  /. 

Per  sanationes  corporis  animae  sanationem  representavit. 

fiaoaleiv  autem  absolute  significat  onerose  portare,  Apoc.  2,  3,  cum  molestia 
portare,  Matt.  xx.  12.  Konick  Disp.  25,  loc.  83. 


SER.  1.]  CHRIST  ix  TRAVAIL.  215 

Hereby  you  see  all  the  attributes  and  divine  perfections 
of  God  in  conjunction,  and  meeting  as  in  their  dwelling 
place ;  ye  may  see  much  of  the  wisdom,  power,  justice,  and 
goodness  of  God,  scattered  up  and  down  in  the  creatures. 
There  is  an  honey  in  every  flower,  which  the  bee  can  find 
and  discern ;  but  in  the  hive  doth  the  several  homes  of  the 
creatures  meet  and  dwell,  that  is  the  house  thereof.  So  there 
is  a  sweet  taste  of  the  several  attributes  of  God  in  all  the 
creatures ;  but  in  Christ  doth  his  fulness  dwell  bodily ; 
and  in  his  suffering  you  may  see  the  wisdom,  power,  justice, 
and  mercy  of  God  in  conjunction,  and  so  know  God  indeed ; 
which  knowledge  was  more  worth  to  Paul  than  all  other 
knowledges,  for,  saith  he,  "  I  desire  to  know  nothing  but 
Christ,  and  him  crucified." 

Hereby  also,  I  mean  by  the  consideration  of  this  great 
and  sore  travail,  you  will  prize  and  value  Christ  more,  and 
have  your  hearts  drawn  out  with  love  to  him ;  for  shall  I 
not  prize  him  that  suffered  the  wrath  of  God  and  the  tor- 
ments of  hell  for  me  ?  The  more  you  see  his  love  to  you, 
the  more  will  your  hearts  be  inflamed  with  love  to  him. 
Now  the  greater  his  sufferings  for  you  do  appear  to  you,  the 
more  you  see  his  love  to  you :  "  When  I  am  lift  up  (saith  he) 
I  will  draw  all  men  after  me ;"  that  is,  when  I  am  lift  up  on 
the  cross ;  he  doth  not  say,  when  I  am  transfigured  at  mount 
Tabor,  I  will  draw  all  to  me ;  yet  there  was  a  drawing  glory, 
which  made  Peter  say,  It  is  good  for  us  to'be  here.  But  his 
love  is  the  most  drawing  object,  and  that  was  glorious  in 
suffering. 

Thereby  you  will  learn  to  prize  all  your  enjoyments ;  for 
thus  you  will  see  what  they  cost,  what  rate  they  are  at  in 
the  king's  book ;  there  is  no  blessing  or  mercy  which  we  do 
enjoy,  but  was  bought  in  by  Christ ;  he  laid  down  his  life 
for  you,  and  in  him  are  you  blessed  with  all  spiritual  bles- 
sings. But  did  Christ  suffer  such  hard  things  for  my  enjoy- 
ments ?  Oh,  what  infinite  cause  have  I  then  to  prize  them 
all! 

Hereby  also,  you  will  be  made  willing  to  suffer  any  thing 
for  Christ,  to  become  low  and  mean  for  him,  to  endure  the 
reproach,  anger,  and  wrath  of  men  for  him.  For  shall  Christ 
suffer  so  hard  a  labour  for  me  in  his  body,  in  his  soul,  and  shall 
not  I  suffer  in  mv  estate  and  name  for  him  ?  Shall  he  suffer 


216  CHRIST    IN    TRAVAIL.  [SEK.   1 

the  wrath  of  God  for  me ;  and  shall  not  I  be  willing  to  suffer 
the  .wrath  of  man  for  him  ?  Shall  he  endure  the  very  tor- 
ments of  hell  for  me ;  and  shall  not  I  be  willing  to  suffer  a 
little  on  earth  for  him  ? 

Thereby  you  will  be  made  unwilling  to  put  him  to  a  new 
suffering  for  you ;  those  that  fall  away  and  decline,  do  "  cru- 
cify the  Lord  afresh  (saith  the  apostle)  and  put  him  to  an 
open  shame ;"  when  professors  walk  scandalously,  they  put 
Christ  to  an  open  shame,  to  a  new  suffering.  But  is  this 
true,  that  Christ  hath  suffered  so  great  things  for  me,  and 
shall  he  now  suffer  by  me  ?  What !  hath  he  not  suffered 
enough  already  ?  He  hath  suffered  in  his  body,  in  his  soul, 
the  wrath  of  God,  the  very  torments  of  hell,  and  is  not  this 
enough  ?  God  forbid  that  ever  I  should  so  walk,  that  Christ 
should  yet  suffer  by  me,  who  hath  suffered  such  things 
for  me. 

Hereby  also,  you  shall  be  able  to  overcome  your  tempta- 
tions, corruptions,  and  to  be  more  fruitful,  and  profitable, 
and  gracious  in  your  lives ;  here  is  the  shop  of  virtues,  Officina 
virtutum ;  whatever  grace  or  virtue  you  want,  you  may  have 
in  this  shop,  if  you  will  come  for  it.  Dost  thou  want  hatred 
of  sin  ?  Here  you  may  see  it  in  its  own  colours,  and  the 
reward  thereof.  For  if  God  spared  not  his  own  Son,  but  he 
endured  the  wrath  of  God,  and  the  very  torments  of  hell, 
when  sin  \vas  but  imputed  to  him;  oh,  what  an  hell,  and 
flaming  fire  shall 'those  endure,  who  have  sin  of  their  own, 
and  must  bear  it  themselves  !  And,  says  Gerard,  would  you 
see  the  torments  of  hell,  the  true  punishment  of  sin  ?  Ito 
ad  montem  Calvarite,  go  to  mount  Calvary.  Or  dost  thou 
want  patience  in  thine  afflictions?  Behold  the  travail  of 
Christ,  as  a  lamb  he  opened  not  his  mouth  before  the  shearer. 
Or  dost  thou  want  a  tender,  broken  heart  ?  Truly  his  heart 
is  hard  indeed  which  the  sight  of  these  breakings  of  Christ 
will  not  break. 

Hereby,  also,  you  will  be  engaged  unto  his  commandments 
and  ordinances.  For  what  are  the  ordinances  which  now 
we  enjoy,  but  the  representation  of  a  suffering  Christ,  where- 
by we  hold  forth  the  Lord's  death  till  he  come  ?  What  is 
all  our  preaching  and  your  hearing,  but  of  Christ  crucified  ? 
What  is  baptism,  the  Lord's  supper,  or  any  other  ordinances, 
but  that  bed  wherein  we  have  communion  with  a  suffering 


SER.  1.]  CHRIST    IX    TRAVAIL.  21? 

Christ?  And  shall  Christ  suffer  such  bitter  things  for  us 
in  his  soul  and  body;  and  shall  we  throw  up  those  ordinances 
whereby  we  are  to  have  communion  with  him  in  these  suffer- 
ings ?  God  forbid  ! 

And  hereby  also,  you  that  are  of  a  fearful  heart,  may 
fully  conclude  the  willingness  of  God  to  save  sinners.  For 
if  God  the  Father  had  not  been  very  willing,  he  would  never 
have  put  his  own  only  Son  to  so  great  a  suffering  for  their 
salvation.  What  can  be  more  abhorrent  from  the  heart  of 
a  tender  Father,  than  to  put  his  own,  only,  and  obedient 
Son  unto  death  ?  It  goes  to  the  heart  of  a  tender  father  to 
see  his  child  die ;  "  I  will  not  see  the  death  of  the  child," 
said  Hagar,  "  and  she  sat  down  over  against  him,  and  lift  up 
her  voice  and  wept,"  Gen.  xxi.  16;  but  to  lay  his  own  hands 
upon  him,  in  reference  to  his  death,  this  is  a  grief  beyond  all 
expression ;  yet  this  did  God  the  Father  do,  for  he  bruised 
his  Son,  he  put  him  to  grief,  he  smote  him,  and  he  laid  on 
him  the  iniquities  of  us  all.  Surely,  if  God  the  Father  had 
not  been  infinitely  willing  to  save  sinners,  he  would  never 
have  done  a  thing  so  contrary  to  him  ;  and  if  Christ  himself 
were  not  willing,  he  would  never  have  suffered  such  hard 
things  for  their  salvation.  What  is  not  a  woman  willing  to 
do  for  that  child,  whom  she  hath  had  a  sore  travail  for  ? 
Now  Christ's  travail  was  a  sore  travail ;  surely  therefore, 
he  is  infinitely  willing  to  save  sinners,  and  if  God  the  Father 
be  willing,  and  Christ  be  willing,  then  why  should  not  every 
poor,  doubting,  drooping  soul  say,  "  Lord,  I  believe,  help 
thou  mine  unbelief;"  I  once  doubted  of  thy  love,  because 
I  doubted  of  thy  willingness  to  save  such  as  I  am,  yea,  often 
have  I  put  an  if  upon  thy  willingness,  saying  with  the  leper, 
"  Lord,  if  thou  wilt,  thou  canst  make  me  clean."  But  now 
I  see  thou  art  willing  to  save  sinners ;  why  should  I  then 
doubt  again  ? 

And  upon  this  account,  all  poor  sinners  may  be  encouraged 
to  come  to  Christ ;  for  if  Christ  did  come  down  from  heaven 
for  you,  will  he  refuse  you  when  you  come  to  him  ?  If  lie 
have  suffered  such  hard  and  bitter  things  for  sinners,  do  ye 
think  he  will  cast  them  away  that  do  come  to  him  ?  Surely 
he  will  not.  Oh,  what  great  encouragement  doth  this  doc- 
trine proclaim  unto  all  poor  and  great  sinners  for  to  come  to 
Christ. 


218  CHRIST    TN    TRAVAIL.  [SER.  2. 

And  hereby  also,  your  faith  may  be  established,  and  your 
hearts  comforted  and  settled,  when  you  have  come  to  Christ ; 
for  the  more  fully  the  suffering  of  Christ,  which  is  the  object 
of  your  faith,  is  spread  before  your  eyes,  the  more  will  your 
faith  be  raised  and  established ;  and  if  Christ  have  suffered 
such  great  things  for  you,  even  the  very  wrath  of  God,  and 
torments  of  hell,  then  you  may  be  assured  that  he  will  never 
forget  you.  Can  a  woman  forget  her  child  ?  No.  Why  ?  But 
because  she  hath  travailed  for  it.  But  behold,  here  is  a 
travail  beyond  all  travails  ;  Christ  travailing  in  the  greatness 
of  his  love  for  poor  sinners,  travailing  under  the  wrath  of  God 
his  Father,  and  will  he  forget  you  that  are  his  seed  ?  "Though 
a  woman  forget  her  child,  yet  will  not  I,  saith  the  Lord." 
Oh,  what  comfort  is  this  for  all  the  seed  of  Christ ;  Christ 
hath  had  a  sore  travail  for  you,  therefore  assure  yourselves 
he  will  never  forget  you.  And  thus  I  have  done  with  the 
first  argument  of  this  doctrine,  Christ  in  travail. 


SERMON    II. 

CHRIST    IN   TROUBLE   AND    HIS    ASSURANCE    OP    ISSUE. 

"  He  shall  see  of  the  travail  of  his  soul,  and  be  satisfied."  ISAIAH 
liii.  11. 

HAVING  spoken  to  the  first  argument,  Christ  in  travail, 
we  are  now  to  proceed  to  the  second,  His  assurance  of  issue  ; 
though  he  had  an  hard  labour  of  it  in  the  day  of  his  suffer- 
ings, yet  he  was  sure  and  certain  that  he  should  not  miscarry ; 
many  women  do  miscarry  in  travail,  few  or  none  have  assur- 
ance that  they  shall  not  miscarry  j  but  before  our  Saviour 
Christ  fell  in  travail,  the  Father  did  assure  him,  that  he  should 
see  his  seed  and  be  satisfied ;  accordingly  he  hath  seen  the 
travail  of  his  soul,  for,  saith  he,  Heb.  ii.  13  :  "  Behold,  I,  and 
the  children  whom  God  hath  given  me/'  and  he  shall  yet  see 
his  seed ;  he  did  not  lay  down  his  life  at  uncertainties,  nei- 
ther was  it  left  in  suspense  whether  he  should  have  issue  or 
not,  but  he  was  assured  of  it,  and  so  he  died  for  sinners. 

For  the  opening  and  clearing  whereof  we  must  inquire, 


SER.  2.]  CHRIST  ix  TRAVAIL.  219 

I.  What  this  issue  is  which  Christ  did  travail  for. 

II.  What  assurance  he  had  of  it. 

I.  As  for  the  issue  of  Christ's  travail,  which  he  travailed 
for,  it  is  all  that  fruit  and  effect  of  his  sufferings,  which  he  did 
travail  for.  There  are  some  immediate  next  effects  and 
fruits  of  Christ's  death  and  sufferings,  which  I  may  call  the 
first  birth  of  the  death  of  Christ.  There  are  other  effects 
which  are  more  remote,  and  I  may  call  them  the  latter  birth 
of  the  death  and  sufferings  of  Christ.  But  look  whatever 
fruit  or  effect  that  is  which  Christ  did  travail  for,  that 
he  was  assured  of.  The  first  he  did  see  presently,  and  the 
latter  he  doth  and  shall  see  daily. 

What  are  those  first,  next,  and  immediate  effects  and  fruits 
of  the  death  of  Christ,  which  he  presently  saw  ? 

Those  are  many;  and  because  there  are  so  many  opinions 
of  men  about  them,  I  shall  answer  to  this  question,  both 
negatively  and  affirmatively. 

1.  Negatively. 

Some  think  that  the  first  and  immediate  effect  of  Christ's 
death  was,  to  make  God  reconcileable  to  mankind ;  for  "  God 
was  in  Christ,  reconciling  the  world  unto  himself;"  but  the 
world  was  not  actually  reconciled  at  his  death  ;  and  therefore, 
say  they,  the  first  effect  of  Christ's  death  was  to  make  God 
reconcileable.  But  this  cannot  be  the  next  and  immediate 
effect  of  the  death  of  Christ;  for  God  was  reconcileable 
before  Christ  died,  and  had  not  only  a  velleity,  but  a  full  will 
to  shew  mercy  to  us ;  for,  John  iii. :  "  God  so  loved  the 
world,  that  he  sent  his  only  begotten  Son."  Now  if  the 
love  of  God  to  mankind  were  the  cause  of  Christ's  coming 
into  the  world,  then  he  was  reconcileable  before  the  death  of 
Christ. 

Others  think  that  our  actual  reconciliation  is  the  next  and 
immediate  effect  of  the  death  of  Christ.  But  this  cannot 
be,  for  our  Saviour  tells  us,  That  he  which  believeth  not, 
abidcth  under  wrath ;  "  The  wrath  of  God  doth  abide  on 
him."  Now  if  the  wrath  of  God  do  abide  upon  a  man,  so 
long  as  he  abideth  under  unbelief,  then  is  he  not  reconciled 
to  God  actually,  till  he  believeth.  When  a  man  is  actually 
reconciled  to  God,  then  he  is  justified ;  but  "  we  are  justi- 
fied by  faith,"  Rom.  v.  1,  and  therefore  a  man  is  not  actually 


220  CHRIST    IN    TRAVAIL.  [SfiR.  2. 

reconciled  till  he  doth  believe  actually.  Those  that  are 
without  Christ,  being  aliens  from  the  commonwealth  of  Israel, 
and  strangers  from  the  covenants  of  promise,  having  no  hope, 
and  without  God  in  the  world,  cannot  be  actually  reconciled 
to  God ;  but  so  were  the  converted  Ephesians  before  their 
conversion,  Eph.  ii.  12.  The  apostle  Paul  saith  expressly, 
that  whilst  the  Corinthians  were  unrighteous  and  wicked, 
they  were  not  justified,  1  Cor.  vi.  9,  10,  11 :  "  Know  ye  not 
that  the  unrighteous  shall  not  inherit  the  kingdom  of  God ; 
be  not  deceived,  neither  fornicators,  nor  adulterers,  nor 
thieves,  nor  covetous,  nor  drunkards,  &c.,  shall  inherit  the 
kingdom  of  God ;  and  such  were  some  of  you :  but  ye  are 
sanctified,  but  ye  are  justified,"  &c.  Therefore  they  were 
not  justified,  and  so  not  actually  reconciled  unto  God  before 
their  conversion.  As  glorification  follows  our  justification,  so 
our  justification  follows  our  vocation,  Rom.  viii.  30,  actual 
reconciliation  therefore,  and  justification,  is  not  the  next 
effect  of  Christ's  death. 

But  we  are  then  discharged  from  our  sins,  when  they  are 
charged  on  Christ,  and  they  were  charged  on  Christ,  when 
he  died  for  them. 

True,  when  Christ  died,  then  were  our  sins  charged  on  him; 
but  it  doth  not  follow  that  we  were  then  discharged  :  for 
there  is  a  great  difference  between  a  man's  paying  of  his  debt 
himself,  and  the  payment  of  the  surety.  If  a  man  be  arrested 
for  a  debt  of  his  own,  and  do  pay  it  himself,  he  is  then  dis- 
charged from  the  debt,  but  if  the  debt  be  charged  on  the 
surety  and  he  pay  it,  the  debtor  is  not  presently  discharged 
from  the  debt,  in  regard  of  the  surety,  but  to  be  discharged 
when  the  surety  pleaseth.  Now  our  sins  were  charged  on 
Christ,  as  our  Surety,  and  he  did  pay  our  debt;  look  there- 
fore, when  he  pleases,  we  are  discharged  from  them,  and  that, 
saith  he,  is  upon  your  believing  not  before,  being  "justified 
by  faith,  ye  have  peace  with  God  through  our  Lord  Jesus 
Christ,"  Rom.  v.  1. 

Some  think  that  Christ  died  to  reconcile  man  to  God,  so 
far  as  that  Salva  Justitia,  or  noti  obstante  Justitia  Dlvina ; 
God  might  have  a  power  to  shew  mercy  to  the  children  of 
men,  which  he  was  willing  to  do,  but  was  bound  from  it  by 
his  justice ;  and  that  by  the  death  of  Christ,  he  was  free  to 


SER.  2.]  CHRIST  IN  TRAVAIL.  221 

give  unto  man  what  law  he  pleased ;  which  liberty,  or  power 
of  God,  say  they,  was  the  next  effect  of  Christ's  death.* 

But  this  cannot  be,  for  then  Christ  died  to  redeem  the 
power  of  God,  out  of  the  hand  of  his  justice;  for  that  which 
is  delivered  by  the  death  of  Christ,  is  redeemed ;  but  where 
do  we  find  in  Scripture,  that  Christ  is  said  to  redeem  God, 
or  any  thing  of  God's  ?  This  doth  suppose  that  God  was 
willing  to  shew  mercy  to  man,  and  to  do  that  for  man  which 
he  could  not  do ;  but  that  cannot  be  with  God :  man  may 
be  willing  to  do  that  which  in  justice  he  cannot  do,  because 
his  will  may  be  unjust,  but  God's  will  cannot  be  unjust ; 
and  therefore  he  cannot  will  that  which  he  cannot  do  in 
justice.  This  makes  void  the  death  of  Christ,  according  to 
the  maintainers  of  this  opinion ;  for  they  say,  That  God 
could  pardon  the  sin  of  man  without  the  death  of  Christ ; 
and  therefore  if  Christ  died  to  procure  such  a  power  and 
liberty  to  God,  then  he  died  for  nothing ;  for  according  to 
themselves  he  had  this  power  before.f  This  opinion  doth 
suppose  that  there  is  a  velleity,  and  voluntus  in  God ;  an 
half  and  a  full  will ;  and  if  God's  will  may  be  imperfect  and 
perfect,  then  his  knowledge  also  may  be  plena  et  semiplena, 
perfect  and  imperfect;  and  so  imperfection  will  be  charged 
upon  God.  The  apostle  Paul  tells  us,  Heb.  9,  that  Christ 
died  as  Mediator  of  the  new  covenant,  therefore  not  to  set 
God  free  to  make  what  covenant  he  pleased  with  the  children 
of  men.  What  state  shall  redeemed  man  be  in  presently 
upon  this  account,  not  under  the  gospel,  for  God  is  left  free 
by  the  death  of  Christ,  they  say,  to  appoint  what  covenant 
he  pleases,  and  not  under  the  law,  for  he  was  by  Christ 
redeemed  from  the  law.J  If  the  confirmation  of  the  new 

*  Christum  tnerito  mortis  suse  Deum  patrem  universe  generi  humano  hactenus 
reconciliavit,  ut  pater  propter  ipsius  meritum  salva  justitia  et  veritate  sua  novum 
gratia  fsedus  cum  peccatoribus  inire  et  sancire  potuerit  ac  voluerit.  Sententia 
Remonstrantium  circa  secundum  Articul. 

Act.  Synod.  280.     Arrain.    Perkins.  Oper.  Armi.  page  675. 

t  Si  potestas  et  jus  salvandi  in  Deo  consideretur  absolute  Deus  si  voluisset 
potuisset  nos  salvare  citra  satisfactionem  Christi  sed  non  voluit  id  facere.  Cor- 
nivus  contra  Molin.  p.  43C. 

Deus  potest  de  suo  jure  quantum  vult  dimittere  instar.  regis  creditoris,  Matt, 
xviii,  nisi  velimus  Deo  minus  quam  nobis  licere  Sores  Vorstianns,  p.  4,  5. 

£  Mirabilis  ille  status  in  quern  homines  restitui  dicunt  per  Christum  neque  est 
status  gratice  evangelice  quse  non  fluit  ex  ftedere  gratite  neque  potest  esse  status 
legis  neque  ullus  alius  status  in  quo  homines  stare  solent.  Ames.  Antisynodal 
de  more  Christi,  cap  4,  p.  149. 


222  CHRIST    IN    TRAVAIL.  [SER.  2. 

covenant,  were  the  next  effect  of  Christ's  death,  as  ap- 
pears by  Heb.  ix.  14,  15,  then  Christ  did  not  die  to  pro- 
cure such  a  power  and  liberty  to  God,  that  he  might 
appoint  what  covenant  he  pleased.  Surely  therefore,  this 
power  or  liberty  in  God  is  not  an  effect  of  Christ's  death, 
much  less  the  next  effect  of  it.* 

Some  think  that  the  next  and  immediate  effect  of  the 
death  of  Christ,  is  the  forgiveness  of  original  sin  unto  all 
the  world  ;  none,  say  they,  are  damned  only  for  original  sin  ; 
this  by  the  death  of  Christ,  was  immediately  forgiven  to  all 
the  children  of  men. 

But  this  cannot  be,  for  then  all  the  world  should  be  actu- 
ally reconciled  unto  God,  and  justified ;  for  according  to  their 
own  opinion,  justification  and  forgiveness  of  sin  are  one  and 
the  same  thing ;  but  the  apostle  tells  us,  that  "  Whom  God 
justifies,  them  he  also  glorifies/'  Rom.  viii.  Then  also,  there 
should  not  only  be  an  impetration  of  redemption  and  grace 
for  all,  but  an  application  unto  all,  which  they  deny.  Then 
the  children  of  heathens  and  pagans  should  be  in  a  better 
state  and  condition  than  the  godly,  who  live  under  the  gospel ; 
for  according  to  their  opinion,  the  godly  living  under  the 
gospel  may  fall  away  and  be  damned ;  and  so,  though  they 
be  godly,  they  have  no  assurance  of  their  salvation;  but  if  a 
pagan's  child  die,  he  is  sure  to  go  to  heaven,  because  his  sin 
is  pardoned,  and  he  is  justified.  The  apostle  Paul  tells  us, 
2  Cor.  vii.,  that  the  children  of  believers  are  clean  and  holy, 
and  upon  the  account  of  the  parents'  faith ;  but  if  original 
sin  be  pardoned  to  all  the  world,  then  the  children  of  infidels 
and  unbelievers  also  are  holy ;  and  if  so,  why  doth  the  apos- 
tle tells  us,  that  our  children  are  holy  upon  the  account  of  the 
parents'  faith  ?  The  apostle  Jude  tells  us,  that  the  Sodom- 
ites endured  the  vengeance  of  hell;  surely  there  were  some 
children  in  the  town  and  place  ?  "  The  wages  of  sin  is 
death,"  saith  the  apostle  Paul,  and  death  reigned  from  Adam 
to  Moses,  even  upon  them  that  had  not  sinned  after  the 
similitude  of  Adam's  transgression.  And  if  the  wrath  of 
God  do  abide  upon  all  until  they  do  believe,  then  surely 
original  sin  is  not  forgiven  unto  all  the  world  by  the  death  of 
Christ. 

*  Remonstrantes  sic  declaratio  sent,  circa  2.     Artie.  Acta  Synod.  286.     So- 
ciniani  sic  Crellius  contra  Grotium,  p.  304. 


SER.  2.]  CHRIST   ix  TRAVAIL.  22.5 

Others  think  that  the  obtainment  of  this  decree,  namely, 
Whoever  believes  shall  be  saved,  and  whoever  believeth  not 
shall  be  damned,  is  the  next  and  great  effect  of  the  death 
of  Christ. 

But  this  cannot  be  the  effect  of  Christ's  death  ;  for  we 
read  of  no  such  general  decree  of  God  in  the  Scripture.  We 
read  of  this  gospel  truth,  Whoever  believes  shall  be  saved, 
and  whoever  believes  not  shall  be  damned  ;  but  every  gospel 
truth  is  not  a  decree  of  God.  Christ  is  the  Son  of  God,  is 
a  gospel  truth  ;  the  Lord  will  write  his  law  in  your  hearts,  is 
a  gospel  truth  and  promise ;  but  this  is  not  called  God's  de- 
cree. Such  a  general  decree  doth  exclude  and  deny  election 
of  particular  persons.*  The  Scripture  tells  us  plainly  of  the 
election  of  particular  persons  :  Eph.  i.,  (f  Who  hath  chosen 
us ;"  Rom.  viii.,  "  WThom  he  hath  predestinated,  them  he 
hath  also  called ;  the  foundation  of  God  standeth  sure,  he 
knoweth  who  are  his."  But  now  if  there  were  such  a  gene- 
ral decree  as  this,  Whoever  believes  shall  be  saved,  and 
whoever  believes  not  shall  be  damned ;  there  would  need  no 
election  of  particular  persons,  but  only  an  execution  of  that, 
general  decree.  By  that  general  decree  God  doth  will  no 
more  to  one  than  to  another;  but  Rom.  ix.  God  doth  will 
more  to  one  than  to  another,  for  "  Jacob  he  loved,  and  Esau 
he  hated."f  If  there  were  such  a  general  decree,  and  none 
else,  as  some  say,J  then  the  will  of  God  should  be  undeter- 
mined as  to  the  salvation  of  this  or  that  particular  man  until 
he  believed,  and  so  should  be  determined  by  some  act  of 
man.  But  the  will  of  God,  as  Braclwardine  ||  demonstrates, 
is  the  first  agent ;  primum  liberum,  primum  agens,  et  primum 
determinants ;  first  free,  the  first  mover,  and  the  first  deter- 
miner ;  the  serious  consideration  whereof  was,  as  he  profes- 
seth,  the  first  beginning  of  his  conversion  to  the  grace  of 
God,  from  the  error  of  Pelagianism  and  Manicheism. 

*  Electio  est  alicujus  particularis  cum  rejectione  alterius,  hoc  sic  ante  jacta 
mundi  fundamenta,  ergo  datur  aliquid  plusquam  decretum  generale. — Ames. 
Antisin. 

t  Decreto  isto  general!  Deus  nihil  magis  velit  uni  quam  alter!  sed  Rom.  9, 
magis  vult  uni  quam  alteri. — Ames.  Antisin. 

£  Totum  et  integrum  predestinationis  decretum. — Act.  Synod,  p.  48. 

11  Ego  autem  stultus  a  scientia  Dei  et  vanus,  &c.,  postea  vero  videbar  mihi  vi- 
dete  a  longe  gratia  Dei  omnia  bona  precedentem  tempore  et  natura  ;  sicut  aniina 
in  omnibus  motibus  primus  motor. — Bradward.  de  Causa  Dei,  Lib.  i.  cap.  3">, 
pag.  308. 


224  CHRIST    IN    TRAVAIL.  [SER.  2. 

Neither  can  the  death  of  Christ  be  the  cause  of  any  such 
decree;  for  the  decrees  of  God  are  eternal,  the  death  of 
Christ  was  in  time ;  and  that  which  is  in  time,  cannot  be  the 
cause  of  that  which  was  from  all  eternity.  Surely  therefore 
this  general  decree  is  none  of  that  issue,  wherewith  our  Lord 
and  Saviour  Christ  was  in  travail. 

Some  think  again,  that  the  next  and  great  effect  of  Christ's 
death,  was  to  bring  all  the  world  into  the  covenant  of  grace ; 
that  whereas  before  they  had  broken  the  covenant  of  works 
by  the  first  Adam,  now  all  are  brought  into  a  covenant  of 
grace  by  the  second  Adam, 

But  this  cannot  be ;  for  as  the  covenant  of  works  was 
made  with  the  first  Adam  and  his  seed  only ;  so  the  covenant 
of  grace  was  made  with  the  second  Adam  and  his  seed  only. 
But  the  whole  world  are  not  the  seed  of  Christ,  for  the  Lord 
promising  him  to  see  his  seed,  doth  not  promise  him  to  see 
all  the  world.  The  apostle  tells  us,  that  the  Ephesians  before 
their  conversion,  were  aliens  from  the  commonwealth  of 
Israel,  and  strangers  to  the  covenants  of  promise,  being 
without  hope,  and  without  God  in  the  world,  Ephes.  ii.  12; 
which  could  not  be,  if  all  the  world  were  taken  into  the 
covenant  of  grace  by  the  death  of  Christ.  If  God  deal  with 
all  mankind  in  a  covenant  of  grace,  then  all  mankind  should 
certainly  be  saved :  for,  if  whatever  God  requires  on  man's 
part,  God  doth  by  that  covenant  undertake  that  man  shall 
perform ;  then  all  must  needs  be  saved,  if  the  covenant  be 
made  with  all ;  but  whatever  by  this  covenant  God  requires 
on  man's  part,  he  undertakes  to  perform.  Doth  God  require 
that  we  should  act  from  an  inward  principle  of  grace?  "  I 
will  write  my  law  in  your  hearts,"  saith  he.  Doth  he  require 
of  us  to  know  him  ?  this  he  undertakes  for  us  by  this  cove- 
nant, "  Ye  shall  all  know  me,  from  the  greatest  to  the  least," 
Heb.  viii.  Doth  he  require  us  to  fear  him  ?  "  I  will  put  my 
fear  into  your  hearts."  Doth  he  require  faith  and  repentance 
at  our  hands  ?  "  I  will  take  away  (saith  he)  the  heart  of 
stone,  and  give  you  a  heart  of  flesh ;  and  I  will  circumcise 
thine  heart,"  Deut.  xxx.  6.  Doth  he  require  obedience  at 
our  hands  ?  he  undertakes  for  us  also  that  we  shall  perform 
the  same :  "  I  will  put  my  Spirit  into  you,  and  cause  you  to 
walk  in  my  ways,"  Ezek.  xxxvi.  27.  So  that  if  God  should 
deal  with  all  the  world  of  mankind  according  to  the  covenant 


SER.  2.]  CHRIST  IN  TRAVAIL.  225 

of  grace,  then  all  the  world  should  be  saved ;  but  all  the 
world  are  not  saved,  surely  therefore  this  is  none  of  those 
effects  which  our  Lord  and  Saviour  Christ  travailed  for. 

Some  think  that  Christ  by  his  death  hath  obtained  a  suffi- 
ciency of  grace  for  all  men,  so  that  all  men  may  or  may  not 
believe  if  they  will ;  and  this  obtainment  of  this  sufficiency 
of  grace  for  all,  they  think  is  the  great  and  next  effect  of  the 
death  of  Christ. 

But  this  cannot  be,  for  the  thing  is  not  true,  namely,  that 
all  men  have  a  sufficiency  of  grace  by  Christ  to  believe  on 
him :  for  if  all  the  men  of  the  world  have  such  a  power  from 
Christ  to  believe  on  him,  then  the  Jews  had  a  power  to  ab- 
stain from  their  unbelief,  in  putting  Christ  to  death,  and  yet 
they  had  this  power  from  the  death  of  Christ ;  and  if  so,  then 
it  was  possible  that  Christ  should  not  have  died  by  the  hand 
of  their  unbelief,  and  yet  possible,  by  virtue  of  Christ's  death, 
for  them  to  abstain  from  the  putting  him  to  death,  which  is  a 
contradiction  :  neither  can  it  be  said,  that  they  had  this  power 
given  them  upon  the  the  foresight  of  Christ's  death,  for  the 
same  foresight  did  foresee  that  Christ  should  be  put  to  death 
by  the  hand  of  their  unbelief.  If  all  men  have  such  a  power 
to  believe  in  Christ,  then  either  they  must  have  an  inward 
principle  of  grace  and  faith,  or  they  can  act  without  an  inward 
principle ;  but  they  have  no  inward  principle  of  faith  and 
grace,  for  then  they  should  be  believers,  for  it  is  the  inward 
habit  and  principle  which  denominates  the  man,  and  not  this 
or  that  act,  for  a  man  is  a  believer  though  he  be  asleep  :  nor 
can  any  creature  put  forth  an  act  without  an  inward  principle 
suitable  to  the  act;  the  eye  cannot  act  in  seeing  without  an 
inward  principle  of  sight,  nor  the  ear  hear  without  an  inward 
principle  of  hearing;  the  herb  cannot  grow  without  an  inward 
principle  of  growth,  nor  the  beast  move  without  an  inward 
principle  of  motion,  nor  any  creature  act  without  a  precedent 
inward  principle  :  but  all  the  men  of  the  world  have  not  an 
inward  principle  of  faith  and  grace,  and  therefore  all  the  men  of 
the  world  have  not  a  power  to  believe.  The  apostle  Paul  tells 
us  plainly  that  u  a  natural  man  receiveth  not  the  things  of 
God,  neither  can  he,"  1  Cor.  iii.  14,  but  if  he  have  a  power 
to  believe,  then  he  can  receive  them,  for  receiving  is  our  be- 
lieving, 1  John  12  :  neither  can  it  be  said  that  by  the  natural 
man  we  are  to  understand  the  weak  Christian,  for  if  the  weak 

VOL.  III.  Q 


226  CHRIST    IX    TRAVAIL.  [SfiR.  2. 

Christian  cannot  receive  the  things  of  God,  much  less  the 
wicked  and  the  pure  natural  man  :  nor  doth  the  apostle  speak 
of  a  natural  man  as  he  is  merely  considered  in  the  state  of 
nature,  abstracted  from  all  gospel  grace  and  the  means  of  grace, 
for  then  he  should  speak  to  no  particular  case  in  the  world,  for, 
according  to  our  adversaries,  there  is  no  man  in  the  world  but 
hath  some  gospel  grace  or  means  of  grace.  Our  Saviour  Christ 
tells  the  Jews,  John  x.26,  "  Ye  believe  not  because  ye  are  not 
of  my  sheep ;"  it  seems,  then,  that  all  the  world,  are  not  the 
sheep  of  Christ,  for  saith  he,  Ye  are  not  of  my  sheep ;  and  the 
reason  why  some  do  believe  is  because  they  are  of  Christ's 
sheep,  and  why  others  believe  not  is  because  they  are  not  of 
his  sheep  :  now  if  the  reason  why  some  believe  and  others 
not,  is  because  some  are  his  sheep  and  others  not,  then  all  the 
world  have  not  a  power  to  believe  ;  for  if  all  the  world  have 
a  power  to  believe,  then  those  that  are  not  of  the  sheep  may 
believe  ;  and  if  those  that  are  not  of  the  sheep  can  believe, 
why  doth  our  Saviour  give  this  as  a  reason  why  they  did  not 
believe — because  they  were  not  of  his  sheep  ?  The  apostle 
Paul  saith,  Rom.  x.  14,  "  How  shall  they  believe  in  him  of 
whom  they  have  not  heard ;  and  how  shall  they  hear  without 
a  preacher ;  and  how  shall  they  preach  except  they  be  sent  ?" 
but  now  all  the  particular  men  in  the  world  have  not  heard  of 
a  crucified  Christ  by  the  preaching  of  the  gospel.  And  if  it 
be  said,  Yes,  but  the  sun,  moon  and  stars  do  preach  Christ, 
as  the  apostle  saith  in  the  same  chapter,  "  Their  sound  and 
words  is  gone  forth  into  all  the  earth ;"  I  answer,  It  is  true, 
indeed,  that  the  apostle  doth  here  allude  to  that  xixth  Psalm, 
where  it  is  said  that  the  voice  of  the  sun,  moon  and  stars  is 
gone  forth  unto  all  the  earth ;  but  the  apostle  doth  not  con- 
tradict himself,  for  he  saith,  "  How  can  they  believe  in  him 
of  whom  they  have  not  heard ;  and  how  can  they  hear  with- 
out a  preacher,"  and  a  preacher  sent  ?  If  men  can  hear  of 
Christ  by  the  preaching  of  the  sun,  moon  and  stars,  then  they 
can  hear  of  Christ  without  the  preaching  of  one  sent,  which 
he  denies  in  the  14th  and  15th  verses.  And  if  the  sun,  moon 
and  stars  do  preach  Christ  crucified,  then  is  the  matter  of  the 
gospel  no  divine  revelation :  and  then  why  might  not  Adam 
believe  in  Christ  in  the  state  of  innocency  ?  the  sun,  moon 
and  stars  preach  the  same  doctrine  now  that  they  preached 
.then,  and  then  the  same  that  they  preach  now ;  if,  therefore 


SER.  2.]  CHRIST  IN  TRAVAIL.  227 

they  do  preach  Christ  crucified  now,  then  also  they  preached 
him  in  the  state  of  innocency;  and  so  Adam  in  the  state  of  inno- 
cency  had  a  power  to  believe  on  Christ,  which  the  maintainers 
of  th^s  opinion  deny :  neither  can  it  be  said  that  if  all  men 
have  not  a  power  to  believe  then  God  should  be  unjust  in 
punishing  so  many  for  unbelief,  for,  besides  that  all  had  a 
power  in  Adam,  God  doth  punish  and  damn  men  for  their 
will,  not  for  their  want  of  power  ;  for  as  Hugo  observes  well, 
When  a  man  cannot  if  he  will,  for  the  will  the  impossibility 
is  not  imputed,  but  if  he  will  not ;  for  impossibility  the  will 
is  not  excused.* 

Some,  again,  do  think  that  Christ  died  to  obtain  a  power, 
dominion  and  lordship  over  all  things,  especially  a  power  to 
forgive  sins,  which  he  had  not  before  his  death  ;  and  that  the 
next  effect  of  his  death  was  the  obtainment  of  this  power 
and  dominion.t 

But  this  cannot  be,  for  if  Christ  had  this  dominion,  power 
and  lordship  over  all,  by  virtue  of  the  hypostatical  union, 
then  it  was  not  merited  by  his  death ;  but  this  he  had  by  that 
mysterious  union,  and  therefore  as  soon  as  he  was  born  the 
angel  said  unto  the  shepherds,  "  For  unto  you  is  born 
this  day  in  the  city  of  David,  the  Saviour,  which  is  Christ 
the  Lord,"  Luke  ii.  11.  Christ  did  not  merit  for  himself,  as 
the  protestants  speak  against  the  papists,  for  if  Christ  should 
merit  such  a  glory  and  dominion  for  himself,  then  the  love  of 
Christ  to  man  in  his  death  would  be  much  lessened ;  it  is  said, 
indeed,  that  upon  his  suffering,  as  a  consequent  thereof,  or  by 
way  of  declaration,  say  some,  J  God  gave  him  "  a  name  above 
every  name,"  &c.  Phil,  ii.,  but  that  relates  to  the  former  words 
also,  "  Who  thought  it  no  robbery  to  be  equal  with  God,  yet 
took  on  him  the  form  of  a  servant,"  verse  7>  which  notes  the 
hypostatical  union.  If  Christ  bought  in  this  power  and  do- 

*  Quando  homo  non  potest,  si  volit,  propter  voluntatem  impossibilitas  non 
imputatur ;  si  autem  non  vult,  propter  impossibilitatem  voluntaa  non  excusatur. 
Hugo  de  St.  Viet.  L.  2.  de  Sacr.  par.  xiv.  cap.  6. 

Cornel.  Jansen.  August.  Lib.  iii.  de  Gratia  Christ!  Salvatoris. 

t  Smalcius  Catechis.  Racov.  de  Officio  Christi  Regio. 

Theses  Francis.  Davidis  Thes.  v. 

t  Dio  nou  causam  sed  ordinem  et  co::sequentiam  notat,  Acts  xx.  20  ;  Heb. 
iii.  7  ;    2  Peter  i.  10,  sic  Luc.  xxiv.  26,  oportuit  ilium   pati  et  bic  iutntrc  ;     sic 
sancti  per  multos  tribulationes  debent  reguum  ingredi  qusc  tamem  liujus  nuu  sun'- 
causa-, — Quistorp,  Annot.  Bibl.  in  Ps.  ex. 
Q2 


228  CHRIST    IN    TRAVAIL.  [$ER  .  2 

minion  by  his  death,  then  he  purchased  it  with  his  blood,  but 
his  blood  is  propitiatory  and  satisfactory,  not  procuring  lord- 
ship and  dominion.  The  power,  lordship  and  dominion  which 
Christ  hath  is  either  essential,  or  dispensatory  and  mediato- 
rial :  his  essential  power  and  lordship  was  not  merited  by  his 
death,  for  he  hath  that  as  he  is  God,  and  he  had  it  before  his 
incarnation,  for  Isaiah  saw  his  glory,  and  did  see  him;  chap. 
vi.  5,  "  For  mine  eyes  (saith  he)  have  seen  the  King  :"  What 
king  ?  "  Even  the  Lord  of  Hosts,"  verse  5  ;  the  "  holy,  holy, 
holy"  Lord  of  Hosts,  which  the  evangelist  John  doth  apply 
unto  Christ,  and  tells  us  plainly  that  this  Lord  whom  Isaiah 
saw  was  Christ;  chap.  xii.  41,  "These  things  said  Isaiah 
when  he  saw  his  glory  and  spake  of  him :"  his  mediatorial 
power  and  lordship  could  not  be  merited  by  his  death,  for  he 
was  Mediator  before  he  died,  and  therefore  had  his  mediato- 
rial power  before  his  death.  We  find  him  actually  possessed 
of  this  power  and  lordship  over  all  before  his  death;  witness  his 
casting  out  of  devils,  commanding  winds  and  seas,  which  obey- 
ed him  :  and  his  answer  to  the  owner  of  the  ass,  which  he  sent 
for;  "  Say,  The  Lord  hath  need  of  him."  And  as  for  his  power 
to  forgive  sins,  as  if  he  would  on  purpose  obviate  the  doctrine 
of  the  Socinians,  he  doth  declare  it  in  so  many  words  :  "  But 
that  ye  may  know  that  the  Son  of  man  hath  power  on  earth 
to  forgiye  sins,"  &c.,  Matt.  ix.  Now  if  he  had  this  power  on 
earth,  then  the  obtain ment  of  it  was  net  the  great  and  next 
effect  of  his  death ;  no,  nor  any  thing  which  his  soul  travailed 
for  jn  his  death. 

If  these  things  be  not  the  next  and  immediate  effects  and 
fruits  of  Christ's  death  and  sufferings,  what  are ;  and  what  is 
that  issue  of  his  death  which  he  did  presently  see  and  was 
possessed  of? 

2.  Affirmatively.  Look  what  the  first  Adam  destroyed, 
that  the  second  Adam  did  build  up  again  for  his  seed :  the 
second  Adam  recovered  and  gained  that  in  a  better  edition  for 
his  seed  which  the  first  Adam  lost  from  his  seed.  Therefore, 

As  the  first  Adam  by  his  sin  and  disobedience,  did  break 
the  law  of  God,  affront  his  justice,  and  provoked  the  anger 
and  wrath  of  God,  against  his  posterity  ;  so  the  second  Adam 
did  by  his  obedience  and  death,  satisfy  the  law  and  justice 
pf  God,  for  all  his  seed  whom  he  died  for ;  which  satisfaction 
he  did  perform  immediately.  For,  when  he  died,  our  sins 


SER.  2.]  CHRIST  IN  TRAVAIL.  229 

were  imputed  to  him,  and  laid  and  charged  on  him ;  for  "  he 
was  made  sin  for  us,  who  knew  no  sin,"  I  Cor.  v.  21.,  that 
is,  the  guilt  of  our  sin  was  imputed  to  him  ;  the  meaning  of 
the  words  is  not  he  was  made  a  sacrifice ;  for  it  is  said,  that 
"  he  knew  no  sin."  Now  it  cannot  be  said,  that  he  who 
knew  no  sacrifice,  was  made  a  sacrifice  for  us ;  indeed  it  fol- 
lows by  consequence,  that  he  was  made  a  sacrifice  for  us, 
which  he  was  on  the  cross ;  "  For  he  offered  up  himself  once 
for  all,"  saith  the  apostle,  Heb.  ix.  26,  28.,  which  cannot  be 
understood  of  his  appearing  in  heaven  for  us,  for  that  he  ever 
liveth  so  to  appear  for  us,  "  seeing  he  ever  liveth  to  make  in- 
tercession for  us,"  Heb.  vii.,  and  when  he  gave  himself  unto 
God  for  us,  then  he  was  "  made  an  offering,  and  a  sacrifice 
to  God  for  a  sweet  smelling  savour,"  Eph.  v.  2.  But  when 
he  died  for  us,  then  he  is  said  to  give  himself  for  us,"  Gal.  ii. 
20,  "  Who  loved  me  and  gave  himself  for  me  ;"  that  is,  who 
loved  me  and  died  for  me  :  yea  the  very  same  word  that  is 
used  for  the  sin  offering,  Levit.  xvi.,  is  attributed  unto  Christ, 
Isa.  liii.  10.,  "  When  he  shall  make  his  soul  an  offering  for 
sin :"  the  word  is  CDITK  a  sin  offering.  Now  the  sins  of  the 
people  were  laid  on  the  head  of  the  sin-offering,  and  Christ 
being  our  sin  offering,  when  he  died  on  the  cross,  our  sins 
were  then  laid  on  him,  and  imputed  to  him.  As  our  sins 
were  charged  and  laid  on  him,  so  they  were  laid  on  him  by 
the  hand  of  the  Father,  Isa.  liii.  "  It  pleased  the  Lord  to 
bruise  him,  and  he  hath  put  him  to  grief,"  verse  10.  "  And 
the  Lord  hath  laid  on  him  the  iniquities  of  us  all,"  verse  6. 
The  word  JTJD  doth  sometimes  signify  to  pray  and  inter- 
cede :  but  so  it  cannot  be  taken  here,  for  then  the  words 
should  be  read  thus ;  he  hath  made  our  iniquities  to  pray  or 
intercede  on  him,  or  by  him,  or  with  him ;  but  there  is  no 
good  sense  in  that ;  neither  can  it  be  said  that  the  words  here 
signifies  to  obviate,  as  if  the  sense  should  run  thus ;  he  hath 
marie  him  to  obviate  our  sins,  or  our  sins  to  be  obviated  by 
him,  which  is  that  interpretation  which  the  Socinians  do 
most  adhere  unto,  for  the  word  is  in  Hiphil,  noting  an  effi- 
cacy, and  causality,  without  any  preposition  before  the  word 
?1P  sin;  and  therefore  according  to  the  interpretation 
of  the  word,  the  words  must  be  translated  thus  ;  He  hath 
made  our  sins  to  obviate  by  him,  or  on  him,  which  is  no 
sense :  but  rather  than  men  will  lose  their  own  sense  and  ap~ 


230  CHRIST    IN    TRAVAIL.  [SER.  2. 

prehension,  they  will  make  the  Scriptures  to  speak  no  sense  : 
the  true  translation,  and  reading  of  the  words  is  thus  ;  "  He 
hath  made  our  sins  to  meet  on  him,"  and  so  our  sins  were 
laid  on  Christ  by  the  hand  of  the  Father.*  As  the  Father 
laid,  and  did  charge  our  sins  on  Christ  on  the  cross,  so  he 
laid  them  on  by  way  of  punishment,  our  sins  being  the  meri- 
torious cause  of  his  sufferings,  and  his  sufferings  being  the 
punishment  of  our  sins ;  for  what  is  a  punishment,  but  a  just 
inflicting  of  some  natural  evil,  for  some  sinful  evil.f  It  is  the 
inflicting  of  the  evil  of  suffering  for  the  sinful  evil  of  doing. 
Now  when  Christ  died  on  the  cross,  "  he  was  wounded  for 
our  transgressions,  and  bruised  for  our  iniquities,"  Isa.  liii. 
5.  And  where  do  we  read  either  in  scripture,  or  any  author, 
that  a  man  is  said  to  be  scourged,  wounded  or  afflicted  for  a 
fault,  but  it  notes  a  punishment,  and  that  such  a  fault  is  the 
meritorious  cause  thereof  ?  When  God  threatens  to  punish 
men  for  sin,  he  threatens  them  with  the  bearing  of  their  sin. 
So  Levit.  xx.  17.  "  He  shall  bear  his  iniquity,"  is  the  same 
with,  "  he  shall  be  killed,"  verse  16.  and  "  he  shall  be  cut 
off,"  verse  18.  So  Numb.  xiv.  33.,  "  Your  children  shall 
wander  in  the  wilderness,  and  shall  bear  your  whoredoms/' 
that  is,  the  punishment  which  is  due  to  them.  Ezek.  xviii. 
30,  "  The  soul  that  sins  shall  die,  and  the  son  shall  not  bear 
the  iniquity  of  the  father ;"  that  is,  the  son  shall  not  be 
punished  for  the  father's  sin.  So  that  in  scripture  language, 
to  bear  the  sin  of  another  is  to  be  punished  for  another :  so 
the  goat  did  bear  the  sins  of  the  people,  and  Christ  who  was 
our  sin-oftering,  did  bear  our  sins  on  the  cross,  Isa.  liii. ;  1 
Pet.  ii.  24.  "  Who  himself  bare  our  sins,  in  his  own  body  on 
the  tree  :"  Why  so,  but  because  he  did  bear  the  punishment 
that  was  due  thereunto  ?  As  he  did  then  bear  our  sins  on 
the  cross,  so  he  accepted  thereof,  and  did  willingly  under- 

*  Verba  prophetse  sunt  11  PUSH.  Secundum  Socini  interpretationem  orat 
pro  illo  i.  Christo,  sed  hoc  absurdam,  hac  interpretatione  itaque  rejecta,  dicit  So- 
cinus,  vertendum  ease  Jehova  occurrit  per  eum  sive  cum  eo  iniquitati  omnium 
nostrum,  sed  neque  haec  interpretatio  consistere  potest;  nomini  enim  fltf  nulla 
prepositio  apposita  est  quae  tale  quicquam  innuat  docendura  enim  esset,  1173 
{!#  11  tf'JQH  nin',  ut  autera  absolute  positum  ita  accipiatur  neque  ratio  sua- 
det  neque  syntaxis  patitur,  nee  simili  exemplo  ostendi  potest. — Sib.  Lubbert.  de 
Jes.  Christo  Servatore  contra  Socin.  Lib.  ii.  cap.  5.  p.  162. 

t  Ptena  vel  supplicium  est  malum  passiouis  quod  infligitur  propti-r  m.ilum 
actiouis. 


.  2.]  CHRIST    IN     TRAVAIL.  231 

go  this  task ;  for,  saith  he,  Lo,  I  come  to  do  thy  will,  thy  law 
is  within  my  heart,  I  delight  to  do  thy  will ;  which  he  speaks 
in  reference  to  these  sufferings,  Heb.  x. ;  Psalm  xl.  8.,  and 
John  x,  he  saith,  "  I  lay  down  my  life,  no  man  taketh  it  from 
me,  but  I  lay  it  down  of  myself,"  verse  17,  18.,  yea,  and 
when  our  sins  were  thus  charged  on  him,  he  did  accept  of 
that  charge,  and  calls  those  sins  his,  Psalm  xl.  11.,  "  Mine 
iniquities  have  taken  hold  of  me,  so  that  I  am  not  able  to 
look  up  :"  which  words  are  the  words  of  Christ  as  appears 
plainly,  by  the  former  verses.  And  so  again,  Psalm  Ixix.  5., 
"  O  God,  thou  knowest  my  foolishness,  and  my  sins  are  not 
hid  from  thee :"  which  psalm,  is  a  psalm  of  Christ,  who  stan- 
ding in  our  room  and  stead,  speaketh  thus,  as  being  made 
sin  for  us.  So  that  as  the  Father  charged  our  sins  on  him, 
so  he  did  accept  of  that  charge.*  As  he  did  willingly  accept 
of  this  great  charge,  bearing  our  sins  for  us,  so  when  he 
died  on  the  cross,  he  did  stand  in  our  room,  and  stead ;  not 
only  dying  for  us,  that  is,  for  our  profit,  good  and  benefit ; 
but  for  us,  that  is  in  our  room,  and  place,  and  stead;  for  he 
laid  down  his  life  for  us,  as  a  ransom.  Now  when  one  dies 
for  another  in  way  of  ransom,  he  doth  not  only  die  for  the 
benefit,  and  profit  of  the  ransomed,  but  in  the  place  and  room 
and  stead  of  the  ransomed.  So  did  Christ  die  for  us,  as 
himself  speaketh,  Matt.  xx.  28;  Mark  x.  45.  Avrpov  am 
TroXXwj/.  "  The  Son  of  Man,  came  to  give  himself  a  ransom 
for  many :"  and  if  Christ  did  die  for  us,  as  only  for  our  profit, 
then  why  should  Paul  say,  1  Cor.  i.  13,  "  Was  Paul  crucified 
for  you,  or  were  you  baptized  into  the  name  of  Paul  ?"  It 
seems  by  this  speech,  that  none  can  die  for  us  in  that  sense 
that  Christ  died  for  us,  but  such  as  whose  names  we^  may 
be  baptized  into  ;  but  one  man  may  die  for  another's  profit 
and  benefit,  as  the  martyrs  have  done,  and  yet  the  other  may 
not  be  baptized  into  his  name  :  and  the  apostle  Paul  saith  in 

*  Longe  a  salute  mea  verbe  delictorum  meorum.  Longe  hie  divinitus  loquitur 
verba  delictorum  meorum  quia  nostra  peccata  reputat  sua.  Hierom.  in  Ps.  xxi.  et 
xlt.  Sana  animam  quamvis  peccaverim  tibi;  quamvis  ego  sum  omnium  maximus 
peccator  imputative,  imo  pcccatum,  2  Cor.  v.  ult.,  et  phrasi  Hebnca  peccaverim 
tibi,  ratione  officii,  quod  sustineo  rederaptor,  non  persona:  quando  sum  integer  et 
peccatum  nulluni  feci.  Tarnov.  in  Psal.  passional,  p.  233,  in  Ps.  xli.  Quod  igitur 
ad  Deum  Patrem  spcrtat,  se  non  u.-se  ratione  officii  innocentcm  fatetur,  O  Pens 
Pater  inquit  qui  ratione  humanaa  naturtc  es  Deus  meus,  Ps.  xxii.,  tu  novisti  stul- 
titiam  uicaui  hoc  est  peccatum.  Chribtus  peccator.— Tarnov.  in  Ps.  Ixix.  p.  203. 


232  CHRIST    fN    TRAVAIL.  [SER.  2. 

Rom.  v.j  "  Christ  died  for  the  ungodly,  (verse  6.)  scarcely  for 
a  righteous  man  will  one  die ;  yet  peradventure  for  a  good 
man,  some  will  even  dare  to  die/5  verse  7-  Now  Christ  did 
so  die  for  us,  and  in  that  sense  that  he  saith,  scarcely  for  a 
righteous  man  will  one  die  j  and  in  that  sense  did  Christ  die 
for  the  ungodly,  that  he  saith,  peradventure  for  a  good  man, 
some  will  even  dare  to  die.  But  when  the  apostle  speaks  of 
one's  dying  for  a  righteous  man,  and  for  a  good  man,  he 
doth  not  mean,  that  one  will  scarce  die  for  the  benefit  or  pro- 
fit of  a  righteous,  or  good  man ;  but  he  speaks  of  dying  in 
their  place  and  stead  ;  and  therefore  when  he  speaks  in  the 
former  verse  of  Christ's  dying  for  the  ungodly,  he  must  needs 
mean  for  them,  as  in  their  room  and  stead ;  else  he  had  not 
spoken  ad  idem  in  verse  6.,  to  what  he  had  spoken  in  verse 
5.  But  the  apostle  did  certainly  speak  ad  idem,  and  there- 
fore when  our  Lord  and  Saviour  Christ  died  for  us,  he  did 
not  only  die  for  our  good  and  profit,  but,  in  our  room,  place 
and  stead.  And  as  when  he  died  for  us,  he  did  give  himself 
a  ransom  for  us ;  so  that  price  and  ransom  was  most  fit  and 
suitable,  being  in  itself  sufficient  to  pay  all  our  debt,  a  price 
beyond  all  compute ;  for  saith  the  apostle  Peter,  "  We  are 
not  redeemed  with  silver  and  gold,  but  with  the  precious 
blood  of  Christ ;"  as  if  he  should  say,  with  such  a  price  as  is 
beyond  all  compute,  in  respect  whereof,  all  the  silver  and 
gold  in  the  world,  are  of  no  value ;  a  price  in  itself  infinite, 
and  of  infinite  value ;  not  only  satisfying  the  debt  by  way  of 
acceptation,  but  by  that  intrinsical  worth  and  value  that  was 
in  itself;  for  if  Christ's  death  and  obedience  should  only  sa- 
tisfy God  for  our  sin  by  way  of  divine  acceptation,  then  it 
should  satisfy  no  more  than  the  blood  of  bulls  and  goats 
might  have  done,  for  such  blood  might  satisfy  by  way  of  ac- 
ceptation. But  the  scope  of  the  apostle  in  Hebrews  ix.,  is 
to  shew  that  the  blood  of  Christ,  is  more  efficacious  in  itself, 
than  the  blood  of  all  the  bulls  and  goats ;  and  therefore  it 
was  not  satisfying  in  a  way  of  divine  acceptation  only,  but  in 
a  way  of  intrinsical  worth  and  merit.  Now,  if  the  price  that 
Christ  laid  down  for  us,  was  in  itself  sufficient  to  satisfy,  and 
this  was  not  wrested  from  him,  but  he  did  freely  offer  it  up 
unto  God  for  us,  and  he  did  pay,  and  suffer  all  this  in  our 
room  and  stead,  as  a  punishment  due  to  us,  and  inflicted  on 
him  by  the  hand  of  the  Father,  then  God  the  Father  must 


.  2.]  CHRIST    IN    TRAVAIL.  233 

needs  be  satisfied  with  this  great  payment ;  which  indeed  he 
was,  as  appears  by  that  entertainment  which  he  gave  unto 
Christ,  when  Christ  came  into  heaven,  saying,  "  Sit  thou  on 
my  right  hand  :"  surely  therefore,  the  satisfaction  of  divine 
wrath,  and  justice,  was  an  immediate  effect  of  the  death  of 
Christ,  which  he  saw  presently.* 

As  he  did  satisfy  the  law  and  divine  justice  for  all  his 
seed  ;  so  he  did  by  his  death  sanctify  and  set  them  apart  for 
God,  consecrating  them,  even  all  those  that  he  travailed  with, 
to  the  use  and  service  of  the  Lord ;  for  as  the  first  Adam 
did  profane,  debauch,  and  defile  all  his  seed  by  his  disobe- 
dience ;  so  the  second  Adam  did  by  his  obedience,  consecrate, 
sanctify,  and  set  apart  his  seed  for  God  ;  for,  says  the  apos- 
tle, Heb.  x.  10,  "  By  the  which  will,  we  are  sanctified  through 
the  offering  of  the  body  of  Christ;"  and  again,  verse  14, 
"  For  by  one  offering,  he  hath  perfected  (that  is,  consecrated, 
saith  Calvin)  for  ever,  them  that  are  sanctified."  And  saith 
our  Saviour,  "  For  this  cause  do  I  sanctify  myself ;"  That  is, 
saith  Maldonate,f  according  to  all  the  authors  that  I  have 


*  Nullus  alius  fuit  covnpetentior  modus,  quia  nullus  morbus  competentius  cu- 
ratur  quatn  per  suura  contrarium  oportuit  cnim  quod  sicut  purus  homo  voluit 
ascendere  ad  excelsa  Dei  per  superbiam  suam  ita  purus  et  verus  Deus  ascenderet 
usque  ad  infima  hominis  sell,  usque  ad  mortem  crucis,  et  sic  per  contrarium  facta 
est  perfectio  curationis  humanse. — Altissiod.  in  Sent.  Lib.  iii.  tract.  1.  cap.  8. 

Sicut  ergo  Adam  per  furtum  et  rapinam  factus  est  quasi  dives,  cum  nihil  habe- 
ret ;  sic  oportuit  ut  Deus  fieret  quasi  pauper  cum  omnia  haberet.  Et  videtur  justa 
compensatio  per  adsequationem  contrariorum  complexorum,  ut  mors  a-terna  ejus 
qui  temporalis  erat,  morte  temporal!  ejus  qui  seternus  erat,  redimeretur. — Paris- 
iens.  de  Causis  cur.  Deus  Homo,  cap.  7. 

Christi  satisfactio  non  solum  ex  divina  acceptatione  sed  ex  proprio  valore  quatn 
habebat  ob  dignitatem  persona  satisfacientis  icqualis  fuit  divina  oifenste  compen- 
sandse  — Aquinas  par.  iii.  q.  48.  art.  2.  Altissiodorens.  Lib.  iii.  tract.  1.  cap. 
8.  Parisiens.  lib.  cur.  Deus  Homo.  Asturicens.  de  Christi  Gratia  sect.  iii.  dub, 
3.  Abulens.  in  Exod.  cap.  37,  q.  7,  p.  277.  Anselm.  cur.  Deus  Homo,  lib.  ii. 
cap.  14.  Ruiz,  de  voluntate  Dei  disput.  liii.  §  5.  Greg,  de  valent.  de  Chnsto 
Mediatore,  cap  4,  5.  Bart.  Medina  in  pnrt.  iii.  thorn,  i.  q.  art.  5,  conclus.  3. 
Vasquez.  disput.  v.  cap.  2,  in  3  part.  tho.  torn.  i.  Suarez.  disput.  4,  §  3,  ubi  sit 
conclusio  haec  certa  est  et  contraria  nee  probabilis  nee  pia  nee  fidei  consentanea. 

Quo  spectat  etiam  illud  apostoli  ad  Heb.  impossibile  est  sanguine  taurorum 
auferri  peccata  ubi  ex  antithesi  apparet  sermonem  esse  de  aequali  satisfactione, 
nam  per  modum  satisfactionis  imperfectse  adeoque  ex  acceptatione  divina  etiam 
sanguis  hircorum  et  taurorum  satisfacere  poterat  ad  auferenda  peccata. — Tannerus 
de  Incarnar.  quest.  2,  dub.  2,  in  3  partem.  Tho.  torn.  iv.  Chrysdst.  horn.  10, 
in  Epist.  ad  Roman.  Cyprian  de  ascens.  pretii.  magnitude  superat  negotium. 

t  Omnes  prorsus  authores  quos  ego  legerim  interpretantur  pro  iis  ego  me  in 


234  CHRIST    IN    TRAVAIL.  [ 

read,  I  do  consecrate  and  offer  myself  up  a  sacrifice,  that 
they  also  may  be  sanctified  or  consecrated  in  truth  and  not 
in  ceremony,  as  the  people  were  by  the  sacrifices  of  the  Old 
Testament,  which  were  but  a  shadow  of  the  great  and  true 
sacrifice  of  Christ  on  the  cross.  And  if  our  Lord  and 
Saviour  Christ  when  he  died  on  the  cross,  was  then  offered 
unto  God  as  our  first  fruits ;  then  all  the  crop  and  lump 
must  be  sanctified  thereby;  but  when  he  died,  he  was 
offered  up  unto  God  as  our  first  fruits ;  and  therefore,  says 
the  apostle,  Heb.  ii.  11,  "For  both  he  that  sanctifieth,  and 
they  who  are  sanctified,  are  of  one,"  as  the  first  fruits  and 
the  crop  or  lump  were  of  one;  plainly  therefore,  when 
Christ  died  for  us,  he  did  then  sanctify  and  set  apart  all 
those  whom  he  died  for;  and  so  the  consecration  and  sanc- 
tification  of  his  seed,  is  another  fruit  and  immediate  effect  of 
his  death. 

As  he  did  consecrate  all  his  seed  by  his  death ;  so  he  did 
merit  heaven  and  eternal  salvation  for  them,  opening  the 
gates  of  Paradise,  I  mean  the  celestial  Paradise,  for  them 
again ;  for  as  the  first  Adam  by  his  sin  and  disobedience, 
did  bring  death  and  eternal  condemnation  upon  all  his  seed, 
and  did  cause  the  gates  of  Paradise  to  be  shut  against  him 
and  all  his  posterity ;  so  the  second  Adam  did  by  his  death 
and  obedience,  open  the  gates  of  Paradise  and  salvation  for 
all  his  seed  ;*  and  therefore  when  he  was  on  the  cross  he 
told  the  thief,  "  This  day  shalt  thou  be  with  me  in  Paradise ;" 
why  did  he  not  rather  say,  This  day  shalt  thou  be  writh  me 
in  the  third  heavens  ?  for  our  Paradise  is  the  third  heaven, 
as  appears  plainly  by  comparing  the  2nd  and  4th  verses  of 
the  xiith.  of  2  Cor.  But  because,  as  I  conceive,  he  was 
performing  his  obedience  on  the  tree  as  our  second  Adam, 
and  so  opening  heaven  and  our  Paradise,  in  opposition  to 
that  hurt  and  rrischief  the  first  Adam  did  by  his  disobedience 
in  eating  of  the  forbidden  tree;  and  if  ye  look  into  Heb. 
x.  19,  20,  ye  shall  find  that  the  apostle  Paul  saith  thus  : 


sacrificium  offero,  et  cum  dicit,  ut  sint  ipsi  sanctificati  in  veritate,  significat  ini- 
tiari  consecrarique  sacrificio. — Maldonat.  in  Joan.  xvii.  Calvin  in  Heb.  x. 

*  Humilitas  passionis  Christi  meruit  nobis  apertionem  januse  quod  per  earn 
datum  est  sufficiens  pretium  redemptionis  nostrae,  quia  tanta  fuit  humilitas  in 
redemptore,  quanta  fuit  superbia  in  prevaricatore.  Altissiodor.  lib.  3,  tract  1, 
e.  7. 


SlSR.  2.]  CHRIST    IX    TRAVAIL.  235 

"Having  therefore,  brethren,  boldness  to  enter  into  the 
holiest  by  the  blood  of  Jesus  by  a  new  and  living  way,  which 
he  hath  consecrated  for  us,  through  the  vail,  that  is  to  say, 
his  flesh/'  So  that  the  opening  of  this  way  to  life  for  his 
seed,  was  the  proper  and  immediate  effect  and  fruit  of  Christ's 
death  and  sufferings. 

As  he  did  merit  eternal  life  and  salvation  for  his  seed, 
opening  the  gates  of  Paradise  again  for  them  ;  so  he  did  by 
his  death  recover  the  image  of  God  unto  all  his  seed.  For 
as  the  first  Adam  by  his  sin  and  disobedience  did  then  lose 
the  image  of  God,  which  loss  he  saw  as  an  immediate  fruit 
and  effect  of  his  sin;  so  the  second  Adam,  Christ,  did  by  his 
death  and  obedience,  merit  the  repair  and  recovery  of  the 
image  of  God  for  his  seed ;  which  purchase  he  did  then 
obtain  presently,  and  did  see  the  right  thereunto  immediately 
settled  upon  his  seed  and  children  whom  he  died  for ;  for 
saith  the  apostle,  Heb.  ix.  12  :  "But  by  his  own  blood,  he 
entered  in  once,  into  the  holy  place,  having  obtained  eternal 
redemption  for  us."  So  that  before  he  entered  the  holy 
place,  he  had  obtained" our  redemption;  look  therefore  what 
that  is  which  we  in  Scripture  are  said  to  be  redeemed 
from,  that  he  obtained  presently  for  his  seed.  Now  we  are 
not  only  said  to  be  redeemed  from  the  wrath  to  come,  but 
from  all  iniquity,  Tit.  ii.  14,  or  from  our  vain  conversation, 
and  that  by  his  blood,  1  Peter  i.  18,  19.  This  purchase 
therefore  he  obtained  presently  by  his  death.  Neither  can 
it  be  said,  that  then  all  his  seed  should  be  immediately  freed 
from  their  vain  conversation  ;  for  as  Parisiensis  doth  observe 
well,*  As  the  sin  of  the  first  Adam  doth  not  hurt  his  seed, 
but  in  that  they  are  his :  so  the  grace  of  the  second  Adam 
doth  not  actually  profit  his  seed,  but  in  that  they  are  his. 
But  the  seed  of  Adam  are  his,  as  they  receive  flesh  from 
him  when  they  are  born ;  so  the  seed  of  Christ  are  not  his 
but  as  they  receive  the  Spirit  from  him,  and  when  they  are 
born  again ;  but  though  the  seed  of  Christ  have  not  this 
image  actually  stamped  on  them  till  they  do  believe,  yet  they 

*  Quern  admodum  non  transit  adse  damnatio  nisi  per  generationem  incar- 
naliter  ex  eo  generates,  sic  non  transit  Christi  gratia  et  peccatorum  remissio  nisi 
per  regenerationem  spiritualiter  per  ipsum  regenerates  ;  sicut  delictiim  adae  non 
nocet,  nisi  suis,  in  eo  quod  sui  sunt ;  sic  nee  gratia  Christi  p  rudest ;  nisi  suis,  in 
eo  quod  sui  sunt.  Parisicns.  de  Causis  cur  Deus  homo,  cap.  1), 


236  CHRIST    IN    TRAVAIL.  [SfiR.    2. 

have  a  right  both  to  salvation  and  sanctification,  immediately 
settled  on  them  by  the  death  of  Christ,  as  a  child  may  have 
a  right  to  a  land  by  the  purchase  of  his  father,  before  he 
comes  of  age,  though  he  be  not  actually  possessed  of  the 
land  till  he  do  come  of  age.  This  right  therefore,  and  the 
settlement  of  it  upon  the  seed  of  Christ,  is  another  fruit 
and  immediate  effect  of  his  death  and  sufferings. 

As  he  did  recover  the  image  of  God  by  his  death ;  so  he 
did  spoil  and  destroy  the  power  of  Satan,  which  Satan  had 
over  all  his  seed.*  For  as  by  the  sin  and  disobedience  of 
the  first  Adam,  Satan  got  a  power  over  all  his  posterity ;  so 
by  the  death  and  obedience  of  the  second  Adam,  this  power 
was  broken  in  reference  to  the  seed  of  Christ :  for  saith  the 
apostle, "  He  also  himself  took  part  of  the  same,  that  through 
death  he  might  destroy  him  that  had  the  power  of  death, 
that  is  the  devil,"  Heb.  ii.  14 ;  and  again,  "  And  having 
spoiled  principalities  and  powers,  he  made  a  shew  of  them 
openly,  triumphing  over  them  in  it,"  Col.  ii.  15,  that  is,  the 
cross.  So  that  when  Christ  died  on  the  cross,  he  did  then 
break  and  rout  the  forces  of  Satan,  insomuch  as  all  the  forces 
that  he  can  draw  up  together  against  the  seed  of  Christ,  are 
but  some  rallied  troops  :  then  was  his  field  army  broken,  and 
Christ  triumphed  over  them  all  upon  the  cross.  Surely 
therefore  this  breaking  of  the  power  and  force  of  Satan,  is 
another  fruit  and  immediate  effect  of  the  death  of  Christ.t 

As  Christ  did  break  the  power  of  Satan  by  the  power  of 
his  death ;  so  he  did  thereby  also  sanctify  all  things  to  his 
seed,  insomuch  as  when  they  should  come  of  age,  all  things 
should  be  then  clean  unto  them.  For  as  the  first  Adam  by 
his  sin  and  disobedience  did  defile  all  things,  insomuch  as  all 
things  were  to  be  unclean  and  accursed  to  his  posterity ;  so 
the  second  Adam  did  by  his  death  and  obedience  sprinkle, 
cleanse,  and  sanctify  all  things  to  his  seed  :  for  saith  the 
apostle,  "  When  Moses  had  spoken  every  precept  to  the 

•(•  Nunc  judicium  est  mundi  nunc  princeps  hujus  mundi  ejicietur  foras,  Joan. 
12,  justitia  Dei  hoc  efficere  debuit,  ut  ab  eo  pateretur  Diabolus  quod  ille  inique 
intulerat  soil,  ut  ab  eo  ligaretur,  quern  inique  ligaverat,  seu  ligati  procuraverat 
ab  eo  ejiciretur  de  mundo  quern  ipse  et  spiritualiter  et  corporaliter  injuste  ejece- 
rat.  Paris,  cap.  9. 

*  Dicitur  Diabolus  duas  habuisse  manus  unam  attrabentem  qua  trahebat  omneg 
ad  inferos  quse  amputate  est  et  ei,  quantum  ad  bonos  per  passionem  Christi ;  et 
manum  flagellantem  qua?  debilitata  est,  qiue  vexat  tamen  bonos  ad  exercitium. 
Altissiod.  lib.  3,  tract.  1,  cap.  8. 


SER.  2.]  CHRIST  IN  TRAVAIL.  237 

people,  he  took  the  blood  of  calves  and  goats,  and  sprinkled 
both  the  book  and  all  the  people.  Moreover  he  sprinkled 
with  blood  both  the  tabernacle  and  all  the  vessels  of  the 
ministry ;  and  almost  all  things  are  by  the  law  purged  with 
blood ;  but  the  heavenly  things  themselves  with  better  sacri- 
fices than  these/'  that  is,  with  Christ's  own  blood,  Heb.  ix. 
19,  21,  23.  And  if  you  ask  why  the  law,  tabernacle,  and  the 
vessels  of  the  ministry,  which  were  holy,  should  be  thus 
sprinkled  with  blood  ?  Calvin  gives  two  reasons,*  namely, 
Because  though  these  things  were  in  themselves  holy,  yet 
being  used  by  man  (in  regard  of  that  pollution  that  is  in  him) 
they  might  be  profaned ;  and  though  the  book  and  word  of 
the  Lord  be  holy,  yet  it  will  not,  it  cannot  be  efficacious  and 
profitable  to  us,  nisi  sanguine  Christi  dedicata,  unless  it  be 
sprinkled  by  the  blood  of  Christ.  Now  this  sprinkling  of 
the  vessels,  book  and  all  things,  was  performed  when  the 
sacrifice  was  offered,  and  when  the  testament  was  dedicated ; 
but  the  new  testament  was  confirmed  by  the  death  of  Christ, 
his  blood  being  the  blood  of  the  new  testament,  and  he  was 
sacrificed  on  the  cross :  and  therefore  though  his  seed  are 
sanctified  with  inherent  holiness  when  they  do  believe ;  yet 
there  was  a  sprinkling  of  all  things,  ordinances,  afflictions, 
dispensations,  and  all  conditions  to  them,  by  the  death  ot 
Christ ;  so  that  this  sanctification  or  sprinkling  of  all  things, 
in  reference  to  his  seed,  was  another  fruit  and  immediate 
effect  of  the  death  of  Christ. 

As  Christ  did  sanctify  all  things  to  his  seed,  so  by  his 
death  he  did  confirm  the  covenant  of  grace.  For  as  the 
first  Adam  did  break  the  old  covenant  by  his  sin  and  diso- 
bedience ;  so  the  second  Adam,  by  his  death  and  obedience, 
did  confirm  the  new;  for,  saith  the  apostle,  Heb.  ix.  16, 
"  Where  a  testament  is,  there  must  also  of  necessity  be  the 
death  of  the  testator ;  for  a  testament  is  of  force,  after  men 
are  dead,  otherwise  it  is  of  no  strength  at  all,  whilst  the  testator 
liveth,"  verse  17-  And  again,  Gal.  iii.  15,  "  Brethren,  I  speak 

*  Non  quod  prophanum  in  se  quicquam  haberet  ftedus,  sed  quod  nihil  tarn 
sanctum  est  quod  non  homines  sua  immunditia  prophanent,  nisi  Deus  ipse  facta 
omnium  innovatione  occurrent,  omnes  cultus  vitiosi  sunt  ac  impuri  nisi  Christus 
sanguinis  sui  aspersione  eos  mundet. 

Ubi  Christus  cum  sanguine  non  apparet,  nihil  nobis  esse  cum  Deo  :  sic  neque 
doctriua  ipsa  nobis  ac  in  nostrum  usum  efficaverit  nisi  sanguine  dedicate.  Cal- 
vin Heb.  ix.  20,  21. 


238  CHRIST    IX    TRAVAIL.  [SfiR-  2. 

after  the  manner  of  men,  though  it  be  but  a  man's  covenant, 
yet  if  it  be  confirmed,  no  man  disannulleth,  or  addeth 
thereto ;  and  this  I  say,  that  the  covenant  that  was  confirmed 
before  of  God  in  Christ,"  &c,,  verse  1 7.  So  that  the  cove- 
nant of  grace  was  confirmed  by  Christ  in  his  death ;  only 
the  question  is,  How  this  covenant  was  confirmed  by  the 
death  of  Christ  ?  The  Socinians  say,*  That  Christ' s  death 
did  confirm  the  covenant  by  way  of  testimony,,  or  declaration 
of  the  truth  of  the  gospel ;  the  Lord,  say  they,  hath  pro- 
mised in  the  gospel,  that  all  those  who  repent  and  believe, 
shall  be  justified  and  saved.  Now  Christ  preaching  this 
truth  and  dying  in  it,  hath  confirmed  this  truth  and  the 
gospel ;  and  therefore,  say  they,  Christ  is  called  the  true 
and  the  faithful  witness.  But  though  Christ  by  his  death 
did  bear  his  testimony  to  the  truth  of  the  gospel,  yet  where 
do  we  find  in  Scripture  that  his  death  did  confirm  the  cove- 
nant by  way  of  testimony  ?  Where  doth  it  appear  that  the 
covenant  which  he  confirmed  by  his  death,  was  this,  If  you 
repent  and  believe,  you  shall  be  saved  and  justified  ?  The 
thing  is  true,  and  a  gospel  truth,  but  the  covenant  which 
Christ  confirmed,  ye  read  of  in  Heb.  viii.,  where  the  Lord 
doth  promise  both  faith  and  repentance  also.  If  the  death 
of  Christ  did  confirm  the  covenant  by  way  of  testimony, 
testifying  the  truth  of  the  gospel ;  then  the  death  of  the 
martyrs  should  confirm  the  covenant,  more  than  the  death 
of  Christ;  for  the  Socinians  deny  the  deity  of  Christ;  and 
if  Christ  were  only  man,  then  the  death  of  thousands,  some 
dying  more  painful  deaths  than  Christ  did,  should  give  a 
greater  testimony  to  the  truth  of  the  gospel,  and  so  confirm 
the  covenant  more  than  the  death  of  Christ.  But  where 
do  we  find  in  all  the  Scripture,  that  the  death  of  the  martyrs 
is  said  to  confirm  the  new  covenant  ?  The  death  of  none, 
but  of  the  testator,  can  confirm  the  testament;  but  Christ 

*  Quest.  Qui  vero  sanguis  aut  mors  Christ!  nobis  voluntatem  Dei  confir- 
mavit  ? 

Resp.  Duplici  ratione  primum  quod  nos  manifesto  de  ingenti  in  nos  Dei 
charitate  certus  reddiderit,  idque  adeo  quod  Deus  volit  nobis  id  donare,  quod  in 
N.  Fcedere  promittal,  unde  sanguis  novi  faederis  est  dictus  et  ipse  Christus  testis 
verus  et  fidelis. — Catechis.  Racovise  de  Prophetico  Christi  munere,  cap.  8.  So- 
cinus  de  Christo  Servatore  pars  prima,  de  Justif.  Synops.  ii.  Volkillius  de  Vera 
Religione,  lib.  iii.  cap.  18.  Crellius  ad  Librum  Hug.  Grot.  Respons.  ad  cap.  i. 
partic.  16. 


SER.  2.]  CHRIST  ix  TRAVAIL.  239 

only,  and  not  the  martyrs,  is  the  Testator,  Heb.  ix.  17.* 
Then  also  the  miracles  that  Christ  wrought  and  the  apos- 
tles' preaching^  with  the  gifts  that  Christ  gave  to  them  upon 
his  ascension,  should  confirm  the  covenant ;  for,  saith  the 
apostle,  Heb.  ii.  3,  "  How  shall  we  escape  if  we  neglect  so 
great  salvation  ?  which  at  the  first  began  to  be  preached  by 
the  Lord,  and  was  confirmed  unto  us  by  them  that  heard 
him  ;  God  also  bearing  them  witness,  both  with  signs  and 
wonders,  and  with  divers  miracles,  and  gifts  of  the  Holy 
Ghost,"  verse  4.  It  seems  then,  that  the  truth  of  the  gos- 
pel was  confirmed  to  us  by  miracles,  and  the  apostles' 
preaching ;  yet  the  miracles  and  preaching  of  the  apostles, 
are  not  said  in  Scripture  to  confirm  the  covenant,  which  yet 
might  very  well  be  said,  if  Christ's  death  should  confirm  it 
by  way  of  testimony.  If  the  death  of  Christ,  doth  confirm 
the  covenant  by  way  of  testimony,  then  the  blood  of  bulls 
and  goats,  might  have  confirmed  the  covenant ;  for  when 
God  testified  the  truth  of  his  promise  to  Abraham,  Gen.  xv., 
he  said  to  him,  "  Take  thee  an  heifer  of  three  years  old,  and 
a  she  goat  of  three  years  old,  and  a  turtle  dove,  and  a 
young  pigeon ;  and  he  took  them,  and  divided  them  in 
the  midst,"  verse  9,  10.  But  the  apostle  tells  us  plainly, 
Ileb.  ix.,  That  the  blood  of  bulls  and  goats  could  not  con- 
firm the  covenant.  The  ordinance  of  the  Lord's  supper 
doth  testify  God's  willingness  to  forgive  sinners ;  "  That  cup 
is  the  New  Testament  in  Christ's  blood,  shed  for  many  for 
the  remission  of  sins."  But  though  the  Lord's  supper  be 
a  seal  of  the  covenant,  sealing  to  us,  evidencing,  testifying, 
and  assuring  us  of  God's  love  by  Christ ;  yet  it  is  not  a  seal 
of  the  covenant,  as  Christ's  blood  was,  which  did  not  only 
seal  to  us,  but  was  a  seal  of  the  covenant  itself,  as  it  lay 
between  God  the  Father  and  him.  But  if  Christ's  death 
did  only  confirm  the  covenant  by  way  of  testimony,  then  the 
Lord's  supper  might  as  veil  be  said  to  confirm  the  covenant, 
which  is  no  where  affirmed  in  the  Scripture.  Look  how  the 
obedience  of  the  first  Adam  should  have  confirmed  the  cove- 
nant, in  case  he  had  stood  ;  and  look  how  he  broke  that 
covenant  by  his  disobedience ;  so  did  the  death  and  obedi- 

*  Vide  Essenii  Triumph.  Crucis,  p.  353,  lib.  ii.  §  i.  cap.  1.  Sib.  Lubbert  dc 
Jesu  Christo  Servatore  contra  F.  Socinum,  lib.  i.  cap.  3.  Nicol.  Ariicld.  do 
Morte  Christi,  cap.  8. 


240  CHRIST    IX    TRAVAIL.  [SfiR.  2. 

ence  of  Christ,  the  second  Adam,  confirm  the  new  covenant. 
Now  if  the  first  Adam  had  stood  and  confirmed  that  cove- 
nant, he  had  confirmed  it  by  performing  the  condition  of  it ; 
and  he  brake  it  by  not  observing,  and  not  doing  the  condi- 
tion of  it ;  so  the  second  Adam,  Christ,  did  confirm  the  new 
covenant  by  his  death,  and  in  that,  by  his  obedience,  he  did 
perform  the  condition  of  the  new  covenant  for  his  seed. 
Thus,  I  say,  he  confirmed  the  covenant  of  grace,  even  by 
performing  the  condition  of  it ;  and  this  confirmation  of  the 
covenant  was  the  next,  and  most  immediate  fruit  and  effect 
of  his  death.  And  thus  you  have  seen  both  negatively  and 
affirmatively,  what  are  not  and  what  are,  the  next  and  imme- 
diate effects  of  the  death  of  Christ. 

As  for  the  remote  effects  of  the  death  of  Christ,  they 
are  many.  As  :  Freedom  from  the  law,  curse,  and  the  wrath 
of  God,  Gal.  iii.  13,  1  Thess.  i.  10.  Our  effectual  vocation 
or  calling,  2  Tim.  i.  9.  Our  justification  and  actual  recon- 
ciliation with  God,  Rom.  v.  1,  Ephes.  i.  8.  Our  sanctifica- 
tion  and  holiness  of  soul  and  life,  Ephes.  v.  25,  26,  27>  Heb. 
ix.  14,  1  John  i.  7-  Our  adoption  and  all  those  spiritual 
privileges  which  belong  to  the  sons  of  God,  Gal.  iv.  4,  5. 
Our  peace,  comfort,  and  freedom  from  fears,  Luke  i.  74, 
Heb.  ii.  14.  And  to  name  no  more  but  this  :  Our  salvation 
in  the  world  to  come,  Heb.  ix.  15.  All  which  I  call  the 
more  remote  effects  of  the  death  of  Christ ;  which  though  he 
did  not  immediately  see  the  obtainment  of,  yet  he  shall  surely 
see  them.  And  so  I  come  to  the  second  thing  propounded, 
to  be  cleared  and  evidenced,  viz.  The  assurance  of  his  issue, 
and  the  sight  thereof. 

II.  Having  therefore  seen  what  are  the  fruits  and  effects  of 
the  death  of  Christ,  How  may  it  appear  that  Christ  shall 
certainly  see  the  obtainment  of  these  last  effects  ;  and  what 
assurance  had  or  hath  he  thereof? 

He  had  the  assurance  of  the  pre-salvation  of  many  thou- 
sand souls ;  for  when  Christ  died  on  the  cross,  many  thou- 
sands were  in  heaven  upon  the  account  of  his  death ;  God 
the  Father  took  Christ's  word,  promising  to  die  for  sinners, 
and  so  saved  many  aforehand.  As  the  Son  died,  and  took 
the  Father's  word  for  the  salvation  of  many  after  his  death  ; 
so  the  Father  took  the  Son's  word,  and  saved  many  before 
his  death  upon  the  account  thereof.  Now  when  Christ  died, 


SER.  2.]  CHRIST    IN    TRAVAIL.  241 

this  pre-salvation  of  so  many  thousands,  was  a  great  assur- 
ance to  him  of  the  accomplishment  and  obtainment  of  all 
those  things  which  he  travailed  for. 

II.  He  had  the  assurance  also  of  his  own  merit  and  his 
Father's  faithfulness.  For 

1.  He  did  not  only  merit  heaven  and  salvation  for  those 
whom  he  died  for,  but  he  merited  grace,  holiness,  and  regen- 
eration for  them ;  for  whatever  God  gives  in  time,  he  gives 
upon  the  account  of  Christ's  merit;  but  in  time,  he  doth 
give  grace  and  holiness,  for  he  doth  "  bless  us  with  all  spirit- 
ual blessings  in  Christ."  Now  grace  and  holiness  are  spirit- 
ual blessings,  and  therefore  God  doth  bless  us  therewith  in 
Christ.  Look  what  the  Father  promiseth,  that  he  doth  give 
out  upon  the  account  of  Christ ;  for  "  all  the  promises  are 
yea,  and  amen,  in  Christ  •"  grace  and  truth  comes  by  Christ; 
and  the  fulfilling  of  the  promise  is  truth ;  but  God  the 
Father  hath  promised  grace  as  well  as  glory ;  "  I  will  write 
my  law  in  your  heart,  I  will  take  away  the  heart  of  stone, 
and  give  you  an  heart  of  flesh,  I  will  give  you  a  new  heart, 
saith  God."  Whatever  grace  is  derived  from  Christ,  and 
communicated  by  him  to  us,  he  merited  for  us ;  "  But  of  his 
fulness,  we  do  all  receive,  even  grace  for  grace."  We  pray  to 
God  for  the  conversion,  and  regeneration  of  sinners,  and  we 
beg  this  in  the  name  of  Christ ;  therefore  Christ  hath  merited, 
not  only  glory,  but  grace  and  holiness.  And  the  apostle  tells 
us  expressly  in  1  Tim.  i.  9.  That  we  are  called  with  an  holy 
calling,  in  and  by  Jesus  Christ ;  "  WTho  hath  saved  us,  and 
called  us  with  an  holy  calling ;  not  according  to  our  works, 
but  according  to  his  own  purpose,  and  grace,  which  he  hath 
given  us  in  Christ  Jesus,  before  the  world  began."  As  God 
doth  work  all  natural  things  by  second  causes,  so  he  doth 
work-all  supernatural  things  by  Christ.  By  Christ  he  did 
make  the  old  creation,  as  he  was  the  eternal  son  of  God ;  and 
by  Christ  he  makes  the  new  creation,  as  our  Mediator.  Now 
look  what  the  Father  worketh  by  him,  that  did  he  merit  for 
us;  but  our  new  creation  is  wrought  by  him,  and  therefore  he 
did  not  only  merit  heaven  and  happiness,  but  all  our  grace 
and  holiness  for  us.* 

*  Merita  Christ!  sunt  causae  omnium  auxiliorum  et  totiu.s  gratia;  quse  in  natura 
lapso  conferuntur  hominibus,  et  idem  dicendum  de  omnibub  dispositionibus,  tatu 
proximis  quam  remotis  justificantem  gratiam  antecedenlibos,  et  de  auginento  gra 

VOL  in.  a 


242  CHRIST    IN    TRAVAIL.  [SER.  2. 

2.  He  did  not  only  merit  the  impetration  of  our  redemp- 
tion, but  the  application  of  it  also,  the  application  of  the 
means  of  grace,  and  the  application  of  his  own  merit;  for  his 
death  is  made  the  reason  of  this  application,  Isaiah  liii.  11. 
"  By  his  knowledge  shall  my  righteous  servant  justify  many, 
for  he  shall  bear  their  iniquities  :"  so  again,  Heb.  ix.  14 
"  How  much  more  shall  the  blood  of  Christ,  who  through 
the  eternal  Spirit,  offei-ed  up  himself,  purge  our  consciences 
from  dead  works,  to  serve  the  living  God ;  and  for  this  cause 
is  he  the  Mediator  of  the  new  covenant."*  Now  if  Christ 
shall  therefore  justify  many,  because  he  did  bear  their  sins, 
then  he  did  merit  this  application  for  all  those  whom  he  died 
for.  If  Christ  did  not  merit  this  application,  then  there  is 
some  grace  which  is  not  from  Christ,  or  this  application  is  no 
grace,  but  the  application  of  grace,  and  of  Christ's  merits, 
and  redemption  is  grace,  and  there  is  no  grace  which  we 
have,  but  is  all  from  Christ.f  Our  other  adversaries  tell  us, 
that  no  child  perisheth,  or  is  damned  only  for  original  sin, 
but  that  sin  is  taken  off  from  all,  by  the  death  of  Christ ; 

tise.  Meruit  gratiam  et  gloriam. — Thorn.  Aquin.  quest,  q.  29,  de  Gratia  Christi. 
art.  7,  ad  arg.  8.  Scotus,  lib.  iii.  dist.  19,  qu.  unica.  Altissiod.  lib.  iii.  tract. 
1,  quest.  7.  Alvarez,  de  auxil.  disput.  29,  conclus.  1.  Molina  de  Lib.  art.  6, 
concord,  qu.  23,  art.  4,  disp.  5,  conclus.  2.  Vasquez.  in  3  part.  Thorn,  torn.  i. 
disput.  77,  cap.  2,  3,4.  Suarez.  in  3  part.  Thorn,  disput.  1,  §  2,  3.  Astunicens. 
de  Gratia  Christi.  q.  5,  conclus.  2.  Raph.  Aversa  pars  prima,  qu.  23.  §  15, 
Aureolus,  lib.  iii.  in  sent.  dist.  20,  q.  1.  Roder.  de  Ariaga  in  part.  3,  Thorn, 
torn.  6,  p.  477.  Zumel.  in  1  part.  Thorn,  qu.  23,  art  5.  Banner,  in  1  part. 
Thorn,  qu.  23,  art.  5.  Tannerus  disput.  de  incarnat.  q.  6,  dub.  5,  torn.  iv.  T. 
B.  Medina,  in  3  part.  Tho.  ix.  q.  19,  art.  4.  Ferrariens  in  Aqu.  contra  Gent.  lib. 
iv.  cap.  55. 

Si  quis  dixerit  eandem  gratiam  Dei  per  Jesum  Christum  Dominum  nostrum 
propter  hoc  tantum  nos  adjuvare  ad  non  peccandum  quod  per  ipsam  nobis  revelatur 
et  aperitur  intelligentia  mandatorum  nt  sciamus  quid  appetere  quid  vitare  debea- 
naus  noii  autem  per  illam  nobis  prestari  ut  quod  faciendum  cognoverimus  etiam 
facere  diligamus  atque  valeamus  anathema  sit ;  cum  enim  dicit  apostolus  scientia 
inflat  charitas  vero  edificat  valde  impium  est,  ut  credamus  ad  earn  quse  inflat  nos 
habere  gratiam  Christi,  ad  earn  qua?  edificat  non  habere,  cum  sit  utrumque  donum 
Det,  et  scire  quae  facere  debeamus  et  diligere  ut  faciamus. — Concil.  Milevitan,  2 
can.  4  bin.  torn  i. 

*  Meritum  Christi  sumcienter  operatur  ut  causa  universalis  salutis  humanae, 
sed  opertet  hanc  causam  applicari  per  scripturam  et  per  fidem  formatum,  et  ideo 
requiritur  aliquid  aliud  ad  salutem  nostram  prseter  meritum  Christi  cujus  tamen 
meiitum  Christi  est  causa. — Thorn.  Aquin.  ques.  29,  de  Gratia  Christi,  art.  7. 

t  Hsec  applicatio  est  maximum  Dei  donum  et  maxime  necessaria  ad  salutem  sed 
Christus  meruit  nobis  omnia  Dei  dona  et  omnia  media  necessaria  ad  salutem,  ergo 
haac  applicatio  est  ex  meritis  Christi.— Suarez.  disput.  41,  §  2. 


SER.  2.]  CHRIST   IN  TRAVAIL.  243 

therefore  the  death  of  Christ,  and  his  merits  are  applied  unto 
all  infants ;  and  if  so,  then  he  hath  merited  the  application  of 
redemption  for  all,  or  else  he  did  not  die  equally  for  all,  as 
they  say.*  Look  what  God  hath  promised,  that  Christ  hath 
merited;  but  he  hath  promised  the  application  of  Christ's 
death  and  merits,  for  saith  he,  "  My  servant  shall  deal  pru- 
dently, he  shall  be  exalted,  so  shall  he  sprinkle  many  nations," 
Isaiah  lii.  15.  And  if  he  did  not  merit  the  application 
as  well  as  the  impetration  of  our  redemption,  then  he  merited 
no  more  for  those  that  are  in  heaven,  than  for  those  that  are 
in  hell ;  no  more  for  those  that  are  saved,  than  for  those  that 
are  damned.  For  he  merited  the  impetration  of  redemption 
for  all  the  particular  men  of  the  world,  say  they.  But  he 
did  merit  more  for  the  saved,  than  for  the  damned;  else 
those  in  heaven  have  no  more  cause  to  praise  God,  and  to  be 
thankful  unto  Christ,  than  those  that  are  in  hell.  Surely 
therefore,  our  Lord  and  Saviour  Christ,  when  he  died,  did 
not  only  merit  the  impetration,  but  the  application  also,  of 
our  redemption.* 

3.  He  did  not  only  merit  a  sufficiency  of  grace  for  us,  but  the 
efficacy  of  grace  also  :  for  look  what  grace  the  Father  gives  in 
time  that  the  Son  merited,  for  he  blesses  with  all  spiritual 
blessings  in  him  ;  but  the  Father  doth  not  only  give  forth  a 
sufficiency  of  grace,  but  the  efficacy  of  it ;  for  saith  the  apos- 
tle, he  worketh  in  us,  TO  SeX.su/,  the  will,  and  the  deed.  J  Look 
what  grace  the  Father  promiseth  us,  that  Christ  merited  for 
us  ;  but  the  Father  promiseth  not  only  a  sufficiency,  but  the 
efficacy  of  grace,  "  I  will  put  my  Spirit  into  you,  and  cause 
you  to  walk  in  my  ways,  saith  God."  Christ  is  the  the  Me- 
diator of  the  new  covenant,  upon  the  account  of  his  death, 


*  Nemo  propter  solura  peccatum  originis  damnatur. — Arininius  contra  Perk. 
Arnold.  Coruinus  contra  Tilen.  p.  391. 

f  Alias  non  perfectius  meritum  Christi  esset  causa  salutis  predestinatorum  quam 
non  predestinatorum,  quia  quod  attinet  ad  sufficientiam  meriti,  sequaliter  respicit 
omnes  homines  sed  differentia  est  in  hoc  quod  quibusdam  applicatur  illud  meritum 
quibusdam  non,  ergo  si  heec  applicatio  non  cadit  sub  merito  Christi  meritum 
Christi  sequaliter  respiceret  predestinates  et  non  predestinates. — Zumel.  quest. 
23,  art.  5, 

J  Hoc  etiam  salubriter  profitemur  et  credimus  quod  in  oinni  opere  bono  nos 
non  incepimus,  et  postea  per  Dei  miserecordiam  adjuvamur.  sed  ipse  nobis  nullis 
prsecedentibus  meritis  et  fidem  et  amorem  sui  inspirat.—  Concil.  Arausican  2, 
Can.  25. 

R  2 


244  CHRIST    IN    TRAVAIL.  [SfiR.  2. 

Heb.  ix.  14,  15.,  therefore  whatever  grace  is  promised  in  the 
new  covenant,  his  death  is  the  meritorious  cause  of;  but  the 
efficacy  of  grace  is  promised  in  the  new  covenant;  "  I  will 
write  my  law  in  your  hearts,"  Heb.  viii.  The  death  and  obe- 
dience of  Christ  is  more  meritorious  for  us,  than  the  sin  and 
disobedience  of  the  first  Adam,  was  against  us,  Rom.  v.  But 
the  sin  and  disobedience  of  the  first  Adam,  did  not  only 
merit  a  sufficiency  of  evil,  but  the  efficacy  of  evil  upon  our 
nature  ;  and  therefore  the  death  and  obedience  of  the  second 
Adam,  did  merit  the  efficacy  of  grace  for  us.  And  if  Christ 
did  not  merit  the  efficacy  of  grace,  he  should  merit  no  more 
for  those  that  are  saved  in  heaven,  than  for  those  that  are 
damned  in  hell  ;  for  he  merited  a  sufficiency  of  grace,  say  the 
adversaries,  even  for  those  that  are  in  hell  :  but  that  is  an 
ugly  assertion,  even  in  the  eyes  of  moderate  papists.*  But 
do  we  not  pray  for  the  efficacy  of  grace,  and  of  Christ's 
death  ?  When  David  said,  "  Incline  my  heart  to  thy  law, 
and  not  unto  covetousness  ;"  when  he  said  "  Open  mine 
eyes,  that  I  may  see  the  wonders  of  thy  law  ;"  did  he  only 
pray  for  the  sufficiency  of  grace  ?  No,  but  the  efficacy  of  it  ; 
therefore  we  may,  and  do  still  pray  so,  and  that  upon  the  ac- 
count of  Christ's  merits  :  surely  therefore,  Christ  hath  not  only 
merited  the  sufficiency  but  the  efficacy  of  grace. 

4.  He  did  not  only  merit  some  blessings  of  the  covenant 
but  that  which  is  commonly  called  the  condition  of  the  cove- 
nant.f  He  died  to  procure  faith  and  repentance,  he  did  not 
only  die  to  merit  a  power  for  us  to  believe,  but  by  his  death 
he  did  also  merit  faith  and  repentance  ;  for  look  what  the 
Father  worketh  in  us  by  him,  that  he  merited  ;  but  the  Fa- 
ther worketh  faith  and  repentance  by  him  ;  "  For  he  worketh 
in  us,  that  which  is  well  pleasing  in  his  sight  by  Jesus  Christ," 
Heb.  xii.  21.  Now  faith  and  repentance,  are  well  pleasing  in 
his  sight.  Christ  merited  all  that  grace  which  the  Father  hath 
promised,  for  all  the  promises  are  yea  and  amen  in  him  ; 
but  the  Father  hath  promised,  not  only  to  give  us  a  power  to 
believe,  but  to  "  take  away  the  heart  of  stone,"  that  is,  actual 


*  Al 

qua 


Alias  non  perfectius  meritum   Christi  esset  causa  salutis  predestinatorum 
m  reproborum,  quia  quod  attinet  ad  sufficieatiam   merit!   sequaliter  respicit 
omnes  tum  reprobos  quam  predestinates,  &c.  —  Banuez.  1  part.  Aqui.  q.  23,  a.  5. 
t  Cujus  oppositum  est  erroneum  maxime  si  negatur  Christum  nobis  meruisse 
fidem.—  Bannez.  1  part.  q.  23,  art.  5.     Zumel.  1  part.  q.  23,  art.  5. 


SER.  2.]  CHRIST  ix  TRAVAIL.  245 

resistance,  and  to  "  give  an  heart  of  flesh  ;"  that  is  a  yielding 
heart,  and  what  is  faith  but  a  yielding  unto  God  ?  "  And 
ye  shall  all  know  me,"  saith  God.  Christ  merited  for  us, 
that  which  he  works  in  us ;  but  he  works  faith  in  us,  for  "  he 
is  the  author  and  finisher  of  our  faith/'  Heb.  xii.  We  pray 
to  God  for  faith,  and  repentance ;  "  I  believe,  Lord,  help  my 
unbelief;"  and  Christ  prayed  for  Peter,  "  that  his  faith  might 
not  fail."  We  also  pray  for  the  faith  and  conversion  of  infi- 
dels, and  that  in  the  name  of  Christ,  do  we  only  pray,  that 
God  would  give  them,  and  us  a  power  to  believe  ?  that  (it  is 
said)  we  have  already :  we  pray  for  faith  and  repentance,  in 
the  name  of  Christ,  therefore  Christ  hath  merited  faith 
and  repentance.  And  the  apostle  tells  us  expressly,  that 
the  TO  -m^tvuv  the  very  work  of  believing  is  given  us  upon  the 
account  of  Christ;  "  Unto  you  it  is  given  for  Christ,  not 
only  to  believe  on  him,  but  to  suffer  for  him,"  Phil.  i.  29. 
Some  would  read  these  words  otherwise,  being  much  pinched 
with  the  strength  of  them  :  but  the  old  Syriac  translation 
reads  them  thus,  through  Grotius  either  consulting  with  the 
Latin  translation,  or  his  own  declined  judgment,  makes  these 
words,  for  Christ,  to  be  a  pleonasm  ;  but  councils,  fathers, 
and  others,  read  them  thus ;  Unto  you  it  is  given  for  Christ, 
not  only  to  believe  on  him,  and  so  the  words  ought  to  be 
read ;  for  the  wt^  is  to  be  read  in  the  first  clause  of  the  verse, 
as  it  is  read  in  the  last ;  but  in  the  last  part  of  the  verse,  it 
is  read  for  to  suffer  for  Christ;  what  is  that  ?  is  that  in  the 
behalf  of  Christ  ?  No,  but  for  his  sake.  So  therefore,  the 
same  words  in  the  former  part  of  the  verse,  are  to  be  read, 
for  Christ,  that  is,  for  the  sake  of  Christ,  to  you  it  is  given 
to  believe  for  Christ's  sake  :  Now  look  what  the  Father  gives 
as  an  act  of  free  grace,  that  he  gives  upon  the  account  of 
Christ's  merit ;  for  free  grace  and  Christ's  merits  go  together 
in  the  language  of  Paul's  epistles ;  but  the  ™  TT^VHV  the  work 
of  faith  is  given  us  as  an  act  of  free  grace  ;  for  says  the 
apostle,  vpiv  t-xap&r)  and  look,  what  the  Father  gives  for 
Christ's  sake,  that  Christ  hath  merited;  but  as  the  Father 
hath  given  us  viri%  avrov  vax^v,  to  suffer  for  him,  that  is, 
for  his  sake ;  so  saith  the  apostle,  he  hath  given  us  vntp  \^<n<>v 
TrtfT-eimv,  for  Christ,  that  is,  for  his  sake  to  believe.  So  that 
when  Christ  died  for  us,  he  did  not  only  merit  a  power  to  be- 
lieve, and  repent,  but  he  did  merit  faith  and  repentance. 


246  CHRIST    IN    TRAVAIL.  [SfiR.  2. 

Now  if  Christ  did  merit  all  these  things,  then  knowing  that 
the  Father  is  faithful,  in  paying  and  performing  what  the 
Son  purchased,  he  must  needs  know,  and  be  fully  assured 
that  he  should  see  and  enjoy  all  those  effects  of  his  death, 
which  he  travailed  for,  when  he  died.* 

If  these  be  the  effects  of  Christ's  death,  and  he  had  such 
full  assurance  to  obtain  them  all,  then  surely  Christ  did  not 
die  for  all  the  particular  men  in  the  world ;  for  he  did  not 
only  merit  eternal  life  and  salvation ;  but  grace  and  holiness, 
faith  and  repentance,  for  all  those  whom  he  died  for ;  and  he 
shall  surely  obtain  all  the  ends  and  effects  of  his  death  ;  but 
all  the  particular  men  in  the  world  shall  not  be  saved,  nor 
believe  and  repent,  and  therefore  certainly  he  did  not  die 
for  every  particular  man  in  the  world ;  but  of  this  more  in 
the  next  exercise.  Only  as  a  concluding  word, 

Let  comfort  be  to  whom  comfort  belongs,  here  is  much 
comfort  for  all  those  that  are  the  seed  of  Christ,  whom  he 
died  for,  and  travailed  with.  You  shall  see  the  travail  of 
Christ's  soul  accomplished  in  your  salvation,  sanctification, 
and  consolation ;  for  he  hath  purchased  and  merited  your 
glory,  therefore  you  shall  have  the  same  ;  it  was  your  justifi- 
cation that  he  was  in  travail  for,  therefore  you  shall  see  the 
same;  it  was  your  sanctification  and  holiness  that  he  did 
travail  for,  and  he  shall  not  miscarry  ;  it  was  your  comfort, 
and  consolation,  and  salvation,  that  he  was  in  travail  for 
and  therefore  in  due  time  you  shall  see  the  same. 

But  I  fear  that  I  am  none  of  his  seed,  that  he  did  not  die 
for  me. 

I  answer  :  He  died  for  his  sheep  ;  "  I  lay  down  my  life  for 
my  sheep/'  saith  he  ;  a  sheep  is  an  harmless  creature,  it  can 
be  hurt  by  any,  but  it  can  do  hurt  to  none ;  it  is  a  prey  to 
all,  but  doth  prey  upon  none.  So  are  the  sheep  of  Christ, 
innocent,  harmless,  and  without  horns,  as  the  word  is,  be 

*  Si  quis  sicut  augmentutn  its,  etiam  initium  fidei,  ipsum  credulitatis  affectum 
quo  in  eum  credimus,  qui  justificat  impium  et  regenerationem  baptismatis  perve- 
nimus  non  per  gratiae  donum  id  est  per  inspirationem  spiritus  sancti  corrigentem 
voluntatem  nostram  ab  infidelitate  ad  fidera  ab  impietate  ad  pieta  torn  et  natura- 
liter  nobis  inesse  dicit  apostolicis  dogmatibus  adversarius  approbatur. — Concil. 
Arausican.  2,  Can.  5. 

Qui  orat  et  dicit  ne  nos  iuferas  in  tentationes.  non  utiqne  id  oral  ut  homo  sit, 
quo  est  natura,  nequf  orat  id  ut  babeat  liberum  arbitrium  quod  jam  accepit  cum 
crearetur  ipsa  natura  neque  orat  remissionem  peccatoru  quia  hoc  superius  dicitur 


SER.  2.]  CHRIST  IN    TRAVAIL.  247 

innocent  as  doves,  or  without  horns  as  doves  m^moi;*  a  sheep 
is  an  useful,  profitable  creature,  nothing  not  useful  in  it; 
the  flesh,  the  wool,  the  very  dung  thereof  profitable.  So  are 
the  sheep  of  Christ,  and  his  sheep  hear  his  voice,  but  know 
not  the  voice  of  a  stranger;  and  if  you  be  in  your  life  harm- 
less, profitable,  hearing  the  voice  of  Christ  in  the  gospel, 
then  are  you  his  sheep,  and  he  did  die  for  you.  If  you  can 
leave  the  bosom  of  your  sweet  relations,  and  suffer  for  Christ, 
then  did  he  leave  the  bosom  of  his  Father,  and  suffer  for 
you ;  for  we  love  him  because  he  loved  us  first,  all  our  grace 
is  but  the  reflection  of  his.  If  he  intercedes  for  you  in 
heaven,  then  he  died  for  you  on  earth  ;  now  he  ever  liveth 
to  make  intercession  for  all  those  that  come  unto  God  by 
him;  you  come  unto  God  by  him,  therefore  l:e  goes  unto 
God  for  you,  and  therefore  died  for  you.  He  died  to  recon- 
cile God  to  us,  and  us  unto  God ;  if  you  be  reconciled  to  God, 
and  the  things  of  God,  so  as  you  do  now  love  the  truths, 
ways,  and  things  of  God  which  you  once  hated,  then  is  God 
also  reconciled  to  you.  Now  thus  it  is  with  you  ;  you  can 
say,  through  grace  I  do  love  those  truths,  and  ways,  and 
things  of  God  which  I  once  hated  ;  therefore  you  are  recon- 
ciled to  God,  therefore  he  is  reconciled  to  you,  and  therefore 
Christ  died  for  vou.  If  you  can  fulfil  the  law  of  Christ,  then 
hath  Christ  died  for  you ;  for  those  that  he  died  for,  he 
satisfied  and  fulfilled  the  law  for;  and  if  you  can  fulfil  his 
law,  you  may  safely  say  he  hath  obeyed  and  fulfilled  the  law 
for  me ;  now  the  law  of  Christ  is  to  bear  one  another's  bur- 
dens :  "  Bear  ye  one  another's  burdens,"  saith  the  apostle, 
"  and  so  fulfil  the  law  of  Christ ;"  this  you  do  and  can  do ; 
therefore  he  hath  fulfilled  the  law  for  you,  and  so  hath  died 
for  you.  If  you  be  the  seed  and  children  of  Christ,  then 

demitte  nobis  debita  nostra,  neque  oral  ut  accepiat  mandatum  sed  plane  orat  mt 
faciat  mundatum. — Concil.  Milevetan.  Epist.  Familiaris,  B.  in. 

Et  hoc  a  Deo  ipso  datum  eat  vobis  ut  non  solum  credendo  credatis  in  ipaunt 
Christum. — Fabr.  Boderian. 

Et  luc  a  Deo  ipso  datum  est  vobis  ut  non  solum  credendo  credatis  in  Meschi- 
cho, — Quiodmanst. 

an>ty«D  nnfan'nn  no»no  nn"?3  «Vi  \^h  rarpn«— Versio  Syriaci. 

Concil.  Arausican.  2  can.  5,  25.  Milevitan.  ad  Innocent,  in  Epist.  95.  Aus- 
tin, lib.  de  Predest.  Storu,  cap.  ii.  Arabros.  Anselm.  Comment.  Vide  Jus- 
tinian. Velasquez,  in  Locum.  Vasquez.  in  3  part.  torn.  i.  q.  19,  art.  4,  c.  2. 

*  Absque  cornibus,  translatio  Grseci  vocabult  a  placidis  animalibus  sumjita 
videtur,  quae  natura  nullis  cornibus  armavit  ad  depellendam  injuriam  aut  si  armavit 
cornibus  ad  id  non  utuntur.— Luc.  Brugens.  in  Matt.  x.  16. 


248  CHRIST    IX    TRAVAIL.  [SfiR.  3. 

did  he  travail  and  die  for  you ;  the  children  of  Christ  are 
such  as  are  willing  to  be  instructed  by  him,  ira.ihvtiv  to  in- 
struct, comes  from  ^me  a  child,  because  it  is  the  property 
of  a  child  to  be  willing  to  be  instructed ;  a  child  doth  obey 
his  father  without  whys  and  wherefores,  merely  because  the 
father  commands;  his  command  is  the  child's  reason,  For 
my  father  bid  me,  &c.,  the  child  is  contented  with  the  father's 
carving,  goes  to  school  about  its  business,  and  leaves  its 
provision  to  the  father,  living  in  dependance  on  him.  Now 
thus  it  is  with  you ;  you  do  depend  on  Christ,  leave  your 
condition  to  him,  and  obey,  arid  do,  because  Christ  or  God 
commands,  and  are  willing  to  be  instructed  by  him ;  surely 
therefore  you  are  the  seed  of  Christ,  and  therefore  Christ 
died  for  you,  even  for  you  in  particular  ;  and  therefore  though 
the  great  effects  of  his  death  may  yet  be  hidden  from  you, 
yet  he  shall  obtain  all  his  ends  upon  you  in  your  justification, 
sanctification,  consolation,  salvation ;  for  he  hath  merited  all 
these  at  the  hand  of  the  Father,  and  the  Father  will  surely 
give  out  what  Christ  hath  purchased,  for  he  is  faithful ; 
wherefore  comfort  yourselves  in  these  things,  oh  all  ye  seed 
of  the  Lord. 


SERMON    III. 

CHRIST    IN   TRAVAIL,   AND   THE    CONTENTMENT    WHICH     HE 
DOTH   AND    SHALL   FIND  IN  HIS  ASSURANCE    OF  ISSUE. 

"  He  shall  see  of  the  travail  of  his  soul,  and  be  satisfied."  ISAIAH 
liii.  11. 

HAVING  spoken  to  the  second  branch  of  the  doctrine, 
viz.  Christ's  assurance  of  issue  and  his  sight  thereof;  the 
third  branch  now  follows,  which  is,  The  contentment,  delight, 
and  satisfaction  which  he  doth  and  shall  find  therein.* 

Satisfaction  or  delight  is  nothing  else  but  that  sabbath  or 
rest,  which  the  soul  finds  in  the  fruition  of  the  thing  desired  ; 
and  as  the  thing  is  less  or  more  desired  so  the  delight  and 

*  Delectatio  se  habet  in  assectibus  sicut  ques  naturalis  in  corporalibus  est 
enim  aliqua  convenientia  seu  connaturalitas. — Aquin. 


SER.  3.]  CHRIST  IN  TRAVAIL.  249 

satisfaction  in  the  fruition  of  it  is  less  or  more ;  now  Christ 
did  very  much  desire  to  see  the  fruit  of  his  travail ;  "  I 
thirst,"  said  he  on  the  cross,  which  is  the  strongest  of  de- 
sires ;  and  what  did  he  thirst  after,  but  the  salvation  of 
mankind,  the  fruit  and  issue  of  his  travail  ?  "The  bread  of 
the  labouring  man  is  sweet,"  saith  Solomon ;  and  the  word 
^nr  here  used  for  the  travail  of  Christ,  signifies  such  a  toil- 
some labour,  as  the  poor  man  doth  exercise  in  the  sweat  of 
his  brows  to  get  his  daily  bread ;  it  is  much  contentment 
and  satisfaction  which  the  thirsty  man  doth  find  in  his 
drink,  or  the  hungry  man  doth  find  in  his  meat  or  bread. 
Now  the  word  pat*  here  used,  and  translated  satisfied,  is  the 
same  that  is  used  in  Psalm  cvii. :  "  The  hungry  he  will  satisfy 
with  bread ;"  and  is  it  not  a  great  satisfaction,  delight,  and 
contentment,  which  the  woman  finds  in  the  sight  of  her 
child,  which  she  hath  had  a  sore  travail  for?  Our  Saviour 
tells  us  that  "  she  forgets  her  labour  and  travail,  for  joy  that 
a  man-child  is  born  into  the  world."  Such  a  travail  was 
that  of  Christ's  sufferings,  and  such  contentment  doth  and 
will  he  find  in  his  issue;  and  therefore  as  Jacob  said,  "These 
are  the  children  which  God  hath  given  me;"  so  doth  Christ 
say,  "  Behold,  I  and  the  children  which  God  hath  given  me," 
Heb.  ii.  Only  ye  know  that  the  delight  and  contentment 
will  be  proportionable  to  the  travail ;  the  greater  the  conflict 
is,  and  the  sorrow  of  it,  the  greater  will  the  joy  be  in  the 
conquest ;  *  and  the  lower  Christ  did  descend  in  his  sorrows 
and  travails,  the  higher  he  will  and  shall  ascend  in  his  de- 
lights and  satisfactions.  Now  when  he  suffered,  he  did 
conflict  with  the  wrath  of  God,  and  did  endure  the  torments 
of  hell.  Surely  therefore  ,  as  he  did  lie  low  in  his  sufferings, 
so  his  heart  doth  and  shall  arise  to  the  highest  contentment 
and  satisfaction  in  the  sight  and  fruition  of  the  fruit  of  his 
travail. 

But  wherein  doth  or  did  Christ  express  this  height  and 
greatness  of  contentment  in  the  sight  of  his  issue  ? 

The  issue  of  his  travail  is  either  that  which  he  travailed 
with,  namely,  his  seed  ;  or  that  which  he  travailed  for,  namely, 
the  fruit  and  effect  of  his  death. 

I.  As  for  the  issue  that  he  travailed  with,  his  seed. 

*  Quanto  majus  erat  periculum  in  prelio  tauto  majus  erit  gaudium  iii  trium- 
pbo. — Austin. 


250  CHRIST    IN   TRAVAIL.  [SER.  3. 

Is  it  not  a  great  expression  of  delight  and  contentment 
in  them,  to  suffer  such  hard  things  for  them ;  will  a  man 
suffer  an  ordinary  death  for  another  whom  he  doth  not  de- 
light much  in  ?  It  is  an  argument  of  the  martyrs'  delight 
in  and  love  to  Christ,  that  they  suffered  such  hard  things 
for  him  with  delight.*  Oh,  said  one,  suffering  for  Christ, 
I  am  in  heaven  already,  before  I  come  in  heaven  ;  I  have  so 
much  joy  in  my  prison,  that  I  have  found  a  nest  of  honey 
in  the  lion's  body.  Some  sung  in  their  prison,  and  some 
clapped  their  hands  in  the  flames.  Why  ?  But  to  shew 
their  delight  and  great  contentment  which  they  did  find  in 
Christ;  and  did  their  cheerful  suffering  for  Christ  argue 
their  satisfaction  in  him ;  and  doth  not  Christ's  cheerful 
suffering  for  them  argue  his  contentment  in  them  ?  "  I  de- 
light to  do  thy  will,  thy  law  is  within  my  heart ; "  said  he 
when  he  came  to  this  suffering  work,  yea,  now  this  is  my 
hour,  "The  hour  of  the  Son  of  man ;"  and  again,  when  he 
went  out  to  suffer,  "  Now/'  said  he,  "  is  the  Son  of  man 
glorified."  Surely  he  could  never  have  borne  those  sufferings 
with  such  delight,  if  he  had  not  great  delight  and  content- 
ment in  those  whom  he  suffered  for. 

Is  it  not  an  argument  of  great  delight  and  contentment 
in  his  seed,  that  he  doth  draw  them  into  communion  and 
fellowship  with  him  in  his  royal  dignities  ?  I  do  not  say, 
that  the  saints  are  by  Christ,  deified,  Christed,  or  that  they 
are  made  Christs  like  him ;  there  are  some  excellencies  and 
prerogatives  of  Christ,  which  are  not  communicated;  for 
though  we  are  made  partakers  of  the  divine  nature,  yet  our 
nature  was  never  manifested  in  the  Godhead.  Gud  was 
incarnate,  and  manifested  in  the  flesh ;  and  so  Christ  is 
truly  called  man,  for  the  Word  was  made  flesh,  but  flesh  was 
not  made  the  Word,  nor  was  flesh  manifested  in  the  God- 
head ;  and  therefore  man  cannnot  be  called  God  or  Christ.f 
But  though  the  seed  of  Christ  are  not  drawn  into  this  fel- 

*  Amasti  me  Domine  plusquam  te,  quia  mori  voluisd  pro  me. — Austin. 

•f  Humana  natura  nunquam  per  se  seorsim  existebat  neque  habuit  in  se  ratio- 
nem  personae,  atque  adeo  non  potest  proprie  dici  assumpsisse  divinam  naturam 
aut  personam,  sicut  divina  natura  et  persona  dicitur  assumpsisse  huraanum, 
neque  potest  bumana  natura  tarn  proprie  dici  deificata,  quern  admodum  diviua 
natura  et  persona  dicitur  incarnata  legimus  enim  Deum  manifestatum  fuisse  et 
visibilem  factum  fuisse  in  carne,  id  est  in  humana  uatura,  et  eodeni  sensu 
legimus  sermonem  factum  esse  carnem,  1  John  xiv.,  sed  nusquam  legitnus  carnem 


SER.  3.]  CHRIST  TN  TRAVAIL.  251 

lowship  with  him,  yet  he  hath  taken  therr  into  communion 
with  him,  in  his  blessed  unctions,  therein  they  are  called 
partners,  ju^ou*  Heb.  i.,  "  He  hath  anointed  him  with  the 
oil  of  gladness  above  his  fellows"  or  partners.  Is  he  the 
anointed  of  the  Lord  ?  So  are  they  said  to  be  anointed, 
"  Touch  not  mine  anointed."  Is  he  called  a  Prophet  ?  So 
are  they  called  prophets,  and  "  do  my  prophets  no  harm," 
Psa.  cv.  Is  he  called  'a  King  and  a  Priest  ?  So  are  they 
called  also  a  royal  priesthood,  1  Peter  ii.  9 ;  kings  and  priests 
unto  God,  Rev.  v.  10.  Is  he  called  Ilephribo  in  whom  I 
am  delighted,  Matt,  iii.,  or  my  delight  in  him  ?  So  are  they 
called  Hcphribah,  in  which  I  am  delighted,  or  my  delight  in 
her,  Isa.  Ixii.  4.*  Now  what  greater  argument  of  true  de- 
light and  contentment  can  there  be,  than  thus  to  draw  them 
into  this  communion  and  fellowship  with  himself? 

Is  it  not  a  high  expression  of  his  love  and  delight,  to  have 
communion  with  them  in  all  their  sufferings  ?  Thus  it  is, 
they  have  communion  with  him  in  his  comforts,  and  he  hath 
communion  with  them  in  their  sorrows ;  once  he  bare  the 
curse  of  their  sin  for  them,  and  now  he  bears  the  cross  of 
their  sin  with  them  ;  they  have  cedar-wood  and  gold  and 
silver  from  him,  he  hath  dirty  cities  from  them,t  "  In  all 
their  afflictions  he  was  afflicted,"  Isa.  Ixiii.  9 ;  and  as  a  tender 
wife  is  afflicted  with  her  husband,  and  doth  run  up  and  down 
for  him ;  so  doth  Christ  also,  and  therefore  if  ye  look  into 
Cant.  vii.  10.  ye  shall  find,  that  when  the  spouse  saith,  "  I 
am  my  beloved's,  and  his  desire  is  towards  me :"  it  is  the 


aut  hum  mum  naturam  esse  invisibilem  factum  in  Deo,  aut  carnem  factum  esse 
Deum.— Ames.  Sciagraph,  domin.  6. 

*  Ginned  qui  vera  fide  in  Christum  recumbunt  participes  fiuot  suo  modula 
dignitutis  Christi. 

Participes  sunt  aliquo  functionis  propheticro  quatenus  spiritum  Christi  habent 
quo  docentur  de  omnibus,  1  John  i.  27,  functionis  et  dignitatis  sacerdoUlis 
quatenus  datur  illis  offerre  sacrificia  oblationes,  et  semetipsos  Deo,  Rom.  xli. 
Regise  dignitatis  limit  participes  in  quantum  dominum  habens  per  Dei  gratiain 
in  scipsus. — Ames.  Sciag.  p.  G9. 

t  Quod  servus  aliquis  seu  mancipium  agere  solet  pro  suo  Domino,  idem  fecit 
servator  pro  nobis  hominibus,  ut  enim  ille  tola  die  laborat  in  commodum  sui 
Domini,  ita  ut  quicquid  lucretur  id  cedat  suo  Domino,  sibi  autem  nihil  preter 
membra  totumque  corpus  lassum  et  defatigatum  reservat  sic  et  Christus  noster 
ipse  laboravit,  ad  uos  autem  merces  laboris  reddit  hoc  est  pro  nobis  laboravit. — 
Granatens.  Compend.  Catech.  maj.  lib.  3,  de  red.  mysterio. 


252  CHRIST    IN    TRAVAIL.  [SER.  3. 

same  words  that  is  used  for  the  wife,  Gen.  iii.  16.  "  And 
thy  desire  shall  be  towards  thine  husband  ?"  Why  so  ?  not 
because  Christ  shall  be  subject  to  the  will  of  the  saints,  as 
the  will  of  the  wife  is  to  be  subject  to  the  will  of  the  hus- 
band ;  but  because  (the  word  npiirn,  coming  from  the  root 
pptf,  signifying  to  run  up  and  down,  to  and  fro,  with  solici- 
tude and  carefulness)  as  the  wife  doth  run  up  and  down, 
looking  to,  and  caring  for  her  sick  husband,  being  afflicted 
with  him  in  all  his  afflictions.  So  Christ  doth  carefully  ten- 
der, and  is  solicitous  for  the  saints'  good,  his  heart  as  it  were, 
running  up  and  down  for  them,  and  being  afflicted  with 
them  in  all  their  afflictions,  she  saith  here,  and  his  desire,  or 
his  running  up  and  down  aftection,  is  towards  me.  Now 
what  greater  argument  of  delight,  and  contentment  can  there 
be? 

Is  it  not  an  high  expression  of  his  delight  and  satisfaction 
in  them,  to  spend  and  lay  out  his  time  and  eternity  for  them, 
and  on  them  ?  Thus  it  is,  before  he  came  into  the  world,  he 
saith,  Prov.  viii.  31.,  "I  was  by  him,  rejoicing  in  the  habita- 
ble parts  of  his  earth,  and  my  delights  were  with  the  sons  of 
men."  When  he  came  into  the  world,  he  came  to,  and  for 
them,  Isa.  ix.  e*  For  unto  us  a  Child  is  born,  unto  us  a  Son 
is  given :"  while  he  lived  here,  he  lived  for  them,  "  Behold 
thy  King  comes  to  thee,  meekly  riding  on  an  ass :"  when  he 
died,  he  died  for  them ;  the  just  for  the  unjust ;  he  died  for 
our  sins  :  and  when  he  rose  again,  he  rose  for  them ;  who  died 
for  our  sins,  saith  the  apostle,  "  and  rose  again  for  our  justifi- 
cation :  when  he  went  to  heaven,  he  went  for  them ;  "  I  go 
to  prepare  a  place  for  you"  (saith  he,  John  xiv.);  when  he  as- 
cended, he  did  ascend  for  them,  that  he  might  give  gifts  unto 
men;  and  when  he  appeared  before  the  Father,  he  did  ap- 
pear for  them,  Heb.  ix.  24.  and  now  he  continues  in  heaven 
for  them ;  "  Seeing  he  ever  liveth  (saith  the  apostle)  to  make 
intercession  for  us,"  Heb.  vii ;  there  he  negotiates  for  them 
still,  and  doth  transact  all  their  business ;  why  should  not  we 
negotiate  for  him  on  earth,  who  doth  negotiate  for  us  in  hea- 
ven ?  why  should  not  we  spend  of  all  our  time  for  him,  who 
hath,  and  doth  spend  of  the  days  of  his  eternity  for  us  ? 
But  if  Christ  do  thus  spend,  and  lay  out  himself,  and  day, 
and  time,  and  eternity  for  his  seed ;  then  surely  he  doth,  and 
must  needs  take  much  contentment  and  satisfaction  in  them. 


SER.  3.]  CHRIST  IN  TRAVAIL.  253 

Is  it  not  a  great  argument  of  his  delight  and  satisfaction 
in  his  seed,  that  he  will  not  suffer  a  cold  wind  to  blow  upon 
them  to  hurt  them  ?  When  a  mother  is  so  tender  of  her 
child  that  she  will  not  suffer  a  cold  wind  to  blow  upon  it, 
you  say,  See  how  she  loves  and  delights  in  that  child.  Now 
Christ  hath  said  concerning  his  people :  "  He  that  toucheth 
you,  toucheth  the  apple  of  mine  eye,"  Zech.  ii.  The  eye  of 
man  is  the  most  tender  part,  you  know,  and  men  are  the 
most  tender  of  that :  but  I  pray  observe  what  kind  of  men 
they  were  that  Christ  was  thus  tender  of:  in  Deut.  xxxii.  10., 
it  is  said  that  God  kept  the  people  of  Israel  in  the  wilderness, 
"  as  the  apple  of  his  eye."  There  they  were  in  a  low  and 
sad  condition,  yet  there  was  the  love  of  their  youth  expressed 
in  following  God ;  but  now  these  men  were  in  Babylon,  and 
they  were  that  part  of  the  people  of  the  Jews  which  did 
stay  behind,  when  others  were  gone  to  rebuild  the  temple  ; 
and  through  unbelief  did  this  part  stay  behind;  therefore 
saith  the  prophet,  verse  6.  "  Come  forth,  and  flee  from  the 
land  of  the  north  ;"  yet  concerning  these,  even  these  rebel- 
lious and  unbelieving  residue,  doth  the  Lord  say,  "  He  that 
toucheth  you,  toucheth  the  apple  of  mine  eye,"  verse  8. 
Surely  then,  if  Christ  had  such  tender  care  of  these,  in 
reference  to  all  that  might  touch  or  hurt  them,  I  may  truly 
say  in  regard  of  his  seed,  he  will  not  suffer  a  cold  wind  for 
to  blow  upon  them :  herein  is  his  delight,  and  love  mani- 
fested. 

The  neglect  of  himself  (whilst  he  lived)  in  reference  unto 
their  good  and  salvation,  speaks  thus  much  also.  If  a  child 
be  fallen  into  the  fire  or  water,  the  mother  lays  by  all  other 
business  to  pull  it  out,  she  lays  by  her  very  meat,  and  drink, 
and  dressing ;  forgets  and  neglects  herself,  till  she  have  ob- 
tained the  safety  of  her  child,  and  this  argues  her  delight  in 
it.  So  it  was  with  Chi  1st  in  the  days  of  his  flesh,  he  forgat 
and  neglected  himself  altogether,  till  he  had  settled  the  great 
business  of  man's  salvation ;  I  have  meat  to  eat  that  ye 
know  not  of,  saith  he  :  he  had  not  whereon  to  lay  his  head, 
and  did  not  mind  himself,  but  was  restless  till  he  had  set  all 
things  in  safety,  in  reference  to  the  salvation  of  his  seed ; 
why  ?  but  because  of  that  great  delight  and  satisfaction  which 
he  took  in  his  work,  and  their  good. 

And  when  he  went  away,  and  could  no  longer  stay  here  on 


254  CHRIST    IN    TRAVAIL.  [SfiR.  3. 

earth,  he  left  his  seed  a  blessed  token  of  love,  which  lie 
would  have  them  wear  in  their  bosoms  till  he  come  again,  I 
mean  the  Lord's  supper.  "  Do  this  as  oft  as  ye  do  it  (saith 
he)  in  remembrance  of  me."  When  a  man  goes  from  a 
place,  and  doth  leave  his  friends,  he  bestows  some  token  of 
love  upon  his  best  friends ;  or  if  he  die,  he  gives  his  choice 
and  beloved  friend  a  token  of  remembrance;  he  doth  not  so 
by  those  whom  he  loves  not,  but  by  such  as  he  loves  much, 
and  delights  in.  Thus  did  our  Saviour  Christ,  when  he  went 
away,  and  died,  he  left  a  crucifix,  as  I  may  so  call  it,  this  or- 
dinance of  the  supper,  to  be  worn  in  the  bosom  of  all  the 
churches,  as  a  memorial,  or  remembrance  of  him.  The  So- 
cinians,*  who  are  enemies  to  the  cross  of  Christ,  tell  us  that 
the  word  a.va.i*vri(ns,  remembrance,  should  rather  be  trans- 
lated, celebration ;  do  this  in  the  celebration  of  me,  and  that 
the  word  doth  signify  celebration,  and  not  remembrance :  but 
if  ye  look  into  Heb.  x.  3.,  ye  shall  find  it  is  said,  "  But  in 
those  sacrifices,  there  is  a  remembrance  again  made  of  sin 
every  year :"  it  is  the  same  word  that  is  used  for  the  Lord's 
supper,  and  should  it  be  translated  a  celebration  there; 
should  the  words  be  read  thus ;  but  in  these  sacrifices,  there 
is  a  celebration  of  sin  every  year  ?  surely  no  :  well  then  is 
the  word  translated  in  the  institution  of  the  Lord's  supper, 
do  this  in  remembrance  of  me,  and  in  that  Christ  hath  left 
such  a  remembrance  for  his  seed  ;  what  doth  this  argue,  but 
that  they  should  delight  in  him,  as  he  doth  delight  in  them  ? 

And  is  it  not  a  very  great,  and  high  expression  of 
his  love,  and  delight  in  them,  that  he  carried  all  their  names 
upon  his  heart,  into  the  presence  of  God  the  Father,  owning 
and  interceding  for  them  ?  When  the  high  priest  went  into 
the  holy  of  holies,  he  carried  the  names  of  the  twelve  tribes 
upon  his  breast-plate,  and  with  the  blood  of  the  sacrifice  he 
sprinkled  the  mercy  seat  seven  times,  and  prayed  for  them. 
So  when  our  great  High  Priest  went  into  heaven,  he  did 


*  Ex  istis  Pauli  verbis  apparet  graviter  errasse  illos  qui  existimarunt,  verbutn 
(ut  Vulgata  et  Erasmi  interpretatio  habet)  commemorationem,  quod  in  Grseco 
eat  a.va.pvr\aiv  mutari  debere  in  recordationem,  neque  enim  dicit  Paulus  mortem 
Domini  recordamini,  &c.  Non  est  igitur  quod  quis  ex  verbo  illo  colligat  csenam 
Domini  in  eum  fincm  institutum  fuisse  ut  nobis  suggerat  et  in  memoriam  revocet 
mortem  ipsius  Domini,  id  quod  nulla  alioqui  sacrarum  litterarum  authoritate, 
nullave  ratione  probari  potest. — Faust.  Socinus  de  usu  et  fine  csense  Domini. 


SER.  3.]  CHRIST  IN  TRAVAIL.  255 

carry  the  names  of  all  those  whom  he  died  for,  sprinkling 
the  mercy  seat  seven  times  for  them,  and  doth  yet  pray,"  and 
intercede  for  such  of  them,  as  are  not  in  heaven ;  and  as  if 
all  this  were  not  enough,  he  did  presently  send  the  Com- 
forter, another  advocate  to  intercede  within  them,  Rom.  viii. 
that  as  he  took  their  flesh  upon  him,  and  was  made  one  with 
them,  so  they  should  take  of  his  Spirit,  and  be  made  one 
with  him.  Now  can  this  and  all  these  things  be,  without 
great  contentment,  and  delight  in  them  ?  Surely,  the  delight 
and  satisfaction  which  Christ  takes  in  his  seed,  is  exceeding 
great  and  very  full.  In  Prov.  viii.  he  saith,  his  delights,  in  the 
plural  number,  are  in  them;  and  in  Psalm,  xvi.  he  saith,  all 
"  his  delights  is  in  them." 

But  why,  and  upon  what  account  doth  our  Lord  and  Sa- 
viour Christ,  take  such  delight  and  satisfaction  in  his  seed  ? 

He  hath  travailed  for  them,  saith  this  doctrine,  and  will  ye 
ask,  why  a  woman  takes  so  much  delight  in  the  child,  which 
she  hath  had  a  sore  travail  for  ?  without  doubt,  this  delight 
is  not  raised  from  any  worth  in  themselves  considered.  But, 

They  are  his  own,  and  men  do  naturally  delight  in  their 
own.  Now  they  are  not  his  own  only  as  a  man's  goods  are 
his  own,  but  they  are  his  own,  as  his  wife  is  his  own,  and  his 
own  body.* 

They  are  given  him  of  the  Father :  a  man  loves,  and  de- 
lights much  in  that  which  is  given  him  by  a  most  precious 
friend :  such  is  the  Father :  and  saith  Christ,  "  Thine  they 
were  and  thou  gavest  them  to  me." 

They  are  related  to  him,  with  all  the  relations  of  love ; 
they  are  his  brethren,  "  He  is  not  ashamed  to  call  them 
brethren,"  Heb.  ii.  They  are  his  children,  «  Behold  I,  and 
the  children  whom  God  hath  given  me,"  saith  he,  Heb.  ii. 
They  are  his  spouse,  Ephes.  5.  A  man  loves,  and  delights 
in  him  that  is  related  to  him,  but  with  one  single  relation ; 
but  if  one  person  could  be  invested  with  all  relations  of 
love,  he  would  be  much  delighted  in.f  Thus  it  is  with  the 
seed  of  Christ,  when  they  believe  (for  so  I  speak  of  them 
now)  they  are  related  to  him  with  all  the  relations  of  love  ; 
"  If  any  man  (saith  Christ)  hear  my  words,  and  do  them,  he 
is  my  mother,  and  brother,  and  sister." 

*  Proprietas  delectationis  causa, 
t   Unumquoilque  in  quautu  auiatm  efficilur  eUlectabile. — Aquin. 


256  CHRIST    IN    TRAVAIL.  [SfiR.  3 

Yea,  they  are  one  with  him,  he  with  them,  and  they  with 
him ;  one  with  the  greatest  oneness,  of  mutual  in-being ; 
"  I  in  you,  and  you  in  me,"  saith  Christ. 

And  they  are  very  like  him  too,  and  suitable  to  him  ;  all 
delight  arises  from  a  conjunction  of  suitables.*  Christ 
and  his  believing  seed  are  not  only  joined  into  one,  but  in 
this  union  there  is  a  conjunction  of  suitables,  Christ  suiting 
with  them,  and  they  with  him  again,  being  of  the  same 
mind  and  affection.  Doth  Christ  say  unto  his  spouse,  Cant. 
iv.  10.  "Thy  love  is  better  than  w  ine  ?"  so  doth  the  spouse 
say  to  him,  Cant.  i.  2  :  "  Thy  love  is  better  than  wine." 
Doth  he  say  to  his  spouse,  "  Thou  art  all  fair,  my  love,  there 
there  is  no  spot  in  thee  ?  "  Cant.  iv.  7?  so  doth  she  say  of  him, 
"He  is  altogether  lovely,"  Cant  v.  16.  Doth  he  contemplate  her 
beauty?  Cant.  iv. ;  so  doth  she  contemplate  his  beauty, 
Cant.  v.  Only  herein  he  doth  exceed,  even  as  David  ex- 
ceeded Jonathan ;  yet  there  is  an  answerableness  of  affection 
between  Christ  and  his  seed. 

By  them  also,  I  mean  his  believing  seed,  he  liveth,  and 
his  name  is  continued  and  borne  up  in  the  world  unto  all 
generations ;"  He  shall  prolong  his  days,"  saith  Isaiah  liii. 
10.  But  how  so  ?  "  He  shall  see  his  seed  and  so  shall  pro- 
long his  days :  His  name  shall  continue  for  ever,"  saith 
Ps.  Ixxii.  17.  But  how  so  ?  Even  by  the  continual  filiation 
of  his  seed  and  name.  Now  if  he  do  yet  live  in  them,  and 
they  only  do  bear  up  his  name  in  the  world  ;  then  no  won- 
der that  our  Lord  and  Saviour  Christ,  doth  take  so 
much  delight,  contentment,  and  satisfaction  in  them  ;  surely 
his  delight  in  them  is  beyond  all  expression ;  for,  saith  he, 
Cant.  vii.  6  :  "  How  fair  and  how  pleasant  art  thou,  O  love, 
for  delights  ?"f 

II.  As  for  the  issue  of  Christ  which  he  travailed  for  ; 
namely,  The  fruits  and  effects  of  his  death,  his  delight  and 

*  Omnis  delectatio  oritur  ex  conjunctione  convenientis  cum  convenient!. — 
Aquin. 

•f  Da  mihi  filios  quod  si  non,  tnorior  ego,  Gen.  xxx,  morior,  1.  e  memoria 
mei  plane  emorietur  et  obliterabitur  dum  enim  parentes  post  se  relinqunt  filios 
in  illis  quasi  adhuc  vivere  et  superesse  videntur,  unde  vulgo  apud  Hebrseos  jactata 
est  sententia  cui  non  sunt  liberi  perinde  est  ac  si  mortuus  sit :  et  Hebraei  dicunt 
qni  non  habet  filios  non  est  sedificatus  sed  quasi  dissipatus. — Paulus  Fag.  in  Ch. 
Paraphr.  in  Gen.  xxx. 

Psal.  Ixxii.  17.     TIDttf   fa'  filiabitur  nornen  ejus.— Ar.  Montan. 


SER.  3.]  CHRIST  IN  TRAVAIL.  257 

satisfaction  must  needs  be  great  in  the  sight  thereof.  For, 
thereby  he  sees  the  good  pleasure  of  God  prosper  in  his 
hands,  Isa.  liii.  10  :  "  He  shall  see  his  seed,  and  the  pleasure 
of  the  Lord  shall  prosper  in  his  hands."  A  good  man  de- 
lights to  see  the  work  of  God  prosper  in  his  hands ;  and 
the  greater  the  work  is  and  the  more  it  prospers,  the  more 
delight  he  hath  and  contentment ;  and  when  doth  the  work 
of  God  prosper  in  a  man's  hands,  but  when  it  attaineth  the 
ends  and  due  effects  thereof.  Now  the  work  that  Christ 
undertook  was  the  greatest  work  in  the  world,  and  it  was 
God  the  Father's  work,  insomuch  as  Christ  is  called  his 
Servant;  and,  saith  Christ,  "Lo,  I  come  to  do  thy  will." 
Whenever  therefore  he  sees  the  travail  of  his  soul  in  the 
saving  effects  thereof,  then  he  sees  the  good  pleasure  of  the 
Lord  prospering  in  his  hands,  and  so  his  heart  is  at  rest. 

Thereby  the  reproach  is  rolled  away  from  his  sufferings  ; 
great  was  the  scandal  of  the  cross,  the  greatest  scandal  that 
ever  was,  and  the  greatest  reproach  cast  upon  it  that  ever  was. 
It  was  a  reproach  to  a  woman  to  be  barren,  but  when  she 
brought  forth  a  child,  her  reproach  was  rolled  away;  so 
when  the  cross  and  sufferings  of  Christ  do  bring  forth,  then 
the  reproach  and  scandal  of  the  cross  is  rolled  away;  and 
therefore  when  Christ  doth  see  the  travail  of  his  soul  in  the 
effects  thereof,  his  heart  is  at  rest,  and  he  is  fully  satisfied. 

And  thereby  also  he  obtains  the  ends  of  his  sufferings ; 
as  it  is  a  dissatisfaction  to  a  man  to  miss  his  ends,  so  it  is 
a  satisfaction  to  a  man  to  obtain  the  end  of  his  labour. 
Now  the  effects  of  Christ's  travail  are  the  ends  which  he 
aimed  at  in  his  travail ;  and  therefore  when  he  sees  the  tra- 
vail of  his  soul  in  the  effects  thereof,  he  must  needs  be  at 
rest  in  his  heart,  and  be  fully  satisfied. 

But  how  may  it  appear  that  Christ  shall  certainly  obtain 
all  those  ends  which  he  travailed  for  and  aimed  at  ? 

I  answer,  This  hath  been  cleared  already ;  yet  further 
thus:  The  will  of  Christ,  and  the  will  of  the  Father 
are  one :  "I  and  my  Father,  (saith  he,)  are  one :"  they  are 
one  in  nature,  and  therefore  there  is  but  one  will  between 
them.  Now  God  the  Father  cannot  be  frustrated  of  his 
ends,  for  he  is  a  simple  Being,  and  a  pure  act,  nothing  can 
come  between  his  executive  power  and  his  will.*  The  soul 

*  Finis  a  Deo  destinatus  semper  att'njitur. 
VOL.  III.  S 


258  CHRIST    IN    TRAVAIL.  [SER.  3. 

of  man  is  a  compounded  being,  his  faculties  differing  from 
his  essence,  and  his  acts  differing  from  his  faculties ;  and 
therefore  something  can  come  between  his  will  and  the 
execution  of  it.  But  the  executive  power  and  the  will  of 
God  being  one,  and  his  will  and  act  being  one,  nothing  can 
come  between  his  will  and  his  act ;  and  therefore  look  what- 
ever he  wills,  he  shall  certainly  obtain,  and  cannot  be  frus- 
trated of  his  ends.* 

If  you  look  into  the  Scripture,  you  shall  find  that  the 
same  things  which  are  the  effects  of  Christ's  death,  were  the 
ends  of  his  dying ;  and  the  same  things  which  were  the  ends 
that  he  aimed  at  in  his  death,  are  the  effects  of  his  death. 
For  example,  did  he  aim  at  the  remission  of  our  sins  by  his 
death  ?  Matt.  xxvi.  28.  Remission  of  sin  is  the  effect  of  his 
death.  Eph.  i.  7«  Did  he  aim  at  the  washing  and  sanctifying 
of  the  church  by  his  death  ?  Eph.  v.  25,  26.  This  cleansing, 
washing  and  sanctifying,  is  the  effect  of  his  death.  1  Cor.  vi. 
11.  The  ends  and  effects  of  his  death  are  the  same;  why 
so  ?  but  to  shew  that  he  shall  certainly  obtain  all  those  gra- 
cious ends  which  he  travailed  for. 

If  there  be  nothing  that  can  keep  our  Lord  and  Saviour 
Christ  from  the  obtainment  of  his  ends,  then  he  must  needs 
see  the  same.  Now  the  ends  of  his  death  and  sufferings  are 
many.  He  did  not  only  die  and  suffer  to  deliver  us  from  the 
wrath  to  come,  and  to  reconcile  us  to  God ;  but  he  died  and 
suffered  to  "  bring  us  to  God,  and  to  deliver  us  from  this 
present  evil  world/'  Gal.  i.  4.  He  died  to  sanctify,  wash  and 
cleanse  those  that  he  died  for,  Eph.  v.  25 ;  to  destroy  him 
that  had  the  power  of  death,  the  devil,  Heb.  ii. ;  and  to  "  re- 
deem us  from  all  iniquity,"  Titus  ii.  14.  Now  what  can 
hinder  him  from  the  obtainment  of  these  his  ends  ?  Can  the 
devil  ?  he  came  to  destroy  him.  Can  the  world  ?  he  came  to 
deliver  us  from  this  present  evil  world.  Can  our  sin  or  un- 
belief hinder  him  ?  he  came  to  cleanse  us,  and  wash  us,  and 
to  redeem  us  from  all  iniquity.  Why  then  are  not  those 
redeemed  from  all  iniquity  that  he  died  for?  Will  ye 
say,  because  they  will  not,  or  because  they  do  not  believe  ? 
He  came  to  redeem  us  from  those  unbelieving  will  nots  ;  for 
that  unbelief  and  that  will  not  is  a  sin  and  iniquity,  and  he 
came  to  redeem  us  from  all,  not  from  some,  but  from  all 
iniquity.  Surely  therefore,  if  he  did  die  for  all  particular 
*  Dr.  Preston  on  the  Attributes.— The  Simplicity  of  God. 


SER.  3.]  CHRIST  IN  TRAVAIL.  259 

men,  he  should  redeem  them  all  from  all  iniquity,  and  so 
from  their  unbelief. 

But  when  the  apostle  saith,  that  Christ  came  to  redeem  us 
from  all  iniquity,  by  that  us  we  are  to  understand  believers 
only,  and  not  all  the  particular  men  in  the  world. 

Very  true.  But  if  he  came  to  redeem  believers  only  from 
all  iniquity,  and  not  others,  then  he  did  not  die  equally  for 
all  men,  for  he  died  to  redeem  some  from  all  iniquity,  and 
not  others.  But  those  that  say  Christ  died  for  all,  say  also 
that  he  died  equally,  with  equal  intentions  of  love  and  mercy 
for  all ;  and  if  he  did  die  to  redeem  all  particular  men  from 
all  iniquity,  why  are  not  all  particular  men  redeemed  from 
all  iniquity  ?  Will  it  yet  be  said,  because  they  will  not  ?  why 
that  will  not  is  an  iniquity.  Will  it  be  said,  because  of  their 
unbelief?  why  that  unbelief  is  an  iniquity,  and  a  soul  dis- 
ease. Now  if  a  physician  come  to  cure  all  diseases,  and  he 
doth  not  cure  the  most  because  they  have  diseases,  is  this  a 
good  reason  why  he  doth  not  cure  them  ?  You  send  a  ser- 
vant to  wash  and  cleanse  a  pot  from  its  filthiness,  and  he 
returns  with  it  unwashed,  uncleansed,  and  he  tells  you  that 
he  did  not  wash  it,  because  there  was  filth  in  it ;  will  you 
take  this  for  a  good  reason  from  him  ?  Surely  no.  Now 
Christ  came  to  wash  us  and  cleanse  us  from  all  iniquities, 
and  will  he  not  do  it  because  of  our  iniquity  ?  Surely  this 
can  be  no  reason ;  and  seeing  these  are  the  ends  of  his  death 
and  sufferings,  there  is  nothing  that  can  hinder  him  from  the 
obtainment  of  them :  therefore  he  shall  certainly  see  the 
travail  of  his  soul  in  the  ohtamment  of  all  those  ends  which 
he  suffered  for.  Now  two  things  there  are  which  do  give  full 
contentment  and  satisfaction  to  the  soul.  The  obtainment 
of  one's  end,  and  the  knowledge  of  that  obtainment ;  for 
though  I  have  obtained  my  end,  yet  if  I  do  not  know  that  I 
have  obtained  it,  I  have  not  satisfaction ;  but  where  fruition, 
and  knowledge  of  that  fruition  do  meet,  there  is  full  content- 
ment and  satisfaction.*  Now  Christ  shall  not  only  obtain 
his  ends,  but  he  shall  know  and  see  the  travail  of  his  soul, 
and  therefore  he  shall  have  full  delight,  contentment,  and 
satisfaction  therein.  And  so  the  main  doctrine  is  now  cleared, 
in  all  the  three  parts  thereof. 

*  Delectatio  oritur  ex  adeptione  boni  convenient!*,  et  cognitione  hujusmodi 
adeptionis. — Aquin. 

s   2 


260  CHRIST    IN    TRAVAIL.  [SER.    3. 

1.  If  Christ  shall  thus  see  the  travail  of  his  soul  and  be 
satisfied,  then  here  you  may  see  the  reason  why  we  cannot  be 
satisfied  with  that  doctrine  of  universal  redemption.  How 
can  we  be  satisfied  with  that  which  is  dissatisfying  to  the 
heart  of  Christ  ?  Now  according  to  that  doctrine,  Christ 
shall  see  men  damned  for  those  very  sins  that  he  hath  died 
and  satisfied  for.  Corvinus  is  not  ashamed  to  speak  it  out,* 
and  it  or  worse  must  needs  follow  from  that  doctrine ;  for 
many  shall  be  damned,  not  only  for  their  unbelief  and  sins 
against  the  gospel,  but  for  their  sins  against  the  law.  Rom. 
ii.  12;  2  Cor.  vi.  9.  Either  then  Christ  satisfied  for  these 
sins,  when  he  died  for  them,  or  not.  If  not,  then  it  seems 
that  men  possibly  may  have  their  sins  against  the  law  par- 
doned, which  Christ  hath  not  satisfied  for ;  for  the  maintain- 
ers  of  that  doctrine  say,  That  it  is  possible  that  all  may  be 
saved,  and  so  have  their  sins  pardoned ;  and  if  men's  sins 
may  be  pardoned,  which  Christ  hath  not  satisfied  for,  then  is 
the  satisfaction  of  Christ  made  void  according  to  the  doctrine 
of  the  Socinians.  And  if  Christ  did  bear,  and  die,  and  satisfy 
for  these  very  sins  which  men  are  damned  for ;  then  shall 
God  punish  the  same  sin  twice,  which  even  a  just  man  will 
not  do.  And  then,  wherein  doth  our  great  gospel  sacrifice 
of  Christ  on  the  cross,  exceed  the  sacrifices  of  the  old  tes- 
tament ?  For  the  apostle  tells  us,  that  "  in  those  sacrifices, 
there  was  a  remembrance  again  made  of  sins  every  year," 
Heb.  x.  3 ;  but  here  shall  be  a  remembrance  again  of  sins 
made,  not  every  year,  but  unto  all  eternity.  Oh,  how  un- 
satisfying is  this  to  the  heart  of  Christ,  that  instead  of  seeing 
the  travail  of  his  soul,  he  shall  see  those  damned  that  he 
died  for,  yea,  damned  for  those  sins  that  he  satisfied  for ;  all 
which  must  needs  follow  upon  ,the  doctrine  of  universal 
redemption.  According  to  that  doctrine,  Christ  may  miss 
the  ends  of  his  death  and  sufferings  ;  for  he  died  not  only  for 
the  salvation  of  those  whom  he  died  for,  but  for  their  sancti- 
fication.  Ephes.  v.  26 ;  1  Pet.  i.  18  ;  Tit.  ii.  14.  But  all  the 

*  Quare  cum  talis  fuerit  satisfactio  Christo,  ut  ea  posita  liberum  fuerit  Deo 
obtinendas  salutis  earn  conditionem  ponere  quam  vellet,  ipse  veto  Deus  posuerit 
conditionem  fidei,  sequitur,  quandoquidem  salva  justitia  per  earn  Dei  voluntatem 
fidei  ad  salutem  necessitas  ponitur  eorum  respectum  pro  quibus  Christus  satis- 
fecit ;  eandem  justitiam  non  laedi  cum  damnantur  increduli  licet  pro  ipsorum 
peccatis  sic  satisfactum. — Corvin.  contra  Molin.  cap.  23,  pag.  445. 


SER.  3.]  CHRIST  IN  TRAVAIL.  261 

men  of  the  world  are  not  sanctified,  cleansed,  and  redeemed 
from  their  vain  conversation,  and  from  all  iniquity :  surely 
therefore,  if  he  should  die  for  all  particular  men,  he  should 
miss  his  ends ;  yea,  according  to  that  doctrine,  Christ  may 
not  obtain  that  which  he  hath  merited  and  purchased ;  for 
he  hath  not  only  merited  salvation,  but  grace  and  holiness 
for  those  whom  he  died  for,  as  hath  been  proved  already.  If 
therefore  he  died  for  every  particular  man  of  the  world,  then 
all  the  men  of  the  world  must  be  gracious  and  holy,  or  Christ 
must  never  come  into  his  purchase,  nor  obtain  what  he  hath 
merited :  and  can  that  be  satisfying  to  the  heart  of  Christ  ? 

But  our  Lord  and  Saviour  Christ  did  die  conditionally,  and 
merited  the  blessings  of  the  new  covenant  conditionally,  to 
be  given  out  upon  condition  of  faith  and  repentance,  which 
are  the  condition  of  the  new  covenant;  and  therefore  though 
men  do  not  obtain  all  the  blessings  of  the  covenant,  yet 
Christ  shall  not  lose  his  ends,  nor  the  thing  purchased  by  his 
death,  because  if  men  do  not  perform  the  condition,  he  never 
did  intend  they  should  have  the  blessing,  or  the  thing  pur- 
chased.* 

But  did  Christ  merit  grace  and  holiness  conditionally  ? 
The  question  now  is,  not  about  salvation  or  justification,  but 
about  our  sanctification.  If  you  speak  of  our  salvation  in 
remission  of  sin,  you  speak  not  to  the  matter  in  hand  ;  and 
if  you  speak  of  our  sanctification,  what  condition  can  be 
performed  before  that  ?  And  if  Christ  did  merit  and  intend 
that  our  holiness  and  sanctification  should  be  bestowed  on 
us,  upon  condition  of  faith  and  repentance  ;  then  a  man  may 
repent  and  believe  before  he  be  sanctified,  and  before  he  have 
any  true  saving  grace  and  holiness.  No  condition  can  be 

*  Sciendum  est  ita  Christum  Dominum  pro  peccatis  totius  generis  bumani 
satisfecisse,  donaque  omnia  gratia?,  quee  illi  post  lapsum  primorum  parentum 
couferuntur,  infinitaque  alia  prorreruisse,  et  nihilomiuus  applicationem  effcctuum 
fuorum  meritorum  certis  quibusdam  legibus  alligatam  reliquerit. — Molina,  lib. 
arb.  Concord,  qu.  33,  art.  45,  disp.  2. 

Talis  fuit  gatisfactio  Christi  ut  ea  posita  liberum  fuit  Deo  obtineudas  salmis 
earn  conditionem  ponere  quam  vellet,  ipse  vero  Deus  posuit  conditionem  fidei. — 
Arnol.  Corvin.  contra  Molinse.  cap.  28.  p.  442. 

Impetravit  Christus  omnibus  reconciliationem  et  remissionem  sed  ea  condi- 
tione. — Remonst.  Coliat.  Haglens.  art.  2. 

Licet  satisfactio  Christi  sit  prsestita  reatus  noster  non  statim  aboletur  nisi 
prius  fidei  et  poenitenthe  conditionem  impleamus. — Conr.  Vorstius,  schol. 
ad  51. 


262  CHRIST    IN    TRAVAIL.  [SfiR.  3. 

performed  before  grace  and  holiness,  but  a  work  of  nature  ; 
and  hath  Christ  merited  that  grace  shall  be  bestowed  upon  a 
work  of  nature  ?  The  apostle  speaks  directly  contrary, 
"  Who  hath  saved  us  and  called  us  with  an  holy  calling,  not 
according  to  our  works,  but  according  to  his  own  purpose 
and  grace,"  2  Tim.  i.  9.  And  if  Christ's  merits  were  thus 
conditional,  then  the  will  of  God  the  Father  must  be  also 
conditional,  for  there  is  a  correspondency  between  the  merits 
of  Christ  and  the  will  of  the  Father :  the  Father  wills  that 
to  us,  which  the  Son  hath  merited  for  us ;  and  as  the  Son 
merited,  so  doth  the  Father  will  the  bestowing  of  the  bles- 
sing. But  the  Father  doth  not  will  our  grace,  holiness  and 
sanctification  upon  condition;  for  the  maintainers  of  that 
doctrine  of  universal  redemption  say,  That  God's  secret  will, 
and  his  revealed  will,  are  one  and  the  same,  nothing  differ- 
ent :  if  therefore  God  doth  will  our  sanctification  and  holiness 
upon  condition,  then  when  he  commands  us  to  believe, 
repent  and  obey,  his  commandment  must  be  conditional; 
and  when  he  commands  us  to  forsake  our  sins,  his  command 
(for  that  is  God's  will)  must  be  conditional ;  and  if  those 
commandments  be  conditional,  then  they  cannot  be  resisted, 
nor  his  will  resisted,  yea,  then  it  will  be  no  sin  not  to  keep 
God's  commandment ;  for  if  his  commandment  be  to  be 
observed  upon  condition,  then  if  I  do  not  perform  that  con- 
dition, I  do  not  transgress  his  commandment :  as  if  you 
command  your  servant  to  do  a  thing  if  he  will,  if  he  will  not 
he  doth  not  transgress  your  commandment ;  surely  therefore 
the  will  of  God  and  his  commandments  are  absolute,  such 
therefore  is  the  merit  of  Christ. 

But  if  Christ's  merits  were  thus  conditional,  relating  to  the 
performance  of  some  condition,  as  of  faith,  repentance  and 
obedience ;  then  faith,  repentance,  and  our  obedience  were 
not  merited  by  the  death  of  Christ :  the  contrary  hath  been 
proved  already.  Look,  whatever  Christ  laid  down  his  life  for, 
that  he  merited :  but  he  laid  down  his  life  to  redeem  us  from 
our  vain  conversation  and  from  all  iniquity ;  therefore  from 
unbelief,  hardness  of  heart,  and  from  all  the  disobedience  of 
our  lives;  and  therefore  he  merited  our  redemption  from 
these. 

If  Christ's  merits  were  thus  conditional,  then  the  will  of 
God  the  Father  must  be  pendulous,  wavering,  uncertain  and 


SER.  3.]  CHRIST  IN  TRAVAIL.  263 

undetermined,  until  it  be  determined  by  some  act  of  man's  ; 
for  if  man  do  perform  the  condition,  then  he  is  to  give  out  the 
blessing  which  Christ  hath  merited  ;  and  if  man  do  not  per- 
form the  condition  he  is  not  to  give  it  out.  When  a  man,  there- 
fore, doth  perform  the  condition,  then  is  God's  will  determined. 
But  as  God  is  the  first  being,  the  first  agent  and  the  first 
mover,  so  he  is  the  first  determiner,  and  his  will  cannot  be 
determined  by  any  thing  without  himself:  for  as  himself  is 
the  most  perfect  being,  than  which  nothing  can  be  imagined  to 
be  more  perfect,  so  his  will  is  the  most  perfect,  than  which  no 
will  can  be  imagined  to  be  more  perfect ;  but  it  is  a  greater 
perfection  to  be  determined  by  itself  than  by  another,  and  to 
determine  man's  will  is  more  perfect  than  to  be  determined 
by  man's  will.  Bradwardine  observes  well  :*  A  man,  a  king, 
or  another,  doth  declare  by  public  edict  that  he  which  doth 
such  a  good  or  evil  shall  receive  this  or  that,  and  so  he  re- 
mains indifferent  and  undetermined  in  his  will,  until  his  in- 
differency  be  determined  by  some  fact  of  his  subjects.  Non 
sic  autem  Deus ;  buf  it  is  not  so  with  God,  who  of  himself 
only,  begging  nothing  of  follo\vlng  things,  doth  equally  and 
determinately  will  or  not  will  what  he  wills  or  not  wills. 

If  Christ  did  merit  that  the  blessings  of  the  covenant 
should  thus  be  bestowed  upon  condition,  then  he  did  merit 
that  we  might  merit  at  the  hand  of  God,  at  least  ex  congruo, 
for  what  is  merit  ?  Bellarmine  is  sufficiently  able  to  tell  us 
what  merit  is ;  and  saith  he  :f  Promises  are  of  two  sorts,  either 
absolute  or  conditional :  absolute,  as  suppose  a  prince  doth 
promise  an  hundred  pounds  freely  to  a  poor  man  upon  no 
condition ;  it  the  prince  give  it  the  poor  man  doth  not  merit 
at  all :  but  then  there  is  another  promise  that  is  conditional ; 
as  if  a  man  do  promise  to  give  another  an  hundred  pounds  for 

*  Homo,  rex,  vel  alius  publico  edicto  promulgat,  quod  qui  fecerit  tale  quid  bo- 
iium  vel  malum,  recipiet  hoc  vel  illud,  manetque  ipse  indifferens  et  indeterminatus 
in  voluntate  sua,  et  per  facta  subditorum  indifferentia  ejus.  determinatur.  Non 
sic  autem  Deus,  ex  se  solo,  nihil  a  posterior  bus  mendicando,  semper  aeque  deter- 
minate  vult  et  non  vult  qusecunque. — Bradward.  p.  350. 

f  Si  promissio  non  requirat  ullam  conditionem  operis,  tune  quidem  nullum  inde 
orietur  meritum  ut  si  rex  egenti  alicui  promittut  in  singulos  annos  certum  nuin- 
morum  numerum  sine  ulla  conditione,  debebuntur  egenti  illi  pecuniae  regiee,  sed 
absque  ullo  merito  ejus  ;  at  si  promissio  contineat  operis  conditionem,  orietur  inde 
meritum  etiamsi  opus  illud  alioqni  non  sit  per  se  sequale  mercedi ;  vere  mini  qui 
opus  illud  fecerit,  convenire  poterit  promissorem  ac  diccre,  se  meruisse  preemium 
ab  illo  promissum. 


264  CHRIST    IN    TRAVAIL.  [SBR.  3. 

some  work ;  Now,  says  he,  though  the  condition  be  short  in 
worth  of  the  hundred  pounds,  yet  if  he  give  it  upon  that 
condition  here  is  truly  merit ;  for,  says  he,  he  doth  merit  ex 
congruo,  cui  debetur,  unto  whom  the  reward  is  due  out  of 
grace.  But  no  protestant,  unless  tainted  with  popery,  will 
say  that  Christ  did  merit  for  us  that  we  might  merit  at  the 
hand  of  God. 

When  our  Lord  and  Saviour  Christ  died,  he  laid  down  his 
life  as  a  ransom,  \vrpw.  Now  where  do  we  find  in  Scripture 
that  where  any  ransom  money  was  paid  there  was  any  other 
condition  of  deliverance  or  of  the  redemption,  besides  the 
XVT?O^  itself,  or  the  ransom  money?  When  the  mortgage  land 
Mas  redeemed,  what  was  the  condition  of  that  redemption 
but  the  paying  of  the  ransom  money,  the  Xvr^ov?  Num. 
xviii.  15,  16,  ye  read  of  the  redemption  of  the  first-born,  and 
was  there  any  condition  of  that  redemption  besides  the  pay- 
ment of  five  shekels  ?  five  shekels  was  the  ransom  money, 
the  Xwrpo^  and  the  payment  of  that  alone  was  the  condition 
of  that  redemption,  and  the  privileges  of  that  redemption 
were  obtained  upon  the  payment  thereof.  Now  if  our  Lord 
and  Saviour  Christ  did  lay  down  his  life  as  a  ransom,  a  \vrpo»} 
then  all  the  privileges  of  our  redemption  are  to  be  given  out 
upon  his  payment  of  this  ransom  money  :  but  to  make  ano- 
ther condition  of  our  redemption  besides  the  payment  of  the 
Ai/rgox,  or  ransom  money,  is  directly  contrary  unto  all  those 
redemptions  in  the  old  testament  which  were  types  of  this ; 
yea,  contrary  to  the  nature  of  all  redemptions  whatever. 

If  our  Lord  and  Saviour  Christ  did  merit  the  blessings  of 
the  covenant,  to  be  given  out  conditionally  upon  the  faith  and 
repentance  of  all  those  that  he  died  for;  then  if  he  died  for 
all  the  particular  men  of  the  world,  this  truth  should  have 
been  published  to  them,  that  they  shall  have  salvation  by 
Christ  upon  condition  that  they  believe  in  him,  and  that  if 
they  do  not,  then  they  shall  be  damned ;  but  this  gospel  or 
truth  was  not  always  published  to  all  the  particular  men  of 
the  world,  for  says  the  apostle  concerning  the  gospel,  Col.  i. 
26,  **'  Even  the  mystery  which  hath  been  hid  from  ages  and 
from  generations  :"  and  saith  the  psalmist,  "  He  sheweth  his 
word  unto  Jacob,  his  statutes  and  his  judgments  unto  Israel ; 
he  hath  not  dealt  so  with  any  nation,  and  as  for  his  judgments 
they  have  not  known  him."  He  doth  not  say  they  have  not 


SER.  3.]  CHRIST  IN  TRAVAIL.  265 

known  them  as  Israel,  but  he  saith,  "  The  Lord  hath  not 
dealt  so  with  other  nations ;  as  for  his  judgments  they  have 
not  known  them/'  Neither  can  it  be  said  that  God  was 
ready  to  have  made  known  this  truth  unto  all  the  world,  but 
did  not  because  of  their  sin ;  'for  then  it  should  have  been 
declared  to  them  that  such  truths  of  the  gospel  should  be 
made  known  to  them  if  they  did  not  sin ;  but  that  hath  not 
been  declared  to  all  the  particular  men  of  the  world*  and 
therefore  Christ  did  not  die  for  all  men  thus  conditionally.* 

If  Christ  did  die  and  merit  thus  conditionally  for  all  men, 
then  all  the  particular  men  in  the  world  are  under  a  covenant 
of  grace ;  for  those  that  he  died  for  are  to  receive  the  bless- 
ings of  the  new  covenant  upon  the  performance  of  the  con- 
dition, saith  this  objection.  Put  all  the  particular  men  of  the 
world  are  not  under  the  covenant  of  grace,  for  the  apostle 
saith  of  the  Ephesians  before  their  conversion,  that  they  were 
"  strangers  from  the  covenants  of  promise,  having  no  hope, 
and  without  God  in  the  world,"  Eph.  ii.  12.  And  God  will 
write  his  laws  in  the  hearts  of  all  those  that  are  under  the  co- 
venant of  grace.  Heb.  viii.  But  all  the  particular  men  in  the 
world  shall  not  have  the  laws  of  God  written  in  their  hearts : 
therefore  the  covenant  of  grace  is  not  made  with  them,  and 

*  Ex  ore  tuo,  &c.,  medicus  venditat  se  remedium  habere  adversus  omnes 
segritudines,  quod  segris  etiam  omnibus  communicare  vellet  ut  ejus  beneficio  san- 
entur,  interim  vero  nullo  modo  significat  nisi  paucissimis  hujusmodo  remedium 
ipsis  paratum  esse ;  similiter  potens  aliquis  princeps  pecuniam  se  parasse  dicit 
redimendis  omnibus  captivis  et  liberationem  eorum  ex  animo  desiderare,  sed 
quamvis  hoc  prse  se  fert  tamen  certo  apud  se  decrevit  sinere  ut  nulli  captivi,  paucis 
quibusdam  exceptis,  certiores  uuquain  fiant  vel  intentionis  vel  praeparationis  bujus 
benignse  ;  An  gloriatio  hujusmodi  medici  vel  principis  esset  justa  ?  nihilo  magia 
consistere  potest  quod  Cbristus  pro  omnibus  mortuus  fuerit  respectu  voluntatis  et 
intentionis  divinse  ni»i  omnibus  nota  fiat  haec  tarn  propensa  voluntas. — Sic  Re- 
inonstr.  Collat.  Hag.  art.  2,  arg.  5,  p.  175,  Brand. 

Neque  negatur  simplicitur  a  propheta,  Deum  gentibus  verbum  suum  annunci- 
asse,  sed  propheta  loquitur  comparative,  scil.  dicit  non  taliter  Deum  fecisse  omni 
nationi  quam  populo  suo  Israeli. — Corvinus  contra  Tilen.  p.  99. 

Falsa  omnia  et  citra  modestiam  concepta,  nam  quod  tribuitur  Jacobo  negatur 
gentibus  et  tribuitur  Jacobo  quod  Deus  annunciavit  ipsi  verbum  suum,  ergo  hoc 
negatur  gentibus  ;  certe  bi  dixisset  non  sic  annunciasse  verbum  suum  gentibua 
quern  ad  modura  Jacobo  recte  collegisset  Corvinus  ;  et  spiritus  sanctus  hoc  pri- 
mum  triburens  Jacobo,  quod  scil.  verbum  ipsis  curaret  annunciari  mox  subjicit, 
non  sic  fecisse  gentibus,  quce  nullum  alium  sensum  induere  possunt,  quam  ut 
negent  verbum  gentibus  annunciari. — Twiss  in  Corvini  defens.  Armin.  contra 
Tilen.  p.  66. 


266  CHRIST   fN    TRAVAIL.  [SfiR.  3. 

therefore  Christ  hath  not  merited  that  the  blessings  of  the 
covenant  shall  be  given  out  unto  all  the  world  upon  conditions. 

If  all  the  benefits  of  Christ's  death  and  blessings  of  the 
new  covenant  should  be  given  out  upon  some  condition  to  be 
performed  by  us,  as  faith  and  repentance;  then  our  faith 
should  give  us  a  right  and  title  unto  all  those  blessings  and 
benefits.  As  if  I  sell  a  thing  upon  condition  that  a  man  pay 
me  so  much  money,  his  payment  of  the  money  being  the 
performance  of  the  condition  gives  him  a  right  and  title  to 
the  thing.  Or  if  I  promise  to  give  a  man  an  hundred  pounds 
upon  condition  that  he  go  of  such  an  errand  for  me ;  if  he 
go,  his  very  going  gives  him  a  right  and  title  to  the  hundred 
pounds,  because  he  performs  the  condition.  But  though 
faith  be  our  hand  whereby  we  receive  the  benefits  of  Christ's 
death  and  blessings  of  the  covenant,  yet  it  doth  not  give  us 
any  right  or  title  to  them ;  all  our  right  and  title  is  in  Christ's 
blood,  his  death,  his  satisfaction  and  his  obedience,  and  in 
that  alone. 

This  objection  doth  suppose  the  covenant  of  grace  to  be 
conditional;  but  the  covenant  of  grace  is  free,  absolute,  and 
without  all  conditions  to  be  performed  by  us.  For, 

The  Lord  hath  delivered  it  without  all  such  conditions. 
We  read  of  the  covenant  of  grace  in  Jer.  xxxi.,  in  Ezek. 
xxxvi.,  in  Heb.  viii.,  but  where  do  we  find  any  condition 
annexed  to  it  ?  And  if  God  make  no  conditions,  why  should 
we  ?  Shall  I  hang  my  padlock  upon  God's  door  of  mercy  ? 

This  covenant,  saith  the  Lord,  is  as  the  covenant  which  lie 
made  with  Noah.  Did  he  promise  Noah  that  the  world 
should  be  drowned  no  more  upon  conditions  of  our  faith  or 
obedience  ?  No,  but  saith  the  Lord,  "  I  will  not  again  curse 
the  ground  any  more  for  man's  sake,  although  the  imagina- 
tions of  man's  hearts  be  evil,"  Gen.  viii.  21.  It  may  be 
you  will  translate  the  Hebrew  '3,  because ;  but  it  comes  all 
to  one. 

In  the  covenant  of  grace  the  Lord  saith  he  will  write  his 
laws  in  our  hearts  ;  there  is  converting  mercy  promised  ;  and 
that  we  shall  all  know  him  ;  there  is  enlightening  mercy  pro- 
mised :  both  the  habit_and  the  act  of  grace  promised,  and  he 
gives  this  reason — "  For  I  will  be  merciful  to  your  unrighte- 
ousness, and  your  sin  and  iniquity  I  will  remember  no  more," 
Heb.  viii.  11,  12.  Now  if  forgiving  mercy  be  the  reason  of 


SER.  3.]  CHRIST  IN  TRAVAIL.  267 

sanctifying  mercy,  if  our  forgiveness  be  the  cause  of  our  ho- 
liness, then  no  act  of  our  grace  or  holiness  can  be  the  condi- 
tion of  our  forgiveness  or  of  the  covenant. 

The  Spirit  of  God  is  promised  in  the  covenant.  "  I  will 
put  my  Spirit  into  you,"  saith  God.  But  faith  and  repent- 
ance are  not  before  the  in-being  or  gift  of  the  Spirit.  Surely, 
therefore,  all  the  blessings  of  the  covenant  are  not  given  out 
upon  these  conditions. 

If  the  covenant  of  grace  should  be  thus  conditional,  then 
the  covenant  of  grace  should  be  harder  than  the  covenant  of 
works  made  with  Adam  in  paradise ;  for  then  the  condition 
was  to  be  performed  by  our  common  person  who  was  strong 
and  free  from  all  sin ;  but  now  we  are  weak  and  full  of  all 
sin,  and  therefore  if  the  performance  of  the  condition  lie  upon 
our  hands,  the  terms  of  this  covenant  will  be  worse  and  harder 
for  us  than  the  terms  of  that  covenant  of  works ;  neither  can 
it  be  said  that  if  all  men  have  a  sufficiency  of  grace  and  power 
to  believe,  that  the  performance  of  the  condition  of  this  co- 
venant will  be  easier  than  of  that ;  for  who  doth  not  know 
that  it  is  an  harder  thing  for  one  of  us  sinful  creatures  to  be- 
lieve, than  for  Adam  to  abstain  from  eating  the  forbidden 
fruit  ?  But  surely  the  covenant  of  grace  is  easier  and  sweeter 
than  the  covenant  of  works,  and  therefore  the  condition 
thereof  was  performed  by  Christ  our  second  Adam,  and  there 
is  now  no  condition  of  the  covenant  to  be  performed  by  us. 
Yet  it  is  our  duty  to  believe  and  repent  and  obey,  which  we 
are  commanded  to  do  by  the  gospel ;  but  all  our  repentance, 
faith  and  obedience  is  a  fruit  of  that  covenant,  not  the  con- 
dition of  it.  As  in  case  Adam  had  stood,  his  seed  should 
have  obeyed,  yet  their  obedience  should  not  have  been  the 
condition  but  the  fruit  of  the  covenant;  and  as  his  posterity 
could  not  have  had  life  unless  they  had  obeyed,  yet  that  their 
obedience  was  not  the  condition  of  that  covenant.  So  though 
we  cannot  be  justified  unless  we  believe,  nor  be  saved  unless  we 
repent  and  obey  ;  yet  our  repentance,  faith  and  obedience  is 
not  the  condition  but  the  fruit  of  the  covenant.  Christ  and 
Christ  alone,  our  second  Adam,  did  perform  the  condition ; 
as  to  us,  the  covenant  of  grace  is  free,  absolute  and  without 
all  conditions. 

But  all  divines  say  that  faith  and  repentance  are  the  condi- 
tions of  the  covenants. 


268  CHRIST    IN    TRAVAIL.  [SfiR.  3. 

Not  all :  not  so  Luther,  not  so  Zanchy,  not  so  Junius,  not 
so  Dr.  Ames,  not  so  some  of  our  own.*  And  those  that  do  say 
so,  say  also  that  faith  and  repentance  are  also  promised  in  the 
covenant ;  which  comes  to  the  same  in  effect  with  what  I  now 
say.  They  mean,  also,  that  faith  is  that  grace  whereby  we 
are  justified,  and  that  we  cannot  be  saved  without  faith  and 
repentance,  which  I  grant,t  but  they  do  not  say  that  there 
is  any  condition  in  the  will  of  God  moving  or  determining  it, 
but  a  condition  in  the  thing  willed.  But  the  remonstrants 
make  a  condition  of  the  covenant  in  reference  to  the  will  of 
God,  which  is  the  thing  I  deny  and  have  disproved  all  this 
while.  I  grant  there  is  a  conditional  promise,  but  then  God 
hath  promised  that  condition  in  some  other  scripture,  which 

*  Duplices  snnt  promissiones  Dei,  legales  quae  nituntur  deorsum  in  nostris 
operibus,  sicut  illae,  si  feceritis,  bona  terrse  comedetis  ;  aliae  sunt  promissiones 
gratiae,  sicut  Jer.  xxxi.,  scribam  legem  meam  in  cordibus  eorum  ;  hae  promissio- 
ues  non  nituntur  deorsum  sed  simpliciter  bonirate  et  gratia  Dei ;  quid  ipse  velit 
facere  — Luther  in  Gen.  iv.  p.  88. 

II  os.  ii.  Desponsabo  te  mihi  in  perpetuum  :  sine  ulla  interjecta  vel  penitentiae 
vel  fidei  conditione  absolutissime  ait  desponsabo  te,  &c.  hujusmodi  autem  abso- 
lutissimae  promissiones  ad  solos  veros  et  secundum  spiritum  Israelitas,  i.e.  electos 
pertinent,  ergo  haec  est  perfectissima  et  absolutissima  evangelica  promissio. — 
Zanch.  in  Hos.  ii.  21,  22. 

Statuens  Dei  gratiam  eo  luculentiorem  hominibus  explicatum  esse,  quod  suis 
non  faedus  sed  testamentum  dedertt,  quia  faedus  conditiones  mutuus  fuisset  habi- 
turum,  quas  si  altera  pars  non  prestet,  faedus  est  irritum,  testamentum  vero  libe- 
ralitatis  et  gratiae  citra  ullam  conditionem  instrumentum  est ;  ex  quo  haeredes 
instituuntur  citra  contcmplationem  ullius  officii  quod  ab  ipsis  proficisci  possit. — 
Junius  in  Heb.  viii. 

Sic  Amesius  Coron.  de  Perseverant. 

At  ubi  quaeso  sacrarum  literarum  quoties  nostra  renovatio  sanctificatio,  ad  pae- 
nitentiam  revocatio  spiritui  sancto  attribuitur  vel  levissima  mentio  sit  conditionis, 
Jer.  xxxi.  hoc  est  faedus,  &c.  etiam  omnem  voluntatem  Dei  esse  absolutam  nullam 
autem  conditionale>n  demonstravit  variis  argument!;-. — Tho.  Bradward.  de  causa 
Dei,  lib.  2. 

Twiss.  Vindiciae  Gratiae  prefat.     §  8. 

t  The  manner  of  expressing  the  fore-mentioned  promises  of  the  new  covenant 
is  absolute ,  so  as  God  undertaketh  I  o  perform  them  all :  I  will  put  my  law  into 
your  minds  ;  I  will  be  to  them  a  God  ;  All  shall  know  me  ;  I  will  be  merciful 
unto  their  sins.  Hereby  it  is  manifest  that  tha  privileges  of  the  new  covenant 
are  absolutely  promised  to  be  performed  on  God's  part :  "  It  is  God  that  justi- 
fieth,"  Rom.  viii.  33.  Sanctincation  is  absolutely  promised  Ezek.  xxxvi.  25,  so 
the  parts  thereof:  mortification,  Rom.  vi.  14  ;  vivification,  Rom.  viii.  11  ;  per- 
severance, 1  Cor.  i.  8.  Object.  Is  also  the  condition  of  faith  and  repentance 
required  by  the  new  covenant  ?  Mark  i.  15.  Ans.  He  that  requireth  the  con- 
dition proiniseth  also  to  work  it  in  us. — Dr.  Gouge  on  Heb.  viii. 

Naturae  legum  et  conditionum  prescriptarum  omnino  conveniens  est  ut  volun- 
tatas  judicis  a  conditione  postulata  et  prestita  moveatur  ad  premium. — Grevin- 
chovius. 


SEE.  3.]  CHRIST  IN  TRAVAIL.  269 

they  deny.  I  grant  that  we  are  justified  upon  our  believing, 
but  then  God  hath  promised  faith  too,  which  they  deny.  I 
grant  a  condition  may  be  rei  volita,  of  the  thing  willed,  but 
nulla  est  conditio  voluntatis  divina,  there  is  no  condition  of 
the  divine  will ;  they  affirm  it.  I  grant  that  one  benefit  of  the 
death  of  Christ  doth  follow  another,  and  one  may  be  the  cause 
of  the  other ;  but  our  Lord  and  Saviour  Christ  did  not  die 
conditionally,  nor  merit  any  thing  for  us  conditionally  ;  those 
that  he  died  for  he  merited  grace  and  holiness  for,  to  be  given 
out  to  them  without  all  conditions  ;  and  therefore  if  he  died 
for  all  men,  he  must  needs  lose  his  purchase,  a  thing  most 
unsatisfying  to  the  heart  of  Christ :  yet  this  is  the  first  born 
of  that  doctrine  of  universal  redemption.  Now,  therefore, 
as  you  desire  to  stand  free  from  all  those  opinions  that  are 
unsavoury  to  the  heart  of  Christ,  take  heed  of  that  doctrine 
of  universal  redemption.  Yet  further. 

2.  If  Christ  will  certainly  see  the  travail  of  his  soul,  and 
be  satisfied,  then  here  you  may  see  the  reason  why  we  cannot 
be  satisfied  with  that  opinion  of  the  saints'  apostacy ;  this 
also  is  unsatisfying  to  the  heart  of  Christ.  Can  a  man  be 
satisfied  in  seeing,  and  feeling  one  of  his  own  members  torn 
from  his  body  ?  Can  a  man  delight  in  seeing  that  leg  or 
arm,  which  was  once  the  member  of  his  body,  burning  in  the 
fire  ?  Surely  Christ  cannot ;  Christ's  love  is  not  like  to 
ours ;  Non  amat  tanquam  osurus :  Those  whom  he  loves 
once,  he  doth  love  to  the  end  ;  once  in  Christ,  and  for  ever 
in  Christ ;  once  loved  by  Christ,  and  for  ever  loved  by  him  : 
"Whom  God  hath  called,  them  he  hath  also  justified;  and 
whom  he  hath  justified,  them  he  hath  also  glorified,"  Rom. 
viii.  This  is  the  Father's  will  (saith  Christ,  John  vi.  39.) 
that  of  all  that  he  hath  given  me,  I  should  lose  none ;"  and 
verse  37,  he  saith:  "All  that  the  Father  giveth  me  shall 
come  unto  me."  It  seems  therefore,  that  there  are  some 
whom  the  Father  hath  given  unto  Christ,  and  that  before 
they  believe,  their  faith  being  the  fruit  and  consequent  of 
this  gift ;  therefore  there  is  a  particular  election  of  some, 
and  that  election  is  not  upon  a  foresight  of  faith,  but  a  cause 
thereof.  Our  Saviour  tells  us  here,  "That  all  those  that 
are  given  him,  shall  come  to  him ;"  that  is,  they  shall  be- 
lieve ;  therefore  it  is  not  in  our  power  to  resist  the  grace  of 
God,  with  an  overcoming  resistance ;  the  converting  grace 


270  CHRIST    IN    TRAVAIL.  [SfiR.  3. 

of  God  is  irresistible.  He  saith  here,  That  all  those  that 
are  given  him,  shall  come  to  him ;  therefore  all  his  seed  and 
children  whom  he  travailed  wich  and  died  for,  shall  come  to 
him  and  believe  on  him;  for  those  that  the  Father  hath 
given  him,  are  his  children,  Heb.  ii.  13.  But  all  the  men  of 
the  world  do  not  come  to  him ;  therefore  they  are  not  his 
seed  and  children,  therefore  he  never  travailed  with  them, 
therefore  he  did  not  die  for  all  particular  men.  Our  Sa- 
viour tells  us  here  plainly,  that  when  men  do  come  to  him, 
he  will  lose  none  of  them ;  but  saith  he,  "  I  will  raise  them 
up  at  the  last  day,"  verse  39.  And  lest  any  should  doubt  of 
this  truth,  he  speaks  yet  more  plainly ;  tells  us  that  those 
who  do  come,  are  such  as  believe  on  him,  and  then  for  more 
assurance  repeats  the  promise,  verse  40,  saying,  "  This  is  the 
will  of  him  which  sent  me,  That  every  one  that  seeth  the 
Son,  and  believeth  on  him,  may  have  everlasting  life,  and  I 
will  raise  him  up  at  the  last  day."  Surely  therefore,  that 
doctrine  of  the  saints'  apostacy  is  unsound,  yea,  all  the  four 
doctrines  of  the  Arminians  are,  by  this  one  scripture,  plainly 
refuted ;  but  especially  that  of  the  saints'  apostacy.  It  is  a 
doctrine  not  only  uncomfortable  to  the  saints,  but  unsatis- 
fying to  the  heart  of  Christ ;  "  For  he  shall  see  of  the  travail 
of  his  soul  and  be  satisfied."  Seeing  therefore  that  he  tra- 
vailed for  their  salvation,  he  shall  see  their  perseverance  and 
salvation. 

3.  But  more  practically :  This  doctrine  looks  wishly  upon 
both  godly  men  and  ungodly. 

It  calls  upon  those  that  are  ungodly  to  delight  themselves 
is  the  Lord,  and  to  satisfy  themselves  in  Christ,  in  the  things 
of  Christ,  and  in  the  seed  of  Christ.  Doth  Christ  delight 
in  his  seed,  and  will  you  hate,  despise,  and  scorn  his  seed  ? 
Is  he  satisfied  in  seeing  the  travail  of  his  soul  in  the  saving 
effects  of  his  death,  justifying,  sanctifying,  and  comforting 
the  children  of  men  ;  and  will  you  be  displeased  therewith  ? 
Will  you  be  pleased  and  satisfied  in  your  sins  and  vain  con- 
versation, when  Christ  is  satisfied  in  the  redemption  of  men 
from  their  iniquity  and  vain  conversation  ?  The  conversion 
of  a  sinner  is  the  fruit  of  Christ's  travail,  wherein  he  rejoices 
and  is  delighted  with  a  great  delight,  and  doth  it  grieve  you 
to  see  a  sinner  turned  from  the  evil  of  his  ways  ?  Take  heed 
how  you  walk  contrary  to  Christ ;  for  if  you  walk  contrary 


SER.  3.]  CHRIST  IN  TRAVAIL.  271 

to  him,  he  will  walk  contrary  unto  you;  and  either  he  will 
rejoice  and  be  satisfied  in  your  conversion,  or  he  will  be 
satisfied  in  your  damnation  ;  and  if  you  do  not  convert  and 
turn  unto  God,  how  can  you  think  that  you  are  the  seed  of 
Christ,  whom  he  hath  travailed  with  ?  But, 

This  doctrine  looks  wishly  also  upon  the  godly ;  such  as 
are  the  visible  seed  of  Christ,  and  to  you  it  saith :  Why 
should  you  not  be  contented  and  satisfied  with  Christ  alone  ; 
all  his  delights  are  in  you,  why  should  not  all  your  delights 
be  in  him  ?  Is  he  satisfied  in  you  ?  Why  then  should  not 
you  be  satisfied  with  him,  and  with  that  condition  which  he 
carves  for  you?  Through  him  the  Father  is  satisfied  for 
your  sins,  and  he  is  satisfied  in  your  person,  why  then  should 
not  you  be  satisfied  about  your  condition  ?  Why  should 
you  not  labour  to  convert  and  draw  others  unto  Christ? 
Thereby  he  sees  the  fruit  of  his  travail,  which  is  his  delight ; 
will  you  not  do  what  you  can  to  advance  Christ's  delights  ? 
And  if  Christ  be  satisfied  and  delighted  in  you,  why 
should  you  not  improve  his  affection  for  the  good  of  the 
church  ?  King  Ahasuerus  was  taken  with,  and  did  delight 
much  in  Esther,  and  she  improved  his  affection  for  the 
good  of  the  church ;  have  you  gotten  the  heart  of  Christ, 
the  affections  of  Christ,  and  will  not  you  improve  them  for 
the  good  of  the  church  ?  surely  it  is  your  duty.  And 
upon  this  account  why  should  you  not  labour  to  excel  in 
virtue  ?  His  delights  are  in  his  seed,  and  they  are  such,  saith 
the  psalmist,  as  do  excel  in  virtue,  Ps.  xvi.  Now  therefore 
that  you  may  in  some  measure  answer  the  delights  of  Christ, 
oh,  labour  more  and  more  to  excel  in  virtue. 

What  excellent  things  shall  we  (that  are  the  visible  seed 
of  Christ)  do,  that  we  may  answer  the  delights,  content- 
ments, and  satisfactions  which  he  doth  take  in  us  ? 

Many.  First  in  reference  to  Christ  himself  and  his  service. 
It  is  an  excellent  thing  to  have  and  bear  the  same  mind  to 
Christ,  that  he  had  and  bare  unto  us  ;  he  did  neglect  his  own 
glory  to  procure  our  comfort ;  so,  for  us  to  neglect  our  own 
comfort,  to  procure  his  glory,  is  excellent.  In  time  of  temp- 
tation to  look  upon  Christ  as  our  gift,  and  in  time  of  pre- 
sumption to  look  upon  him  as  our  example  ;  to  trust  in  Christ 
as  if  we  had  no  works,  and  yet  to  work  as  if  we  had  no 
Christ :  I  mean  for  a  man  to  be  so  obedient  to  the  com- 


272  CHRIST    IN    TRAVAIL.  [SfiR.  3, 

mandment,  as  if  he  would  be  saved  by  ne  law ;  and  yet  to 
rest  on  the  promise,  as  if  he  would  be  saved  by  grace ;  and 
in  all  our  service  to  God  in  Christ,  to  walk  by  a  law  without 
us,  and  yet  by  a  law  within  us — by  a  law  without  us  as  our 
rule,  and  by  a  law  within  us  as  our  principle  :  these  are 
excellent  things  in  regard  of  Christ  and  his  service. 

As  for  the  ordinance  and  means  of  grace.  It  is  an  excel- 
lent thing  so  to  use  the  public  ordinance,  as  we  may  be  more 
fit  for  private  exercise  ;  and  so  to  use  our  private  exercise,  as 
we  may  be  the  more  fit  for  public  ordinances.  To  wait  upon 
God  in  the  use  of  all  means,  yet  not  to  tie  the  workings  of 
the  Spirit  unto  any  one  particular;  to  observe  what  that 
ordinance  is  that  is  most  decried  and  despised  by  the  world, 
and  to  advance  and  honour  that ;  to  worship  Christ  in  a 
manger.  These  are  excellent  things  in  regard  of  the  ordi- 
nances and  means  of  grace. 

As  for  your  graces,  gifts  and  comforts.  An  excellent  thing 
it  is,  for  a  man  so  to  exercise  one  grace,  as  he  may  be  fit  for 
another ;  so  to  exercise  his  faith,  as  he  may  be  fit  for  repent- 
ance ;  and  so  to  exercise  his  repentance,  as  he  may  grow  up 
into  more  assurance ;  to  make  all  your  graces  parents  to 
your  comforts,  and  your  comforts  handmaids  to  your  graces ; 
that  your  gifts  may  beautify  your  graces,  and  your  graces 
sanctify  your  gifts  ;  to  be  of  high  parts  and  a  low  spirit ;  to 
know  much,  and  yet  to  love,  respect,  and  honour  those  that 
know  less.  These  are  excellent  things  in  regard  of  our  gifts, 
graces  and  comforts. 

As  for  your  condition.  It  is  an  excellent  thing  for  a  man 
to  be  thankful  for  his  present  condition,  and  yet  not  to  be  in 
love  therewith,  nor  to  live  thereon.  It  is  ill  to  murmur  in 
any  condition,  it  is  good  to  be  content  in  some,  but  in  every 
condition  to  be  thankful  is  excellent.  To  fear  the  Lord  in 
prosperity,  and  to  love  him  in  adversity  :  never  to  think  that 
my  condition  is  extraordinary ;  to  trust  God  with  my  condi- 
tion by  experience,  and  yet  to  trust  in  God  for  my  condition 
over  and  beyond  all  experience.  These  are  excellent  things 
in  reference  to  your  condition. 

As  for  your  converse  and  dealing  with  men.  An  excellent 
thing  it  is  to  use  no  company  but  such  as  you  may  receive 
some  good  from  or  communicate  some  good  unto  j  to  take  no 
offence  and  to  give  none,  being  very  unwilling  to  give  offence 


SER.  3.]  CHRIST  ix  TRAVAIL.  273 

and  very  backward  to  take  it ;  to  rejoice  in  another's  graces 
and  to  grieve  for  another's  sins ;  to  be  a  lamb  in  one's  own 
cause  and  a  lion  in  God's  ;  of  a  sweet  and  meek  disposition 
yet  zealous  and  active  for  God  ;  and  in  all  our  dealings  with 
men,  to  deal  with  God  through  men,  saying,  If  they  curse  or 
bless,  God  hath  bid  them  do  it ;  and  in  case  that  any  man 
offend  you,  to  be  more  ready  to  forgive  than  he  is  to  acknow- 
ledge his  offence,  that  your  forgiveness  may  rather  draw  out 
his  acknowledgment  than  his  acknowledgment  draw  out  your 
forgiveness.  These  are  excellent  things  in  regard  of  our 
converse  or  dealings  with  men. 

As  for  your  callings  and  outward  estates.  It  is  an  excellent 
thing  for  a  man  so  to  use  his  particular  calling  as  he  may  be 
fit  for  his  general,  and  so  to  use  his  general  as  he  may  be  fit 
for  his  particular ;  to  make  your  sail  fit  for  your  vessel,  that 
your  heart  may  not  be  too  big  for  your  business  nor  your 
work  too  big  for  your  heart ;  but  yourself,  par  neffotio,  being 
like  the  the  ant  or  pismire,  that  doth  rather  abound  in  pectore, 
in  the  breast,  ubi  animus  est,  where  the  mind  lies,  than  in 
ventre,  in  the  belly,  ubi  stercus  est,  where  the  dung  lies ;  and 
if  your  estate  be  great,  to  account  yourself  God's  steward, 
not  his  treasurer ;  and  if  it  be  little,  to  study  rather  how  to 
give  an  account  of  your  little  than  to  increase  unto  much. 
These  are  excellent  things  in  regard  of  your  callings  and 
estates. 

As  for  your  recreations  and  outward  mirths.  It  is  an  ex- 
cellent thing  for  a  man  so  to  be  merry  as  he  may  not  grieve 
for  his  mirth  afterwards ;  to  have  your  part  and  share  in  the 
saints'  breakings  as  well  as  in  their  rejoicings ;  so  to  rejoice  in 
the  creature  as  not  to  forget  the  Creator ;  so  to  rejoice  in  the 
servant  as  not  to  forget  the  Master ;  so  to  rejoice  in  your  inn 
as  not  to  forget  your  home  ;  so  to  recreate  yourself  as  you 
may  not  take  pleasure  in  your  pleasure,  but  to  rise  from  this 
table  with  an  appetite,  not  with  a  glut,  and  to  be  a  bungler  at 
the  best  recreation,  and  to  make  all  your  recreations  as  so 
many  engagements  to  serve  God  the  more  freely  and  cheer- 
fully. These  are  excellent  things  in  regard  of  your  mirths 
and  recreations. 

As  for  the  works  of  God  and  his  dispensations.  It  is  an 
excellent  thing  for  a  man  to  know  what  God's  design  is,  yet 
to  admire  where  you  cannot  understand ;  to  praise  God  for 

VOL  III.  T 


274  CHRIST    IN    TRAVAIL.  [SER.  3. 

his  judgments  as  well  as  for  his  mercies,  for  his  hell  as  well 
as  for  his  heaven  ;  and  though  the  vial  be  poured  out  upon 
your  relation,  yet  to  bless  God,  and  at  least  to  be  silent ;  re- 
member Aaron.  And  in  all  God's  dealings  still  to  make  a 
good  and  candid  interpretation,  for  that  will  argue  your  love 
to  God,  which  will  argue  his  love  to  you;  for  that  which  ends 
in  your  love  to  him,  came  from  his  love  to  you.  These  are 
excellent  things  in  regard  of  God's  works  and  dispensations. 

As  for  truth  and  error.  It  is  an  excellent  thing  for  a  man 
so  to  mind  the  truth  of  the  times  as  he  do  not  neglect  the 
power  of  godliness,  and  so  to  mind  the  power  of  godliness  as 
he  do  not  neglect  the  truth  of  the  times  ;  an  excellent  thing 
for  a  man  so  to  mind  new  truth  as  not  to  lose  old  truth,  and 
so  to  keep  the  old  truth  as  not  to  neglect  new  truths.  And 
in  all  times  to  stand  free  from  the  monopoly  of  an  opinion ; 
for  it  is  the  property  of  an  error  to  monopolize  the  man,  and 
to  engross  his  thoughts,  words  and  actions ;  but  he  that  plac- 
eth  his  religion  in  one  opinion,  hath  no  religion  in  truth, 
though  his  opinion  be  true :  good,  therefore,  it  is,  to  stand 
clear  and  free  from  these  monopolies.  These  are  excellent 
things  in  regard  of  truth  and  error. 

As  for  your  death.  It  is  an  excellent  thing  for  a  man  to 
desire  to  die  and  yet  be  contented  to  live ;  to  desire  death  for 
the  enjoyment  of  God  and  to  be  contented  to  live  for  the 
work  of  God ;  to  give  up  your  days  to  God  as  an  act  of  your 
faith  which  you  have  received  from  him  as  an  act  of  his  love ; 
to  say  in  truth,  If  my  Father  have  any  more  work  for  me  to 
do  I  shall  live  longer,  if  his  work  be  done,  I  am  willing  to  go 
home  to  my  Father,  though  I  ride  behind  the  worst  servant 
that  he  keeps  in  his  house  :  an  excellent  thing  it  is  to  die 
standing  or  kneeling ;  to  die  on  that  ground  where  I  should 
live,  and  to  live  on  that  ground  where  I  would  die.  These 
are  excellent  things  in  regard  of  death.  Now  excellent  things 
do  become  those  that  are  the  seed,  the  visible  seed  of  Christ. 
Are  you,  therefore,  the  visible  seed  of  Christ  ?  Then  these 
excellent  things  do  become  you ;  for  his  delight  is  in  the 
saints,  and  such  as  excel  in  virtue.  Now,  therefore,  as  you 
do  desire  to  answer  unto  Christ's  delights,  oh,  labour  more 
and  more  to  excel  in  virtue. 

And  thus  I  have  done  with  this  great  argument — Christ  in 
travail  j  the  greatness  of  his  travail,  his  assurance  of  issue, 


SER.  3.]  CHRIST  IN  TRAVAIL.  275 

and  his  delight  and  satisfaction  in  the  sight  thereof.  Christ 
shall  certainly  see  the  travail  of  his  soul  and  be  satisfied ;  and 
if  you  do  not  yet  see  the  issue  of  his  travail  accomplished  on 
your  soul,  yet  stay,  wait  and  expect,  for  saith  the  text,  "  He 
shall  see  the  travail  of  his  soul  and  be  satisfied ;"  and  in  due 
time  you  shall  see  it  too  and  be  satisfied.  Wherefore  wait  on 
the  Lord,  and  again  I  say  wait  on  the  Lord. 


T  2 


SEASONABLE     TRUTHS 

IN  EVIL  TIMES. 

1.— OF  GRACE  GROWING  AND  INCREASING. 

2.— THE  FIRST  AND  LAST  IN  SUFFERING  WORK. 

3.— THE  WAY  TO  OBTAIN  A  SURE  AND  GREAT  REWARD. 

4.— THE  TWO  WITNESSES  THEIR  TESTIMONY. 

5.— THE  UNCERTAINTY  OF  THE  WORLD. 

6.— MAN'S  WRATH   AGAINST   GOD'S   PEOPLE   SHALL  TURN  TO 

GOD  S  PRAISE. 
7.— COMFORT  TO  MOURNERS  FOR  THE  LOSS  OF  THE  SOLEMN 

ASSEMBLIES. 

8.— THE  EVIL  OF  UNBELIEF  IN  DEPARTING  FROM  GOD. 
9.— A  WARNING  TO  APOSTATES. 

IN  NINE   SERMONS. 

1668. 


TO  THE   READER. 


CHRISTIAN  READER, 

THESE  Sermons  call  none  father  but  that  reverend  servant  of  God  Mr. 
Bridge,  whose  labours  have  long  praised  and  yet  do  praise  him  in  the  gates,  which 
these  also  will  not  fail  to  do.  If  thon  wouldest  know  how  to  grow  in  grace ;  who 
shall  be  first  and  last  in  suffering  work  ;  how  to  obtain  a  sure  and  great  reward  ; 
how  to  understand  the  testimony  of  the  two  witnesses ;  how  to  take  thy  heart  off 
the  world :  if  thou  wouldest  find  how  man's  wrath  turns  to  God's  praise  ;  what 
comfort  attends  those  who  mourn  for  solemn  assemblies  ;  what  is  the  evil  of  an 
unbelieving  heart  in  departing  from  God,  and  what  is  the  danger  of  apostacy, 
buy,  try  and  improve  this  little  treatise  :  so  doing,  thou  wilt  find  treasure  and 
sweetness  in  it,  and  from  thine  own  experience  confess  that  it  is  better  than  gold 
and  sweet  as  the  honeycomb  :  which  that  thou  mayest  do  is  the  hearty  desire  of 
thy  soul-friend, 

WILLIAM  GREENHILL. 


SEASONABLE  TRUTHS  IN  EVIL  TIMES. 


SERMON  I. 

OF  GRACE  GROWING  AND  INCREASING. 

"  That  as  ye  have  received  of  us  how  ye  ought  to  walk  and  to  pleat  e 
God,  so  ye  would  abound  more  and  more." — 1  THESS.  iv.  1. 

THE  apostle  having  exhorted  the  Thessalonians  in  the  for- 
mer part  of  this  epistle  to  perseverance  in  grace,  as  you  read 
in  the  former  chapter,  at  verse  8,  "  For  now  we  live  if  ye 
stand  fast  in  the  Lord ;"  and  at  verse  13  of  the  same  chapter, 
"  To  the  end  he  may  establish  your  hearts  unblameable  iti 
holiness  before  God,  even  our  Father :"  he  doth  here,  in  this 
chapter,  exhort  them  to  Christian  progression,  growing  and 
increasing  in  grace.  So  in  this  first  verse  of  chapter  iv. 

In  this  exhortation  three  things  are  considerable : 

First,  The  matter  which  he  exhorteth  them  unto  in  the 
latter  end  of  the  verse,  that  they  would  "  abound  more  and 
more  in  the  work  of  the  Lord." 

Secondly,  The  manner  of  this  exhortation,  and  that  is  with 
much  earnestness ;  "  We  beseech  you,  brethren,  and  exhort 
you  ;"  and,  "  We  exhort  you  by  the  Lord  Jesus." 

Thirdly,  The  reason  or  motive  that  he  uses  to  press  this 
exhortation  :  "  That  as  ye  have  received  of  us,  how  ye  ought 
to  walk  and  to  please  God."  Ye  cannot  say  that  ye  have  not 
been  taught,  for  both  I  and  others  have  taught  you,  and  "  ye 
have  received  of  us  how  ye  ought  to  walk  and  to  please  God." 
Now,  therefore,  seeing  that  ye  have  received  this  of  us,  see 
that  ye  "  abound  more  and  more." 

"  That  ye  abound  more  and  more."  Beza  and  others,  they 
have  the  words  read  thus :  "  So  that  ye  excel  more  and 
more."  I  will  not  dispute  the  translation.  There  is  one 
great  truth  which  the  words  at  first  view  do  hold  forth  unto 
you,  and  that  is  this : 

It  is  the  earnest  desire  of  those  that  are  faithful  in  the  work 
of  the  ministry,  and  ought  to  be  the  care  of  all  the  saints  them- 
selves, to  abound  in  the  work  of  the  Lord  yet  more  and  more. 


280  SEASONABLE    TRUTHS  [SEE.  1. 

We  are  not  only  to  have  grace,  but  to  abound  and  grow. 
So  he  exhorts  them  in  the  10th  verse  of  the  same  chapter : 
"  But  we  beseech  you,  brethren,  that  ye  increase  more  and 
more."  The  apostle  is  express  in  this  exhortation  :  "  But 
grow  in  grace,  and  in  the  knowledge  of  our  Lord  Jesus 
Christ/'  And  in  2  Cor.  vii.  1,  "  Having,  therefore,  these 
promises,  let  us  cleanse  ourselves  from  all  filthiness  of  the 
flesh  and  spirit,  perfecting  holiness  in  the  fear  of  God. 

In  the  text  it  is  called  "  abounding  more  and  more."     In 
verse  10  it  is  called  "  increasing  more  and  more."     By  the 
apostle  Peter  it  is  called  "  growing  in  grace."    By  the  apostle 
Paul  it  is  called  "  perfecting  of  holiness."     Now  this  you  will 
find,  if  you  look  into  Eph.  iv.,  the  end  of  Christ's  ascension, 
and  the  end  of  all  our  ministry,  of  all  our  preaching  and  your 
hearing,  that  ye  may  abound  in  the  work  of  the  Lord  more 
and  rr.ore,  aud  that  ye  may  be  made  perfect.  "  He  that  de- 
scended, is  the  same  also  that  ascended  up  far  above  all  hea- 
vens :    and   he    gave    some  apostles,   and    some   prophets, 
and   some    evangelists,    and    some    pastors    and    teachers ; 
for  the  perfecting  of   the  saints ;    till  we  all    come   in   the 
unity  of  the  faith,  and  of  the  knowledge  of  the  Son  of  God 
unto  a  perfect  man,  unto  the   measure  of  the  stature  of  the 
fulness  of  Christ."     Then  in  verse  15,  "  But  speaking  the 
truth  in  love,  may  grow  up  into  him  in  all  things  which  is  the 
head,  even  Christ."     So  that  you  see  this  is  to  be  our  great 
care  that  do  preach  the  word,  and  the  endeavour  of  all  those 
that  hear  it,  that  ye  may  abound  in   the  work  of  the  Lord 
yet  more  and  more,  that  you  may  increase,  that  ye  may  grow 
in   grace.     And  this  you  will  find  to  be  Paul's  one  thing, 
Phil.  iii.  13  :  "  Brethren,  I  count  not  myself  to  have  appre- 
hended ;  but  this  one  thing  I  do,  (so  you  read  it,)  forgetting 
those  things  that  are  behind,  and  reaching  forth   to  those 
things  which  are  before,  I   press   towards   the    mark,"  &c. 
"  This  one  thing  I  do,"  so  you  read  it ;  but  the  words  "  I 
do  "  are  not  in  the  Greek,  but  thus :  "  This  one  thing." 
"Brethren,!  count  not  myself  to  have  apprehended;   but 
this  is  the  one  thing,  forgetting  those  things  that  are  behind, 
and  reaching  forth  to  those  things  that  are  before."     Our 
Lord  and  Saviour  Christ,  he  had  his  one  thing  necessary;  and 
David  had  his  one   thing  too,  "  One  thing  have  I  desired ;" 
and  here  now  Paul,  he  hath  his  one  thing,  one  thing  for  the 
saints,  and  that  is  this,  We  forget  what  is  past,  and   press 


SER.  1.]  IN   EVIL  TIMES.  281 

on  to  that  which  is  before ;  labouring  to  increase  and  to 
grow  in  grace,  and  "  perfecting  holiness  in  the  fear  of  God." 
And  this  you  shall  find  to  be  the  end  of  all  those  afflictions 
which  we  meet  withal  from  God  the  Father.  God  the  Fa- 
ther is  unwilling  to  afflict  his  children,  he  would  not  do  it 
unless  it  were  necessary ;  why  the  end  of  his  affliction  we 
find  to  be  this,  John  xv.  2.,  "  Every  branch  in  me  that  bear- 
eth  not  fruit,  he  taketh  away ;  and  every  branch  that  beareth 
fruit  he  purgeth  it,  that  it  may  bring  forth  more  fruit." 

And  this  you  shall  find  to  be  the  end  of  Christ's  coming, 
as  you  read  in  John  x.  10.  "I  am  come  that  they  might 
have  life,  and  that  they  might  have  it  more  abundantly." 
There  lies  a  poor  soul,  saith  Christ,  dead  in  trespasses  and 
sins ;  I  am  not  only  come  to  give  life  unto  that  soul,  spiritual 
life,  but  that  he  may  have  it  in  more  abundance.  So  that  it 
is  not  only  our  duty  to  have  grace,  but  we  must  "  abound 
therein  more  and  more  ;"  we  must  grow  therein.  And,  my 
beloved, 

It  is  not  only  the  duty  of  the  saints  to  do  so,  but  they  will 
and  they  do  do  this.  So  saith  David,  "  I  will  praise  tliee  yet 
more."  And  if  you  look  into  Revelations  ii.,  you  shall  find  that 
this  was  the  commendation  of  the  church  of  Thyatira,  at  verse 
19.,  that  her  works  were  "  more  at  the  last  than  at  the  first." 
Pray  mind  it ;  it  is  a  great  and  glorious  commendation  :  oh, 
that  it  were  the  commendation  of  all  the  churches  now  being. 
With  some  it  is  contrary,  their  works  are  more  at  the  first 
than  at  the  last ;  but  saith  he  concerning  the  church  of  Thy- 
atira, "  I  know  thy  works  and  thy  charity,  and  the  last  to  be 
more  than  than  the  first."  Where  there  is  a  truth  of  grace, 
there  will  be  a  growth.  Read  I  pray  what  is  said  in  Prov. 
iv.  18.,  "  But  the  path  of  the  just  is  as  the  shining  light,  that 
shineth  more  and  more  unto  the  perfect  day."  "  That  shin- 
eth  more  and  more."  Look  how  it  is  with  the  light  of  the 
day,  so  with  the  grace  of  God  in  the  hearts  of  his  people ; 
the  light  is  small  and  little  at  the  beginning  of  the  day,  but  it 
shineth  more  and  more,  it  grows  brighter  and  brighter  unto 
perfect  day:  and  so  though  grace  in  God's  people  be  but  lit- 
tle at  first  dawning,  yet  that  light  and  grace  that  is  in  them, 
it  grows  every  day  brighter  and  brighter  unto  perfect  day. 

Aye,  but  there  is  a  great  deal  of  danger,  through  the  great 
opposition  that  the  saints  meec  withal,  that  their  light  should 
be  quite  put  out :  they  are  in  great  danger  to  lose  all,  for 


282  SEASONABLE    TRUTHS.  [SEB.  1. 

they  meet  with  much  opposition,  yea  and  the  rather,  because 
that  they  do  grow.  But  as  the  torch  by  being  beaten  burns 
the  better :  so  the  saints  do  by  their  oppositions,  they  grow 
stronger  and  stronger ;  as  in  Job  xvii.  "  Upright  men  shall 
be  astonied  at  this/'  &c. ;  "  the  righteous  also  shall  hold  on  his 
way,  and  he  that  hath  clean  hands  shall  be  stronger  and 
stronger."  His  opposition  should  make  him  grow  more  and 
more  :  when  he  is  chidden  from  following  Christ  and  the  or- 
dinances and  the  ways  of  Christ,  he  will  cry  so  much  the 
more,  "  Jesus  thou  son  of  David,  have  mercy  upon  me." 
And  if  you  look  into  Acts  ix.,  you  shall  find  that  Paul  did 
increase  by  the  opposition  he  met  withal :  when  he  was  much 
opposed  by  the  Jews,  it  is  said,  verse  22.,  "  But  Saul  increas- 
ed the  more  in  strength,  and  confirmed  the  Jews."  He  in- 
creased the  more. 

God  hath  a  hand  upon  all  the  hands  of  opposition  against 
his  children ;  and  it  is  so  far  from  putting  out  their  light, 
that  it  makes  their  light  to  grow  brighter  and  brighter. 

In  the  next  place,  the  saints  do  not  only  increase  and 
abound  more  and  more,  but  they  can  do  no  other,  they  can- 
not but  grow  in  grace ;  for  so  the  promise  is,  "  To  him  that 
hath  shall  be  given  and  he  shall  have  it  in  more  abundance." 
Now  the  godly  they  have  grace,  and  therefore  upon  that  ac- 
count of  the  promise,  they  shall  have  it  in  more  abundance. 
And  so  in  that  place  of  Isaiah,  "  He  that  waiteth  upon  the 
Lord  shall  renew  his  strength,  he  shall  mount  up  as  with 
eagles'  wings :"  there  shall  be  an  addition  of  strength  unto 
him,  he  shall  increase  and  abound  yet  more  and  more.  In 
scripture  phrase,  grace  it  is  called  life  :  indeed  it  is  our  spi- 
ritual life.  Now  you  find  that  all  your  sublunary  lives,  where 
they  are  there  is  growth  :  the  plant  or  the  tree  it  grows,  be- 
cause it  hath  life ;  and  the  beast  grows,  because  he  hath  life. 
The  sun,  moon  and  stars,  though  they  move  apace,  they  do 
not  grow  ;  why  ?  because  they  have  no  life  :  they  have  light, 
but  no  life,  and  so  they  grow  not :  but  all  the  people  of  God 
they  have  a  spiritual  life,  and  so  they  will,  and  do  and  must, 
and  cannot  but  grow.  They  make  God  himself  their  utter- 
most and  their  last  end.  What  a  man  makes  his  last  and 
his  uttermost  end,  that  he  labours  to  grow  up  unto  more  and 
more;  he  never  hath  enough  of  it.  Some  men  make 
riches  their  last  and  their  uttermost  end ;  and  they  never 
have  enough.  Some  make  God  their  end,  and  riches  a  means 


SER.  1.]  IN  EVIL  TIMES.  283 

to  serve  God ;  they  can  have  enough :  but  when  a  man  makes 
riches  his  last  and  his  uttermost  end,  and  never  stints  himself, 
he  never  thinks  he  hath  enough.  Now  the  children  of  God 
they  make  God  himself  their  last  and  their  uttermost  end,  his 
service  and  grace;  and  therefore  they  never  have  enough: 
they  cannot  have  enough,  but  must  labour  to  grow  and  in- 
crease and  abound  more  and  more. 

And  besides,  they  look  upon  grace,  and  growth  and  in- 
crease in  grace,  as  their  greatest  excellencies.  What  a  man 
looks  upon  as  his  excellency,  that  he  doth  much  desire. 
Some  place  an  excellency  in  fine  gardens ;  and  if  they  see 
a  dainty  flower  in  another's  garden,  they  will  never  be  at 
quiet  till  they  have  the  like  in  their  own  garden,  because 
therein  they  place  an  excellency.  Now  there  are  many 
increases  in  the  world,  wherein  men  place  great  excellency, 
and  therein  they  labour  to  abound  more  and  more.  And 
now  saith  a  godly  creature,  A  rich  man  looks  upon  riches 
as  his  excellency,  and  therefore  would  yet  have  more ;  an 
honourable  man  looks  upon  credit  as  his  excellency,  and 
therefore  he  would  have  more ;  so  do  I  look  upon  grace  as 
my  excellency,  and  therefore  I  must  yet  have  more.  A 
godly  man  having  once  tasted  of  the  sweetness  that  is  in 
the  ways  of  God,  Oh,  saith  he,  it  is  so  sweet,  I  must  yet 
have  more ;  give  me  more  of  this ;  though  I  die  for  it,  yet 
give  me  more  of  this.  He  doth  grow,  and  he  cannot  but 
grow  and  abound  yet  more  and  more. 

Aye  but  you  will  say  to  me,  Then  am  I  afraid  that  I  never 
had  any  truth  of  grace,  because  I  do  not  find  that  I  do  grow 
in  grace ;  where  there  is  truth,  there  will  be  growth,  and 
there  will  be  increasing ;  but  as  for  me,  I  do  not  find  any 
such  growth  and  increase,  and  therefore  I  fear  that  I  never 
had  grace  at  all. 

For  answer :  As  a  man  may  have  grace  and  not  know  it, 
so  he  may  have  grace  and  not  perceive  it ;  his  earnest  desire 
of  having  more  and  more  still,  makes  him  forget  what  he 
hath. 

The  more  grace  one  hath,  the  more  he  doth  see  sin ;  and 
the  more  a  man  sees  his  sin,  the  more  his  own  grace  will  be 
hidden  from  his  own  eyes.  Godly  men  do  oftentimes  mea- 
sure themselves  by  metaphors ;  as  sometimes  we  that  are 
preachers  of  the  word,  we  fall  upon  a  scripture  metaphor, 


284  SEASONABLE    TRUTHS.  [SER.  1. 

as  where  Christ  is  called  a  sun,  a  shield,  or  bread ;  and  we 

run  the  metaphor  off  its  legs,  further  than  the  Holy  Ghost 

did  intend :  so  sometimes  we  do.     So  it  is  with  Christians 

too :    they  fall  upon  a  scripture  ncetaphor,  and  they  run  it 

and  themselves  off  their  legs,  beyond  what  the  Holy  Ghost 

doth  intend.      For  example,  increase  of  grace  in  scripture 

phrase  is  called  a  growth :  now  because  a  Christian  cannot 

find  his  own  spiritual  increase  answerable   to   all   outward 

growth,  therefore  he   thinks  that  he  doth  not  increase  in 

grace :  whereas  there  is  a  great  deal  of  difference  between  a 

spiritual  increase,  and  an  outward  growth,  in  many  things. 

As  now,  a  man's  body  grows,  but  all  the  parts  of  his  body 

do  not  grow  out  of  his  head  ;  but  now  in  our  spiritual  growth 

it  is  so,  as  you  read  in  Col.  ii.  19  :  "  And  not  holding  the 

head,  from  which  all  the  body  by  joints  and  bands  having 

nourishment  ministered,  and  knit  together,  increaseth  with 

the  increase  of  God."     Why  here  our  spiritual  increase  in 

all  the  members  comes  from  the  head ;  it  is  not  so  in  our 

outward  growth ;  all  the  members  of  our  body  do  not  grow 

out  of  our  head  ;  but  in  our  spiritual  growth  it  is  so.     And 

so  many  other  differences  might  be  given.     But  now  because 

that  Christians  do  not  find  their  spiritual  increase  every  way 

answerable  to  an  outward  growth,  therefore  they  call  all  into 

question  many  times,  and  say,  Oh,  I  do  not  grow  in  grace, 

and  so  I  have  no  grace  at  all.     Celestial  bodies,  as  the  sun, 

moon,  and  stars,  they  move  apace,  and  may  run  hundreds 

of  miles  in  an  hour ,  yet  when  you  look  upon  them,  they 

seem  to  be  fixt,  and  you  see  no  motion  ;  but  look  now  upon 

your  terrestrial  bodies,  men  or  beasts,  moving  before  you, 

you  see  them  move.     So  now,  when  a  man  looks  upon  his 

increase  in  riches,  he  may  perceive  that ;  but  when  you  cast 

your  eyes  upon  those  celestial  bodies,  saints,  you  will  think 

they  are  fixt,  and  they  move  not  at  all:  and  so  you  will 

think  sometimes  concerning  yourselves,  that  you  do  not  move 

at  all,  and  yet  move,  and  stir,  and  increase,  and  abound  more 

and  more.     So  that  I  say,  first,  As  a  man  may  have  grace, 

and  not  know  it ;  so  it  is  possible  for  a  man  to  increase  in 

grace  and  not  perceive  it. 

Oh,  but  I  fear  that  I  do  not  increase  and  abound  more 
and  more;  for  I  do  nothing  now  more  for  God  than  what 
I  have  done  before,  will  some  say.  I  pray  now,  and  I  did 


SER.  1.]  ix  EVIL  TIMES.  285 

pray  before ;  I  hear  the  word,  and  I  did  hear  before  ;  I  read 
the  Scripture  in  private,  and  I  did  read  before ;  I  examine 
mine  own  heart,  and  I  did  so  before  ;  I  find  no  addition  at 
all  made  to  my  spiritual  condition ;  what  I  did  before,  that 
I  do  now ;  and  therefore  I  fear  that  I  am  not  grown  in  grace, 
and  therefore  that  I  never  had  any  grace  at  all ;  for  where 
there  is  truth,  there  will  be  growth. 

For  answer  to  this,  you  must  know  that  growth  in 
grace  doth  not  always  consist  in  doing  of  other  works  for 
the  kind,  but  in  doing  the  same  works  over  and  over  again 
better  than  before.  As  now,  when  one  learns  to  write,  when 
a  man  hath  attained  to  a  great  perfection  in  writing,  he  doth 
not  make  other  letters  than  he  made  at  first ;  he  makes  the 
same  letters  that  he  did,  only  he  makes  them  better,  and  sets 
them  closer.  So  now,  in  your  growth  and  increase  in  grace, 
you  must  not  think  that  you  shall  make  other  letters,  or  do 
other  duties,  but  shall  do  the  same  duties  now,  and  exercise 
the  same  grace  now,  as  before  ;  only  you  will  set  your  duties 
and  graces  closer  together,  and  you  will  do  the  work  better 
than  you  did  before. 

But  again  it  may  argue    more   grace,    to   do   the   same 
work  afterwards.     Pray  consider  this :  I   say,  it  may  some- 
times argue  more  grace  to  do  the  same  work  afterwards.     As 
for  example :  suppose  a  person  be  an  old  man,  or  an  old 
woman,  when  this  person  was  young  he  prayed  it  may  be 
an  hour  or  two  hours  in  a  day  ;  now  he  is  grown  old,  and  his 
body  is  infirm  and  weak,  to  do  the  same  thing  now  argues 
more  grace  now  than  before  j  and  therefore  if  you  look  into 
Psalm  xcii.,  you  shall  find  that  this  is  made  the  growing  of 
those  that  are  old,  that  they  shall  bring  forth   fruit  still: 
"  The  righteous  shall  flourish  like  the  palm-tree  j  he  shall 
grow  like  the  cedar  in  Lebanon ;"  he  shall  grow.     "  Those 
that  be  planted  in  the  house  of  the  Lord,  shall  flourish  in 
the  courts  of  our  God."     Well,  and  what  shall  he  do  when 
he  is  old  ?     At  verse  14  :"  They  shall  bring  forth  fruit  in 
old  age."     He  doth  not  say  that  they  shall  grow ;  but  this 
bringing  forth  fruit  still  in  old  age  is  his  growth :  ss>  that 
sometimes  it  may  argue  more  grace  to  do  the  same  work 
afterwards  than  before. 

Oh,  but  yet  some  will  say,  I  am  afraid  that  I  do  not  grow 
in  grace,  and  so  indeed  that  I  never  had  any  truth  of  grace  j 


286  SEASONABLE    TRUTHS.  [SER.  1. 

for  now  I  am  much  declined :  atjthe  first  my  heart  it  was  migh- 
tily enlarged  for  God,  and  now  it  is  straitened.  Oh,  what  free- 
dom once  I  had  !  I  remember  a  time  when  I  went  to  prayer, 
and  wept,  and  mourned,  and  my  heart  broke  and  melted ; 
but  now  my  heart  is  exceeding  cold,  and  very  dead,  and  there- 
fore I  am  even  afraid  that  I  am  declined,  and  that  I  do  not 
grow  in  grace,  and  so  that  I  never  had  grace  at  all. 

Give  me  leave  to  fix  here  a  little,  and  to  answer  this  ob- 
jection, that  I  may  speak  a  word  of  stay  to  those  that  are 
weary  and  troubled.  And  now  as  your  objection  arises,  so 
shall  my  answer  rise.  Before,  I  said  a  man  may  grow  in 
grace  and  not  perceive  it  j  now  I  speak  further,  a  man  may 
grow  and  increase  in  grace,  and  yet  think  he  is  much  declined ; 
a  man  may  increase  and  yet  think  that  he  is  much  decreased. 
For,  my  beloved,  sometimes,  yea  often,  good  people  do  mea- 
sure themselves  by  that  first  affection  which  they  had  at 
their  first  turning  to  God ;  and  then  the  change  was  speci- 
fical,  and  afterwards  the  change  is  gradual.  When  a  man  is 
first  converted  and  turned  to  God,  then  he  is  turned  from 
sin  to  God,  from  sin  to  grace,  from  the  world  to  Christ: 
afterwards  he  doth  not  change  from  the  world  to  Christ, 
but  he  changes  from  grace  to  grace,  from  glory  to  glory ; 
it  is  but  a  gradual  change  afterwards ;  and  therefore  the 
change  at  the  first  being  a  specifical  thing,  his  affections 
were  high  then.  At  our  first  conversion  and  turning  to  God, 
all  things  are  span-new ;  and  we  are  apt  to  be  much  affected 
with  new  things,  and  therefore  the  affections  must  needs  be 
very  much  up  and  raised  at  the  first,  and  when  a  man  doth 
first  convert  and  turn  to  God,  and  leave  the  world ;  God 
the  Father  doth  as  it  were  take  the  poor  soul  into  his  arms 
when  it  is  a  babe,  and  he  doth  bestow  many  desires  upon  it ; 
and  he  gives  out  many  encouragements,  to  weigh  down  those 
discouragements  that  the  soul  shall  meet  withal  in  parting 
with  the  world.  But  now  afterwards,  when  a  man  is  more 
able  to  go  alone,  possibly  he  doth  not  meet  with  these ;  now 
shall  a  man  think  therefore  that  all  is  naught,  and  that  he 
hath  no  grace  at  all,  because  he  doth  not  feel  what  he  had 
then  ?  Yet  how  often  is  this  ! 

But  besides,  good  people  do  mistake  because  of  their  igno- 
rance, whereby  they  call  that  sin  which  is  grace,  and  that 
grace  which  is  sin,  Thus  I  mean :  it  is  a  great  sin  for  a  man 


SER.  1.]  IN  EVIL  TIMES.  287 

to  doubt  of  God's  love,  and  to  lie  down  upon  his  face,  and 
to  be  discouraged,  as  if  there  were  no  hope  for  him  in  God : 
why  many  that  are  weak  now,  they  look  upon  this  as  a  great 
virtue,  to  doubt  of  their  condition,  and  to  call  all  into  ques- 
tion :  afterwards  they  are  freed  from  these  doubtings,  and 
so  they  do  grow  in  grace :  but  because  they  do  look  upon 
these  doubtings  as  marks  of  virtue,  they  think  because  they 
have  lost  these,  that  now  they  are  quite  declined,  whereas 
indeed  they  are  grown  in  grace. 

But  in  answer  to  this,  you  must  know  that  our  Christian 
growth  is  fourfold. 

1.  There  is  a  growth  of  affection. 

2.  Growth  in  extension. 

3.  Growth  in  regard  of  firmness  and  rootedness. 
5.  And  growth  in  regard  of  spiritualness. 

A  man  grows  these  four  ways  spiritually. 

Sometimes  his  affection  grows  more  intense  hot  than  it  was 
before :  sometimes  a  man's  growth  is  in  regard  of  extension, 
his  affections  of  love  or  joy  extending  to  other  objects  than 
before.  So  in  Hosea  our  growth  is  described  to  be  a  spread- 
ing of  the  branches.  And  sometimes  a  man  grows  when  he 
is  more  firm  and  rooted  in  the  way  of  God ;  and  so  our  spi- 
ritual growth  in  that  place  of  Hosea  is  described  by  our  "  ta- 
king root  downward."  And  sometimes  a  man  is  said  to  grow 
when  he  is  more  spiritual.  Beloved,  weak  Christians  look 
altogether  at  the  intenseness  of  their  affections ;  and  if  they 
do  not  find  their  affections  so  intense  as  they  were  before, 
then  they  break  forth  and  say,  Oh,  now  I  am  declined,  and 
now  I  am  decayed,  and  I  have  lost  my  first  love ;  whereas 
there  is  a  growth  in  regard  of  extension ;  as  a  man  or  beast 
he  may  attain  to  his  full  tallness,  and  after  that  he  may  batten 
and  spread  more :  so  in  grace,  a  man's  grace  may  spread 
more  afterwards,  and  yet  possibly  be  not  so  intense  in  regard  of 
some  affections,  as  it  was  at  the  first.  Now  a  fountain  or 
spring  that  hath  but  one  stream,  and  afterwards  that  one 
stream  be  divided  in  many  streams  ;  if  an  unskilful  man  look 
upon  it,  he  saith,  How  comes  this  to  pass,  that  this  fountain 
is  dried  up  ?  here  was  a  full  stream  before,  and  now  there  is 
not.  But  now,  saith  a  skilful  man  that  stands  by  him,  now 
there  are  many  streams,  and  so  there  is  rather  the  more  wa- 
ter, now  it  is  divided  into  more  streams.  And  so  it  is  in  re- 


288      '  SEASONABLE    TRUTHS  [SfiR. 1. 

gard  of  grace ;  at  the  first  a  man's  grace  doth  run  out  much 
in  one  channel,  afterwards  it  is  divided  into  more  streams, 
and  it  spreads  more;  yet  notwithstanding,  those  that  are 
weak,  because  they  do  not  find  so  full  a  stream  in  the  same 
channel  as  before,  though  there  be  many  streams  now  that 
there  were  not  before,  they  question  all,  and  they  say  they 
are  abated,  and  they  are  declined,  and  they  have  lost  their 
first  love. 

But  again,  whereas  thou  sayest  it  is  not  now  with  thee  as 
it  was  before ;  I  say  to  thee,  poor  doubting  heart,  wherever 
thou  art  or  standest,  I  say  unto  thee  from  the  Lord,  Thou 
hast  more  now  than  thou  hadst  before ;  as  thus  :  for  suppose 
a  child  that  heretofore  served  his  father  for  wages,  and  doth 
now  serve  out  of  love,  and  not  for  wages,  it  may  be  he  doth 
not  do  so  much  work  as  he  did  before,  yet  I  say  to  you,  If  he 
doth  but  half  so  much  out  of  love,  he  doth  more  than  he  did 
before  when  he  wrought  for  wages ;  now  the  work  is  more 
out  of  love  to  God  :  heretofore  you  were  much  grieved  and 
troubled  for  sin  committed,  and  you  were  therefore  grieved, 
that  your  sin  might  be  pardoned ;  aye,  but  now  you  grieve 
for  your  sin  because  it  is  pardoned  :  I  tell  you,  one  tear  from 
you  of  these  gospel  tears,  is  more  than  a  bottle-full  of  all 
those  legal  tears  that  you  had  before,  man  or  woman,  and 
therefore  there  is  no  reason  why  thou  shouldest  be  dejected, 
and  say  thus,  I  am  declined,  and  I  have  lost  my  first  love, 
and  I  do  not  grow  in  grace,  and  therefore  I  never  had  any 
truth  of  grace  at  all. 

But  you  will  say  unto  me  then,  If  a  man  may  grow  and  in- 
crease in  grace,  and  yet  think  that  he  is  decreased ;  what  cer- 
tain signs,  are  there,  whereby  a  man  may  know  that  he 
doth  grow  in  grace,  and  that  he  doth  abound  yet  more  and 
more  ? 

Beloved,  I  shall  not  give  you  any  negative  signs,  but  I 
shall  make  mention  of  some  things,  which  if  you  have,  and 
can  find,  you  may  certainly  say,  you  are  grown  in  grace.  But 
mistake  not,  I  do  not  say  that  if  you  do  not  find  these,  that 
therefore  you  should  conclude  that  you  are  not  grown.  I 
come  rather  to  comfort  and  to  lift  up  the  weary  soul,  than  to 
trouble  it :  but,  I  say,  if  you  find  these,  you  are  certainly 
grown  in  grace. 

The  great  work  of  the  gospel  is  to  believe  ;  and  if  you  can 


SER.  1.]  IN  EVIL  TIMES.  289 

rely  more  upon  Christ  in  the  time  of  your  temptations  than 
heretofore,  surely  you  are  grown  in  grace. 

If  you  do  find  again  a  greater  sweetness  in  the  ways  of 
God,  than  you  have  found  heretofore,  certainly  you  are 
grown  :  when  we  come  and  look  upon  a  flower,  we  look  at 
the  colour  of  the  flower,  and  the  smell  of  the  flower;  but  the 
bee  doth  not  regard  the  colour  of  the  flower,  or  the  smell  of 
the  flower,  but  the  bee  regards  the  sweetness  of  the  flower : 
so  at  our  first  coming  into  the  ways  of  God,  then  we  look  at 
the  colour,  and  how  they  appear;  but  afterwards,  the  more 
grace  you  have,  the  more  sweetness  you  find;  and  if  you  find 
more  sweetness,  certainly  you  are  grown  more. 

Again,  If  that  you  are  more  able  to  turn  from  the  exercise 
of  one  grace  to  another,  and  of  one  duty  unto  another,  than 
you  were,  this  argues  you  are  growrn,  if  you  be  able  to  min- 
gle graces  together:  a  weak  Christian  is  all  for  one  work, 
humiliation  for  sin  committed,  and  it  is  true,  we  ought  to  be 
much  humbled  :  I  say,  a  weak  Christian  is  all  for  one  work, 
but  the  stronger  you  grow,  the  more  you  will  be  able  to  min- 
gle graces  together,  and  to  turn  from  one  to  another.  As 
now,  if  one  learn  to  sing,  when  one  hath  but  little  skill,  pos- 
sibly a  man  may  sing  one  tune ;  but  the  more  a  man  grows 
in  skill,  the  more  he  will  be  able  readily  to  turn  from  one 
tune  to  another.  So  in  grace  a  man  may  be  able  to  mingle 
graces  more;  and  therefore  our  growth  is  so  described, as  you 
shall  hear  by  and  by  in  that  of  Peter,  "  Add  unto  your  faith 
virtue,  and  to  virtue  knowledge,"  &c. 

Again,  If  you  be  able  to  go  on  in  the  ways  of  God  more, 
without  whip,  or  rod,  or  without  spur,  it  argues  you  are 
grown  more  ;  give  me  leave  to  express  it  thus  :  a  horse  at  the 
first,  till  he  be  acquainted  with  the  road  and  way,  he  is  ridden 
with  a  whip  and  with  a  spur;  but  afterwards  when  he  is  well 
used  to  the  way,  you  may  lay  the  bridle  upon  his  head,  and 
he  need  none  of  the  spur  and  whip ;  why  ?  because  he  is  now 
used  to  the  way  :  and  so  when  Christians  come  on  at  the  first, 
then  they  are  whipped  on  with  more  fear ;  but  now  when  the 
reins  seem  to  be  laid  upon  the  neck,  they  go  the  better  and  the 
faster  :  when  they  can  go  without  that  whipping  and  the  rod, 
it  argues  that  they  are  used  more  to  the  way  of  God  than 
they  were  used  before. 

But  further,  the  more  a  man  is  able  to  go  out  unto  others 

VOL.  III.  U 


290  SEASONABLE    TRUTHS  [SfiR. 1. 

for  counsel,  spiritual  admonition,  consolation,  or  apprehen- 
sion, the  more  he  is  grown,  and  he  will  grow  in  grace. 

I  will  propound  you  a  parable :  suppose  three  men  that 
are  sick  and  weak;  one  is  extremely  ill,  and  the  physician 
comes  to  his  bed-side,  and  he  spits  in  his  physician's  face, 
and  will  take  nothing. 

Another  man  he  doth  not  deal  so  by  the  physician,  he  lies 
upon  his  bed,  but  he  cannot  stir  off  his  bed ;  he  lies  upon  his 
bed,  and  he  hears  the  counsel  of  the  physician,  and  he  takes 
his  advice. 

A  third  man  he  is  weak  indeed,  but  he  is  able  to  go  abroad, 
and  he  goes  to  the  physician's  house  for  his  counsel  and  di- 
rection. I  pray,  which  of  all  these  three  men  are  the  most 
healthy  ?  Surely,  you  will  say,  the  latter  is  more  healthy 
than  the  second,  and  the  second  than  the  first.  Beloved, 
there  are  these  three  sorts  of  people,  one  that  when  the  spi- 
ritual physic  is  brought  to  them,  they  spit  in  the  physician's 
face,  and  they  will  have  none.  Others  they  are  not  so  bad, 
but  yet  notwithstanding  they  keep  their  beds,  as  it  were,  and 
do  not  go  forth  for  counsel. 

But  there  is  a  third  sort  of  sinners,  that  finding  their  souls 
ill  at  ease,  they  can  go  forth  for  counsel,  and  go  out  for  ad- 
monition, and  go  out  for  reprehension.  It  may  be  that  all 
these  three  conditions  have  past  over  some  of  you :  you  can 
remember  the  time  when  you  did  kick  and  fling,  and  spit  in 
the  physician's  face,  as  it  were,  and  you  would  none  at  all ; 
afterwards  you  lay  more  still,  but  yet  sate,  and  did  not  stir 
out:  aye,  but  now  you  are  able,  God  be  thanked,  to  go 
out  to  the  physician,  or  to  such  and  such  saints,  and  to 
open  your  condition  before  them  ;  oh,  thus  it  is  with  me,  oh, 
thus  it  is  with  me,  come,  lay  on  some  admonition,  or  lay  on 
some  healing  plaster,  some  reprehension,  some  consolation  ; 
good  sir,  pity  me ;  and  the  like.  Now  this  argues  more  health 
than  before. 

Again,  the  more  you  are  able  to  do  the  work  of  the  Lord 
without  noise,  the  more  doth  it  argue  that  you  are  grown  in 
grace.  Beloved,  Jesus  Christ  was  a  perfect  workman,  and  did 
the  work  of  the  Lord  perfectly,  and  he  made  no  noise ;  it  is 
said  of  him,  that  "  he  did  not  lift  up  his  voice  in  the  streets." 
Young  Christians  make  a  great  noise  in  the  work  of  God. 
One,  he  cries  out,  Oh,  I  am  damned,  I  am  damned ;  and  an- 


SER.  1.]  ix  EVIL  TIMES.  291 

other  cries  out  after  the  same  kind,  Oh,  I  am  damned,  I  am 
damned,  and  wring  their  hands  in  the  family,  and  make  a  great 
noise  when  there  is  a  work  of  God  upon  their  hearts  ;  like  to 
your  young  scholars,  when  first  of  all  they  learn  their  books, 
they  read  with  a  great  noise  :  afterwards,  when  they  are  grown 
men,  and  read  better,  they  read  silent,  and  make  no  noise.  So 
now  I  say,  thou  man  or  woman,  art  thou  able  to  do  the  work 
of  the  Lord  in  a  more  silent  and  sweet  gospel  way,  than  here- 
tofore thou  didst  ?  this  argues  that  thou  art  more  grown  than 
thou  wert  heretofore. 

And  further,  if  you  know  Christ  more,  you  are  grown 
more  ;  the  apostle  puts  them  both  together  :  "  Grow  in  grace 
and  in  the  knowledge  of  Jesus  Christ." 

But  take  one  more.  If  that  you  do  as  much  as  before,  and 
deny  your  doing  more  than  you  did  before,  then  you  are 
grown  in  grace.  One  man  doth  much,  and  denies  himself 
little ;  another  doth  much,  and  denies  himself  much :  who 
hath  most  grace  of  these  two  ?  The  husbandman  will  tell 
you,  that  when  the  ear  of  corn  is  not  so  ripe,  it  stands  bolt 
upright;  but  when  it  is  more  ripe,  then  it  hangs  down  its 
head,  and  looks  to  the  earth  :  and  so  heretofore  it  may  be 
you  were  much  in  prayer  and  in  duty,  you  wept  much ;  and 
it  was  well  that  you  were  much  in  duty  and  humiliation  for 
sin  ;  but,  it  may  be,  then  you  rested  upon  your  duties,  and  de- 
nied yourself  little.  Aye,  but  now  you  are  as  much,  but  you 
have  seen  more  of  the  free  grace  of  God,  and  the  love  of  God 
in  Christ,  and  now  you  deny  your  duties  more,  and  rest  less 
upon  them  than  you  did  ;  this  is  a  growth  now ;  and  where 
these  things  are,  you  may  conclude  that  you  are  grown.  And 
I  say  to  every  soul  here,  Is  there  any  one  that  doth  find 
these  things  ?  thou  art  the  man  or  woman  that  doth  grow  in 
grace,  and  doth  increase ;  therefore,  be  of  good  comfort, 
thou  art  not  declined,  thou  art  not  abated,  thou  hast  truth  of 
grace,  thou  hast  growth  of  grace. 

Aye,  but  whether  I  have  or  I  have  not,  you  wall  say,  surely 
it  is  my  duty  to  have;  and  what  shall  I  do  that  I  may  grow 
in  grace  ?  I  hope  the  Lord  hath  begun  savingly  upon  my 
heart ;  but  what  shall  I  do  that  I  may  abound  yet  more  and 
more,  and  increase  in  grace  ? 

I  must  not  be  large  here ;  give  me  leave  to  say  some  things 
to  you. 

u    2 


292  SEASONABLE    TRUTHS  [SfiR. I. 

First  of  all,  observe  what  those  ways  of  God  are,  unto 
which  he  hath  promised  increase ;  and  oh,  let  your  feet  be 
found  standing  there ;  he  hath  promised  to  those  that  exer- 
cise; "To  him  that  hath  shall  be  given."  It  is  opposed  to 
laying  up  the  talent  in  a  napkin. 

He  hath  promised  increase  to  those  that  wait  upon  him  : 
"Those  that  wait  upon  the  Lord  shall  renew  their  strength." 
He  hath  promised  increase  to  those  whose  feet  stand  in 
the  courts  of  the  house  of  the  Lord,  in  Ps.  xcii.  12:  "The 
righteous  shall  flourish  like  a  palm  tree,  and  shall  grow  like 
a  cedar  in  Lebanon  :  those  that  be  planted  in  the  house  of 
the  Lord,  shall  flourish  in  the  courts  of  our  God."  And  so 
in  Ps.  Ixxxiv.  4 :  "  Blessed  are  they  that  dwell  in  thine 
house,  they  will  be  still  praising  thee."  They  that  dwell  in 
thine  house  they  will  be  still  praising  thee. 

But  suppose  that  a  man's  feet  do  not  stand  in  the  court 
of  the  Lord's  house,  suppose  a  man  be  not  planted  in  the 
house  of  the  Lord,  can  he  not  grow  in  grace  ? 

Yes :  mark  what  follows  in  verse  5,  6,  7j  all  growth  of  grace 
is  not  installed  upon  one  condition  :  "  Blessed  is  the  man 
whose  strength  is  in  thee."  He  had  said  before  :  "  Blessed 
are  those  that  dwell  in  thy  house :  "  but  suppose  a  man  be 
driven  out,  and  cannot  dwell  in  God's  house,  shall  he  not 
be  blessed,  and  shall  he  not  grow  ?  "  Blessed  is  the  man 
whose  strength  is  in  thee,  and  in  whose  heart  are  the  ways  of 
them,  who  passing  through  the  valley  of  Baca,  make  it  a 
well ;  the  rain  also  filleth  the  pools  :  they  go  from  strength 
to  strength,  every  one  of  them  in  Zion  appeareth  before 
God."  They  may  grow  too  ;  but  then  it  is  upon  these  three 
conditions. 

1.  The  ways  of  God  must  be  in  their  hearts:  "  In  whose 
heart  are  the  ways  of  them." 

2.  They  must  look  upon  that  condition  as  a  "  valley  of 
Baca,"  a  mourning  valley,  verse  6. 

3.  They  must  be  abundant  in  private  duty  and  exercise, 
digging  up  of  pits;  and  then  the  rain  falls,  and  fills  those 
pits ;  and  thus  "  they  shall  go  from  strength  to  strength." 
But  the  great  increase  is  promised  to  those  whose  feet  do 
stand  in  the  court  of  the  house  of  the  Lord. 

Again,   would  you  know  how  you  may  grow   in   grace  ? 
Beloved,  let  your  eye  be  stedfast  upon  the  greater  and  higher 


SER.  1.]  IN  EVIL  TIMES.  293 

matters  and  objects  of  the  gospel.  The  apostle  for  this  end 
doth  lay  the  great  things  of  the  gospel  before  the  people, 
and  prays  for  them,  that  they  may  be  "  filled  with  all  the 
fulness  of  God."  But,  I  pray,  see  what  an  expression 
he  hath  in  2  Cor.  ix.  8  :  "  And  God  (saith  he)  is  able  to 
make  all  grace  abound  towards  you,  that  ye  always  having 
all  sufficiency  in  all  things."  All-sufficiency  is  a  great  attri- 
bute of  God  ;  they  have  it  in  a  kind  :  "  That  ye  always 
having  all-sufficiency  in  all  things,  may  abound  to  every  good 
work."  Mark  what  great  things  he  lays  here  before  them. 
And  if  you  look  into  chapter  vi.  of  the  Epistle  to  the  He- 
brews, verse  6,  you  shall  find  that  the  apostle  gives  this  plain 
direction  that  now  I  am  upon  for  our  growing  in  grace,  and 
perfecting  holiness  in  the  fear  of  God  :  "Therefore  (saith  he) 
leaving  the  principles  of  the  doctrine  of  Christ,  let  us  go  on 
unto  perfection,  not  laying  again  the  foundation  of  repentance 
from  dead  works,"  &c.  Good  people,  mark  :  "  Let  us  go  on 
to  perfection,"  how?  "not  laying  again  the  foundation  of 
repentance  from  dead  works."  Some  there  are  that  are 
always  laying  the  foundation,  and  all  their  life  they  are  ques- 
tioning whether  their  work  were  right  at  the  first  or  no  :  Oh, 
I  am  afraid  I  was  never  truly  humbled  at  the  first.  Their 
whole  life  is  nothing  but  a  laying  of  the  foundation  work ; 
why  saith  the  apostle,  "  Let  us  go  on  to  perfection,"  &c. 
Be  not  always  in  this  work  of  laying  the  foundation,  if  you 
would  go  on  to  perfection.  And  as  for  myself,  saith  he,  I  go 
this  way  to  work,  as  you  may  read  in  chap.  iii.  of  this  Epistle 
to  the  Philippians  :  "  Brethren,  I  count  not  myself  to  have 
apprehended,  but  this  one  thing :  forgetting  those  things 
that  are  behind,  and  reaching  forth  to  those  things  which 
are  before,  I  press  towards  the  mark/'  Mark,  it  is  a  simili- 
tude taken  from  those  that  run  in  a  race ;  saith  he,  I  do  as 
those  that  run  in  a  race ;  they  stretch  out  their  bodies  towards 
the  prize,  so  do  I  :  and,  saith  he,  as  it  is  with  those  that  run 
in  a  race,  they  do  not  go  backward  for  to  measure  the 
ground  that  they  have  gone  over,  but  they  forget  what  is 
past,  and  press  on  to  that  which  is  before  :  so  now  do  I,  I 
forget  that  which  is  past,  not  only  so  as  not  to  rest  upon  it, 
but  I  forget  what  is  past,  I  am  not  always  laying  the  founda- 
tion of  the  doctrine  of  repentance  from  dead  works,  but  I 
press  on  to  that  which  is  before.  And  so,  would  you  be 


294  SEASONABLE    TRUTHS  [SEB.  1. 

perfect  and  would  you  grow,  let  your  eyes  be  upon  those 
things  that  are  before. 

Again,  if  you  would  grow  in  grace,  cut  off  all  those  super- 
fluities that  grow  out  of  your  heart,  and  give  up  yourselves 
wholly  to  the  word  of  the  Lord  in  this  world.  If  you 
would  have  a  tree  grow,  you  slip  off  the  lesser  sprigs  that 
grow  out  of  the  sides ;  they  will  hinder  the  growth,  you  will 
say.  So  saith  the  apostle :  "  Wherefore  laying  aside  all  filthi- 
ness,  and  superfluity  of  naughtiness,  receive  with  meekness 
the  ingrafted  word,  which  is  able  to  save  your  souls."  James 
i.  21. 

But  again,  if  you  would  grow  in  grace,  and  abound  yet 
more  and  more  ;  observe  what  gifts  or  graces  God  hath  given 
you,  and  labour  to  improve  them.  Beloved,  God  doth  give 
some  gift  or  special  grace  to  every  Christian,  and  that  gift 
or  grace  is  as  a  spade  or  shovel  to  dig  out  more  out  of  the 
mines  of  Christ.  Every  bird  hath  its  bill,  and  by  the  bill 
it  doth  take  in  its  meat,  whereby  it  grows ;  and  every  Chris- 
tian hath  one  gift  or  another  whereby  he  doth  excel ;  and  with 
that  gift  or  grace  you  should  now  go  unto  Jesus  Christ,  who  is 
the  great  ordinance,  and  fetch  out  more.  Observe,  I  say,  what 
that  gift  and  grace  is,  and  labour  to  improve  it  more  and 
more. 

I  will  say  no  more  in  this ;  but  if  you  would  grow  in  grace, 
study  much  of  the  love  of  Jesus  Christ :   and  you  shall  find 
that  these  two  are  put  together  by  the  apostle,  in  Ephes.  iii. 
"  For  this  cause  (saith  he)  I  bow  my  knees  unto  the  Father 
of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  &c.  that  he  would  grant  you,  ac- 
cording to  the  riches  of  his  glory,  to  be  strengthened  with 
might  by  his  Spirit  in  the  inner  man,  that  Christ  may  dwell 
in  your  hearts  by  faith  ;  that  ye  being  rooted  and  grounded 
in  love,  may  be  able  to  comprehend  with   all  saints  what  is 
the  breadth,  and  length,  and  depth,  and  height,  and  to  know 
the  love  of  Christ  which  passeth  knowledge,  that  ye  might 
be  filled  with  all  the  fulness  of  God."     Mark  how  these  go 
together :  the  more  you  see  the  love  of  Christ,  the  more  you 
will  love  God ;  and  the  more  you  love  him,  the  more  you 
will  obey  him,  and  the  more  abundant  you  will  be  in  the 
work  of  the  Lord.     Therefore  as  ye  desire  to  grow,  study 
the  free  love  of  God  in  Jesus  Christ,  and  hereby  you  will  be 
able  to  grow  and  to  abound  yet  more  and  more.  And  that  you 


SER.  1.]  IN  EVIL  TIMES.  295 

may  do  it,  give  me  leave  to  speak   here  a  little  by  way  of  en- 
couragement hereunto,  and  so  I  will  wind  up  all. 

Beloved  in  the  Lord  when  you  hear  of  God's  blessing  any 
in  scripture,  he  saith,  "  Increase  and  multiply."  So  then, 
the  more  you  do  increase  in  grace,  the  more  your  gifts  and 
graces  multiply,  the  more  you  do  carry  up  and  down  with 
you  a  testimony  of  the  Lord's  blessing  upon  you. 

Besides,  herein  you  glorify  God  the  Father;  "  Herein  i 
my  Father  glorified,   (saith   Christ,)  in   that  ye  bring  forth 
much  fruit."     It  is  the  glory  of   the  husbandman,  that  the 
tree  bring  forth  much ;    it  is  the  glory  of   God  the  Father 
that  ye  bring  forth  much,  that  ye  abound  more  and  more. 

And  the  more  and  greater  our  opportunities  are,  and  means 
of  growth,  the  more  are  we  all  encouraged  for  to  grow  in 
grace.  Let  me  appeal  to  you  a  little ;  have  not  your  opportu- 
nities and  means  for  growth  been  great  here  ? 

Communion  of  saints  it  is  a  great  means  for  to  grow  in 
grace.  Here  you  have  time,  here  many  saints  meet  to- 
gether; and  in  poor  country  towns,  possibly  a  poor  Christian 
may  travel  three  or  four  miles  before  he  can  meet  with  one 
that  may  refresh  his  thoughts ;  here  you  have  the  opportuni- 
ties which  you  have  not  in  other  places.  Communion  of 
saints,  standing  in  the  courts  of  the  house  of  the  Lord,  is  a 
great  means  for  to  grow  in  grace. 

Preaching  of  the  gospel,  and  the  word  of  God's  grace,  is  a 
special  and  great  means  of  growth :  it  is  called  the  rain  of 
plenty,  or  the  plentiful  rain.  It  is  a  true  speech :  It  is  the 
year,  and  not  the  soil,  that  doth  make  the  fruit ;  if  the  rain 
falls  seasonably,  and  the  sun  shines  seasonably,  then  you* 
have  fruit.  Now  beloved,  I  appeal  to  you ;  have  you  not 
had  a  fine  time  of  it  here  ?  Have  you  not  had  a  sweet  season 
of  gospel  preaching  amongst  you  ?  The  Lord  knows  what 
plentiful  rain  hath  fallen  upon  you.  Oh,  great  engagements 
are  upon  you  all  for  to  grow  in  grace ;  and  if  you,  this  peo- 
ple, shall  not  after  all  your  engagements  this  way,  and  op- 
portunities to  grow ;  if  you  shall  not  grow  in  grace,  oh  how 
will  you  appear  before  God  your  Father  at  the  great  day, 
how,  how  will  you  give  an  account  of  those  talents  that  you 
have  had  ?  We  read  of  him  that  had  but  one  talent,  he 
wrapt  it  up  in  a  napkin ;  but  the  parable  speaks  there  were 
five  left,  and  two  left ;  but  it  is  not  said  that  lie  that  had  the  five, 


296  SEASONABLE  TRUTHS  [SER.    I. 

or  the  two,  wrapt  them  up  in  a  napkin  ;  but  he  that  had  but 
the  one  talent,  he  wrapt  it  up,  and  you  know  what  became  of 
him  ;  but  now  when  those  that  had  five  talents  shall  wrap  them 
up  in  a  napkin,  oh  what  will  become  of  them.  Beloved,  you 
have  not  had  the  one  talent,  you  have  not  had  the  two  ta- 
lents ;  you  have  had  the  five  talents  :  and  if  there  was  such 
a  miserable  end  of  him  that  wrapt  up  his  one  talent,  oh 
what  will  become  of  us  that  have  five  talents,  and  wrap  them 
up,  and  do  not  improve  them.  You  know  what  the  Lord 
Christ  said  to  the  church  of  Ephesus ;  how  he  threatened  that 
church :  "  I  have  somewhat  against  thee,  because  thou  hast 
lost  thy  first  love :  remember  therefore  from  whence  thou 
art  fallen  and  repent,  and  do  the  first  works,  or  else  I  will 
come  unto  thee  quickly,  and  will  remove  thy  candlestick  out 
of  his  place."  God  knows  whether  your  first  love  be  not 
left  or  no ;  I  am  sure  the  Lord  hath  taken  away  a  burning 
and  a  shining  light  from  among  you ;  and  certainly,  if  you 
do  not  grow  and  thrive  under  all  those  opportunities  of 
grace,  and  growth  in  grace  that  you  have  had,  and  still  have  ; 
how  soon  the  Lord  may  quite  remove  his  candlestick  from 
you,  and  leave  you  quite  in  the  dark,  he  only  knows. 
Wherefore,  beloved  in  the  Lord,  you  have  received  much,  oh 
much  is  expected  from  you,  much  is  expected  from  you. 
And  let  me  tell  you  for  your  encouragement,  if  you  do  grow 
in  grace,  and  abound  in  the  work  of  the  Lord,  then  shall 
there  be  "  an  abundant  entrance  given  unto  you  into  the 
everlasting  inheritance." 

And  so  I  come  to  that  place  of  Peter,  which  I  shall  but 
open  before  you,  and  so  have  done  for  this  time ;  and,  I  pray, 
consider  it  diligently.  2  Peter  i.  5 :  "  And  besides  this, 
giving  all  diligence,  add  to  your  faith  virtue,  and  to  virtue 
knowledge."  But  mark  how  he  prefaces  before  he  comes  to 
the  words :  "  Whereby  (saith  he)  are  given  unto  us  exceeding 
great  and  precious  promises,  that  by  these  you  might  be 
partakers  of  the  divine  nature,  having  escaped  the  corruption 
that  is  in  the  world  through  lusts."  Now  besides  this,  there 
is  something  else  to  be  done ;  well,  what  is  that  ?  it  is  such 
a  matter  as  all  diligence  is  to  be  given  to  it :  "  Besides  this, 
giving  all  diligence,  add  unto  your  faith  virtue."  It  is  not, 
it  is  not  enough  that  you  believe,  but  you  must  have  moral 
virtue  also  :  "  Add  unto  your  faith  virtue."  Aye,  but  sup- 


SER.  1.]  IN  EVIL  TIMES.  297 

pose  we  have  a  moral  virtue,  is  not  that  enough  ?  No : 
"  and  to  your  virtue  knowledge."  You  must  not  only  have 
moral  virtues,  but  you  must  know  Jesus  Christ.  But  suppose 
he  hath  knowledge,  is  not  that  yet  enough  ?  No  :  "  and  to 
your  knowledge  add  temperance,"  whereby  you  may  be  kept 
from  the  immoderate  use  of  the  things  of  this  world.  But 
suppose  we  have  that,  is  not  that  enough  ?  No  :  "  add  to 
your  temperance  patience  :"  you  shall  meet  with  many  afflic- 
tions and  crosses,  and  therefore  you  must  have  patience. 
But  suppose  we  have  patience,  is  not  that  yet  enough  ?  No : 
"  and  to  your  patience  add  godliness ;"  there  must  be  a  right 
worshipping  of  God  in  his  service.  Well,  but  suppose  we 
have  godliness,  and  do  worship  God  after  a  right  manner, 
is  not  that  enough  ?  No :  "  add  to  your  godliness  brotherly 
kindness;"  you  that  are  saints  are  brethren,  and  therefore 
it  is  not  enough  that  ye  have  the  worshipping  of  God  in  a 
right  way,  but  ye  must  agree  together  as  brethren ;  add  to 
your  right  worship  and  godliness  brotherly  kindness.  But 
suppose  we  have  that,  is  not  that  enough  ?  No  :  "  add 
charity  ;"  brotherly  kindness  may  be  towards  you  that  are 
brethren,  but  there  must  be  charity  towards  all,  to  those  that 
are  not  of  the  body.  Well,  but  suppose  we  do  these  things, 
what  then  ?  Read  verse  8  :  "  For  if  these  things  be  in  you 
and  abound,  they  make  you  that  you  shall  neither  be  barren 
nor  unfruitful  in  the  knowledge  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ." 
You  complain  that  your  hearts  are  barren,  and  that  you  lie 
as  barren  ground  in  the  family;  why  if  you  would  not  be 
barren  and  unfruitful,  you  must  grow  and  add  one  grace  unto 
another  :  "  And  if  these  things  be  in  you  and  abound,  they 
make  you  that  ye  shall  neither  be  barren  nor  unfruitful." 
Well,  but  suppose  a  man  lack  these  things  ?  Read  verse  9  : 
"  But  he  that  lacketh  these  things  is  blind,  and  cannot  see 
afar  off;"  he  may  see  some  things  in  religion  that  are  near, 
but  those  things  that  are  afar  off  he  is  blind  in  them,  "  and 
hath  forgotten  that  he  was  purged  from  his  old  sins,"  that  is 
by  baptism.  But  suppose  we  do  all  this,  what  then  ?  Pray 
see  what  encouragement  there  is  to  this  in  verse  10 : 
"  Wherefore  the  rather  brethren  give  diligence  to  make  your 
calling  and  election  sure ;"  this  will  be  a  sign  to  you  of  your 
election.  "  And  if  you  do  these  things  you  shall  never  fall." 
Whereas  those  that  are  weak,  and  do  not  grow  in  grace,  they 


298  SEASONABLE    TRUTHS  [SfiB.  1. 

stumble  at  all  occasions ;  "  but  if  ye  do  these  things  ye  shall 
never  fall/'  and  not  stumble  as  those  that  are  weak  do.  And  yet 
further,  at  verse  11,  you  shall  not  only  have  this  benefit  for  the 
present  but  for  the  future  :  for  so  "  an  entrance  shall  be  minis- 
tered unto  you  abundantly  into  the  everlasting  kingdom  of  our 
Lord  and  Saviour  Jesus  Christ/'  Do  you  abound  in  grace, 
and  grow  in  grace,  and  are  rich  in  grace  ?  Why  look  as  you 
abound,  so  there  shall  be  an  abundant  entrance  ministered 
to  you  into  the  everlasting  kingdom.  "  Wherefore  (he  saith) 
I  will  not  be  negligent  to  put  you  always  in  remembrance 
of  these  things."  It  may  be  you  will  tell  me  you  knew  these 
things  before  ;  but  mark  verse  12  :  "I  will  not  be  negligent 
to  put  you  always  in  remembrance  of  these  things,  though 
ye  know  them,  and  be  established  in  the  present  truth." 
Yea,  at  verse  13  :  "  I  think  it  meet  as  long  as  I  am  in  this 
tabernacle,  to  stir  you  up,  by  putting  you  in  remembrance." 
And  that  you  may  see  that  it  is  a  matter  of  great  concernment, 
he  doth  not  only  say  that  he  would  put  them  in  remem- 
brance as  long  as  he  lived,  but  he  would  take  some  course 
when  he  was  dead  that  this  exhortation  should  be  pressed 
upon  them,  verse  15  :"  Moreover,  I  will  endeavour  that  you 
may  be  able  after  my  decease  to  have  these  things  always  in 
remembrance."  Oh,  therefore  what  a  necessity  is  there  that 
we  should  grow  in  grace.  Wherefore,  brethren  and  beloved 
in  the  Lord,  as  you  have  been  exhorted  not  only  by  me  at 
this  time,  but  by  others  of  God's  servants ;  so  now  labour 
to  abound  in  all  well  pleasing,  to  abound  yet  more  and 
more.  And  for  me  I  shall  say  to  you  and  concerning  you, 
as  the  apostle  in  Phil.  i. :  "  This  I  pray,  that  your  love 
may  abound  yet  more  and  more  in  knowledge  and  in  all  judg- 
ment, that  ye  may  approve  things  that  are  excellent :  that 
ye  may  be  sincere  and  without  offence  till  the  day  of  Christ, 
being  filled  with  the  fruits  of  righteousness  which  are  by 
Jesus  Christ,  to  the  glory  and  praise  of  God." 


SER.  2.]  IN  EVIL,  TIMES.  299 

SERMON   II. 

THE   FIRST  AND   LAST  IN   SUFFERING  WORK. 

"  But  many  that  are  first  shall  be  last,  and  the  last  shall  be  first." 
MATTHEW  xix.  30. 

AT  verse  27.,  Peter  doth  propound  a  question  unto  Christ, 
saying,  "  Behold  we  have  forsaken  all,  and  followed  thee : 
what  shall  we  have  therefore  ?" 

Jesus  answered  him  in  the  following  verse ;  and  his  answer 
is  partly  comfortable,  and  partly  cautional. 

In  the  comfortable  part  he  doth  declare  what  great  reward 
his  disciples  or  any  other  should  have,  that  did  suffer,  or 
leave  any  worldly  interest  for  his  name's  sake. 

The  first  part  concerns  his  disciples  only,  in  verse  28.  "  I 
say  unto  you,  that  ye  which  have  followed  me  in  the  regene- 
tion,  when  the  Son  of  Man  shall  sit  on  the  throne  of  his 
glory,  ye  also  shall  sit  upon  twelve  thrones,  judging  the 
twelve  tribes  of  Israel."  This  shall  be  your  reward. 

And  as  for  others,  though  you  make  the  question,  I  will 
give  my  answer  so,  saith  he,  as  shall  concern  more  than  you  : 
my  promise  shall  be  extended  unto  others  also  ;  at  verse  29., 
"  And  every  one  that  hath  forsaken  houses,  or  brethren,  or 
sisters,  or  father,  or  mother,  or  wife,  or  children,  or  lands, 
for  my  name's  sake,  shall  receive  an  hundred  fold  :"  here  is 
their  reward,  "  an  hundred  fold."  It  is  a  very  great  improve- 
ment. We  account  ten  in  the  hnndred  a  great  matter;  and 
if  merchants  can  venture  to  sea,  and  gain  twelve  or  ten  in  the 
hundred,  and  be  insured  of  so  great  a  gain,  they  account  it  a 
great  matter :  but  here  is  "  an  hundred  fold :"  not  ten  or 
twelve,  but  an  hundred  for  one ;  and  this  insured  too :  "  Ve- 
rily, I  say  unto  you,  (saith  Christ)  every  one  that  hath  forsa- 
ken, &c.,  shall  receive  an  hundred-fold." 

And  as  for  the  cautional  part,  that  follows  at  verse  30., 
"  But  many  that  are  first  shall  be  last  and  the  last  shall  be 
first." 

Wherein  he  doth  give  a  caveat,  not  only  unto  his  disciples, 
but  unto  all  those  that  should  suffer,  and  forsake  any  worldly 
interest  upon  his  account.  As  if  he  should  say  thus :  It  is 
true,  you  have  indeed  left  all  to  follow  me  j  thereupon  you 
ask  me  what  you  shall  have  ;  and  I  lay  before  you  very  great 


300  SEASONABLE    TRUTHS  [SfiR. 2. 

rewards :  but  I  would  have  you  for  to  walk  warily,  and  to 
take  heed  how  you  walk  in  the  matter  of  your  sufferings  :  for 
though  you  suffer  for  my  name's  sake,  and  though  those  that 
do  so  in  truth  shall  have  very  great  rewards,  an  hundred-fold 
in  this  life ;  yet  many  that  are  very  forward,  shall  appear  to 
be  backward  ;  and  many  that  are  backward,  shall  appear  to  be 
forward ;  and  many  that  stand  behind,  they  shall  stand  be- 
fore ;  and  many  that  stand  before,  they  shall  be  set  behind  : 
"  The  first  shall  be  last,  and  the  last  shall  be  first."  Which 
being  spoken  in  reference  unto  suffering  and  forsaking  of  our 
worldly  interest  for  the  name  of  Christ ;  the  doctrine  then  is 
this: 

"  That  many  that  are  first  shall  be  last,  and  many  that  are 
last  shall  be  first/'  in  suffering  work. 

For  the  clearing  whereof,  there  were  four  things  propound- 
ed. 

First,  What  it  is  for  a  man  to  be  first  that  is  last,  and  to 
be  last  that  is  first. 

Secondly,  How  it  may  appear  that  many  that  are  first  shall 
be  last,  and  many  that  are  last  shall  be  first  in  suffering- work. 
Thirdly,  How  and  in  what  respect  that  is  true. 
Fourthly,  What  are  the  reasons  on  it. 
And  then  the  application. 

First,  What  is  it  for  one  that  is  first  to  be  last,  and  one 
that  is  last  to  be  first  ?     What  is  this  ? 

Some  think  this  is  to  be  understood  in  regard  of  the  same- 
ness of  reward;  as  if  Christ  had  said  thus:  The  first  shall 
be  as  the  last,  and  the  last  shall  be  as  the  first,  in  matter  of 
reward.  And  for  this,  they  have  the  next  parable  to  shew, 
where  this  same  speech  is  brought  in.  "  A  certain  house- 
holder went  out  early  in  the  morning  to  hire  labourers  into 
his  vineyard,  and  agreed  with  the  labourers  for  a  penny  a 
day:  and  he  hired  some  at  the  first  hour,  and  some  at  the 
last ;  and  those  that  came  in  at  the  last,  received  a  penny  as 
the  first  did."  Whereupon  the  first  they  grumbled.  The 
Master  answered,  verse  15.  "  Is  it  not  lawful  for  me  to  do 
what  I  will  with  mine  own  ?  is  thine  eye  evil,  because  I  am 
good  ?  So  the  last  shall  be  first,  and  the  first  last."  Why  ? 
because  the  last  had  the  same  penny.  As  if  the  meaning  of 
this  therefore  should  be  thus  much,  that  there  should  be  the 
same  reward  given  to  the  one  as  to  the  other.  But  this  can- 


SER.  2.]  IN  EVIL  TIMES.  301 

not  l>e  the  meaning  on  it :  for  it  is  not  true ;  for  there  shall 
not  be  the  same  reward  given  to  all;  some  shall  have  more 
than  others,  some  shall  have  greater  degrees  of  glory  than 
others. 

If  there  be  degrees  of  torments  in  hell,  then  there  are  de- 
grees of  glory  in  heaven.  There  are  degrees  of  torment  in 
hell ;  for  Christ  hath  said,  "  He  that  knoweth  his  Master's 
will,  and  doth  it  not,  shall  be  beaten  with  many  stripes,"  with 
more  stripes  than  those  that  are  ignorant  and  know  it  not. 
Now  if  there  be  degrees  of  torment  in  hell,  there  are  degrees 
of  glory  in  heaven  :  and  therefore  the  thing  is  not  true,  that 
there  shall  be  the  same  reward. 

And  here  in  chap.  xix.  we  see,  that  the  apostles  are  set 
higher  in  their  reward.  "  When  the  Son  of  man  shall  sit  in 
the  throne  of  his  glory,  ye  also  shall  sit  upon  twelve  thrones, 
judging  the  twelve  tribes  of  Israel." 

And  our  Saviour  Christ  here,  he  doth  not  speak  univer- 
sally, nor  indefinitely  :  he  doth  not  say  that  all  that  are  first 
shall  be  last,  and  all  that  are  last  shall  be  first;  neither  doth 
he  speak  definitely,  the  first  shall  be  last,  and  the  last  first : 
but  he  speaks  thus,  "  That  many  that  are  first ;"  he  doth  not 
say  "  all  that  are  first  shall  be  last ;"  neither  doth  he  say  in- 
definitely, "  The  first  shall  be  last,"  but,  "  many  that  are 
first  shall  be  last,  and  the  last  shall  be  first."  That  is  the 
meaning  then. 

Others  think  therefore  the  meaning  is  this,  and  the  words 
are  to  be  understood  in  reference  to  men's  conceit  and 
opinion ;  as  if  he  should  say,  Be  not  conceited ;  for  though 
ye  suffer  much,  and  forsake  a  great  deal  for  me,  and  for  my 
name's  sake,  yet  many  that  are  first  in  their  own  conceit,  shall 
be  last :  and  many  that  are  last  in  their  own  opinion  and  conceit, 
shall  be  first.  This  is  true  :  but  this  is  not  all  the  meaning. 
Therefore  we  must  know  that  a  person  or  thing  is  said  to 
be  first  or  last,  in  regard  of  time,  or  in  regard  of  dignity  or 
chiefdom. 

In  regard  of  time :  so  we  say  the  last  day  is  the  first  day 
of  the  week ;  first  in  regard  of  time. 

In  regard  of  chiefdom  ;  and  so  Paul  saith,  "  Whereof  I 
am  chief."  In  the  original  it  is  :  This  is  a  true  saying,  that 
Christ  came  into  the  world  to  save  sinners,  whereof  I  am 
the  first;  but  we  read  it  chief,  because  the  chief 'is  the  first. 


302  SEASONABLE    TRUTHS  [SER.  2. 

First  is  put  for  chief  in  scripture  language ;  and  so  it  is  true, 
many,  many  that  are  first  in  religion,  ancient  professors, 
shall  be  last  at  suffering  for  the  name  of  Christ,  when  it 
comes  to  it ;  and  many  that  are  last  in  religion,  novices  in 
religion,  lately  brought  in,  shall  be  the  first  in  suffering  for  the 
cause,  and  for  the  name  of  Jesus  Christ.  And  so  many  that 
are  chief,  and  of  great  esteem  in  the  world,  that  are  first  in 
esteem,  shall  be  last  at  suffering  work;  and  many  that  are 
last  in  esteem  and  of  no  account,  shall  be  first  to  suffer  for 
the  name  of  Jesus  Christ. 

A  thing  is  said  to  he  in  Scripture,  when  it  is  declared  to  be, 
when  it  appears  to  be.  So  in  Acts  xiii.,  speaking  concerning  the 
resurrection  of  Christ :  "  According  as  it  is  written,  This  day 
have  I  begotten  thee."  Why  this  day  have  I  begotten  thee ;  why 
was  Christ  begotten  that  day,  the  day  of  his  resurrection  ? 
Christ  was  the  eternal  Son  of  God ;  how  is  this, "  This  day  have 
I  begotten  thee,"  to  prove  the  resurrection  ?  The  apostle 
explains  it  in  Rom.  i.  4,  by  the  resurrection  he  was  mightily 
declared  to  be  the  Son  of  God.  So  that  in  scripture  phrase, 
a  thing  is  said  to  be,  when  it  is  declared  to  be  and  appears 
to  be.  And  accordingly  now,  many  that  are  first,  that  ap- 
pear to  be  first,  shall  in  due  time  appear  to  be  last  in  suffer- 
ing work ;  and  many  that  appear  to  be  last,  shall  in  due  time 
appear  to  be  first  in  suffering  work  for  the  cause  of  Christ, 
and  for  the  name  of  Christ. 

Thus  now  in  the  general  we  hear  what  this  means;  more 
particularly  afterwards. 

Secondly,  But  how  may  it  appear  that  many  that  are  first 
shall  be  last,  and  many  that  are  last  shall  be  first  in  suffering 
work,  suffering  for  the  name  of  Christ  ?  (For  I  am  not  now 
speaking  of  the  thing  at  large,  that  many  that  are  first  shall 
be  last,  and  many  that  are  last  shall  be  first,  in  the  general, 
but  in  reference  only  to  suffering.)  How  may  that  appear  ? 
Thus: 

It  is  in  the  suffering  part  of  religion,  as  in  the  doing  part. 
In  the  doing  part  of  religion,  many  that  are  first  shall  be 
last.  Many  that  are  great  men  in  duty,  and  of  great  abilities 
and  gifts,  shall  be  last ;  and  many  that  are  last,  and  weak 
and  low  in  grace,  that  you  would  think  had  no  grace  at  all, 
shall  be  first.  It  is  said  so  in  the  next  chapter,  in  the 
parable :  there  it  is  spoken  in  regard  of  doing,  here  in  this 


SER.  2.]  IN  EVIL  TIMES.  303 

Scripture  it  is  spoken  in  regard  of   suffering.      Now  in  re- 
gard of  doing,  so  it  is,  I  say. 

Is  it  not  a  great  matter  for  a  man  to  frequent  the  ordi- 
nances with  delight ;  to  believe,  and  to  repent,  and  to  preach, 
and  to  prophesy,  and  do  many  wonderful  works,  casting  out 
devils  in  the  name  of  Christ?  All  these  things  in  some 
sense  a  man  may  do,  and  yet  may  fall  short  of  heaven. 

Possibly  a  man  may  attend  upon  the  ordinances  with  de- 
light. In  Isaiah  Iviii.,  "  Ye  delight  in  approaching  to  me," 
ye  unsound  hypocrites. 

Possibly  a  man  may  in  some  measure  believe,  and  yet  be 
unsound.  It  is  said  of  Simon  Magus,  that  "  he  himself  also 
believed,"  in  the  Acts. 

Possibly  a  man  may  repent  in  some  sense,  and  yet  be  un- 
sound. It  is  said  of  Judas,  in  Matt,  xxvii.,  when  he  saw 
what  became  of  Christ,  "  he  repented  himself,  and  carried 
the  money  again." 

And  in  Matt,  vii.,  they  say,  "  Lord,  Lord,  have  we  not 
prophesied  in  thy  name,  and  cast  out  devils  in  thy  name,  and 
done  many  wonderful  works  in  thy  name  ? "  And  yet  Christ 
shall  say  at  last,  "  Depart,  I  never  knew  you/'  So  that 
many  men  go  very  far  in  the  doing  part  of  religion,  and  yet 
fall  short  of  heaven.  If  then,  the  first  may  be  last  in  the 
doing  part  of  religion,  why  should  it  be  a  thing  incredible  to 
us,  that  the  first  may  be  last  in  the  suffering  part  ? 

The  second  demonstration  of  it,  to  clear  it,  is  this : 

If  a  man  may  spoil  and  lose  all  his  former  sufferings  by 
his  after  sins ;  and  if  a  man  may  recover,  repair,  recompense 
his  former  backwardness  to  suffer,  by  his  after  faith  and 
grace ;  then  presently  the  last  may  be  first,  and  the  first  may 
be  last  in  point  of  suffering.  So  it  is. 

Possibly  a  man  may  lose  all  his  former  sufferings  by  his 
after  sins.  "  Foolish  Galatians  (saith  the  apostle,)  have  ye 
suffered  so  many  things  in  vain,  if  yet  in  vain  ?"  They  fell 
from  the  doctrine  of  grace,  to  justification  by  works ;  and 
they  lost  all  their  sufferings  by  their  after  sins. 

On  the  other  side,  Nicodemus  was  very  backward  to  come 
to  Christ ;  he  "  came  by  night ;"  he  was  afraid  to  suffer ;  yet 
afterwards,  when  Christ  died,  he  owned  Christ  openly : 
and  the  Holy  Ghost  sets  a  mark  upon  it,  John  xviii.,  "  This 
is  that  Nicodemus  which  came  to  Jesus  by  night."  He  did 


304  SEASONABLE    TRUTHS  [SfiR.  2. 

recompence  his  former  backwardness  to  suffer,  by  his  after- 
faith.  So  that  a  man  may  lose  his  former  sufferings  by  his 
after  sins ;  and  a  man  may  recover  and  recompense  his  for- 
mer backwardness  to  sufferings,  by  his  after  faith  and  grace. 

If  a  man  may  be  a  famous  preacher  of  the  gospel,  and  lose 
much  upon  that  account,  and  yet  prove  an  apostate,  a  per- 
secutor of  the  gospel ;  and  if  a  man  be  a  notorious  persecutor 
of  the  gospel,  and  yet  afterwards  prove  a  famous  preacher  of 
the  gospel,  and  suffer  much  upon  that  account :  then  possibly 
the  first  may  be  last,  and  the  last  may  be  first  in  point  of  suffer- 
ing. So  it  is,  that  a  man  may  be  a  famous  preacher  of  the  gospel, 
and  lose  much  upon  that  account;  and  yet  afterwards  prove 
an  apostate,  a  persecutor.  So  it  was  with  Judas.  When 
Christ  sent  forth  his  disciples,  saying,  "  Take  no  purse,  nor 
scrip,"  &c.,  Judas  was  among  them,  and  left  his  purse  &c.,  and 
was  no  doubt  a  famous  minister;  yet  after,  he  became  a 
most  notorious  persecutor,  and  headed  the  party  that  came  to 
take  Jesus. 

And  always,  as  you  may  observe,  the  persecutors  are  head- 
ed with  some  apostate ;  they  have  some  apostate  in  the  head 
of  them. 

And  on  the  other  side,  who  doth  not  know  what  a  notori- 
ous persecutor  Paul  was,  insomuch  as  he  saith  upon  that 
score,  that  he  was  sf  the  least  of  all  the  apostles,  because  he 
persecuted  the  church  of  God :"  and  yet  who  doth  not  know 
what  a  famous  preacher  of  the  gospel  he  was,  and  suffered 
much  upon  that  score.  So  then,  the  thing  lies  clear  and  plain, 
that  possibly  the  last  may  be  first,  and  the  first  may  be  last  in 
point  of  suffering. 

Thirdly,  How  and  in  what  respect  is  this  true  ? 

It  is  true  in  regard  of  privileges  and  enjoyments  :  many 
that  are  first  in  regard  of  privileges  and  enjoyments,  shall  be 
last  at  the  work  of  suffering  for  Christ ;  and  many  that  are 
last  in  privileges  and  enjoyments,  shall  be  first  in  the  work 
of  suffering  for  Christ. 

Many  that  are  first  in  privileges  and  enjoyments, 
shall  be  last  in  suffering.  Here  is  a  young  man  comes 
to  Christ,  arid  Christ  loved  him ;  and  he  saith  unto 
Christ,  What  shall  I  do  to  inherit  eternal  life  ?  Keep  the 
commandments,  saith  Christ.  I  have  done  it,  saith  he. 
Aye,  but  saith  Christ,  One  thing  thou  lackest ;  go  sell  what 


SER.  2.]  IN  EVIL  TIMES.  305 

thou  hast,  and  give  to  the  poor,  and  come  and  follow  me,  and 
thou  shalt  have  treasure  in  heaven."  And  saith  the  text, 
"  He  went  away  sorrowful,  for  he  had  a  great  estate  •"  he 
was  rich,  he  was  a  privileged  man,  and  had  great  enjoyments, 
for  he  was  a  rich  man ;  and  yet  notwithstanding  he  was  the 
most  backward  for  to  leave  all  for  Christ. 

On  the  other  side,  the  poor  receive  the  gospel :  and  as  the 
poor  do  receive  the  gospel,  so  they  hold  it,  and  keep  it  and 
suffer  for  it.  So  that  it  is  true  then  in  regard  of  privileges 
and  enjoyments. 

This  is  true  in  regard  of  abilities  :  many  that  are  first  in 
regard  of  ability,  shall  be  last  in  suffering  for  Christ ;  and 
many  that  are  last  in  abilities,  shall  be  first  in  suffering  for 
the  name  of  Jesus  Christ. 

Many  that  are  first  in  abilities.  So  the  disciples,  when 
Christ  said  to  them,  "  Are  ye  able  to  drink  of  the  cop  that  I 
am  to  drink  of;  and  are  ye  able  to  be  baptized  with  the  bap- 
tism that  I  am  to  be  baptized  with  ?  Yea,  Lord,  (say  they,) 
we  are  able."  But  when  Christ  came  to  suffer,  it  is  said, 
"  They  all  forsook  him  and  fled."  First  in  point  of  abilities, 
and  last  in  point  of  suffering.  But  Mary,  and  a  company  of 
weak  women,  cleaved  unto  Christ,  and  followed  him  to  the 
very  last :  the  first  were  last,  and  the  last  were  first.  And 
look  into  the  Book  of  Martyrs :  where  do  you  find  the  mar- 
tyrs growing  ?  Do  you  find  them  growing  upon  universities  ? 
Few  were  scholars  and  doctors  that  were  martyrs,  but  growing 
in  country  towns  and  villages.  So  it  is  said  of  Origen,  that 
when  he  was  a  young  man,  about  sixteen  or  seventeen  years 
old,  his  mother  was  forced  to  hide  his  very  shirt  from  him,  so 
that  he  was  ashamed  to  go  into  the  streets,  for  otherwise  he 
would  have  gone  to  have  suffered  martyrdom.  But  after- 
wards, when  he  came  to  be  a  great  doctor,  then  he  offered  to 
the  idols ;  insomuch  as  they  cried  out,  Origen  hath  sacrificed  ! 
While  he  was  weak  and  young,  very  forward  to  suffer ;  when 
he  was  grown  strong,  and  had  abilities,  then  backward.  The 
last  shall  be  first,  and  the  first  shall  be  last. 

This  is  true,  also,  in  regard  of  action,  professional  action. 
Many  that  are  first  in  profession,  and  of  great  performance, 
shall  be  last  in  suffering  for  the  name  of  Christ,  And  many 
that  have  not  been  of  so  great  profession  and  such  high  per- 
formance shall  suffer  when  it  comes  to  it ;  they  shall  suffer 

VOL.  in.  x 


306  SEASONABLE    TRUTHS  [$ER.  2. 

for  the  name  of  Christ.  You  have  an  instance  in  the  parable 
of  the  stony  ground  ;  it  "  receives  the  word  with  joy :"  yet, 
notwithstanding,  when  tribulation  and  persecution  arise  be- 
cause of  the  word,  by  and  by  they  are  offended.  So  they 
were  high  and  first  in  profession,  yea  action  too,  and  yet  the 
last  in  suffering. 

So  on  the  other  side,  you  know  the  stories  there  that  go 
together :  a  certain  man  comes  to  Christ,  and  saith,  "  Lord, 
I  will  follow  thee  whithersoever  thou  goest."  Saith  Christ, 
"  The  foxes  have  holes,  and  the  birds  of  the  air  have  nests, 
bnt  the  Son  of  man  hath  not  whereon  to  lay  his  head."  Then 
Christ  comes  to  another,  and  saith  to  him,  "  Follow  me. 
Lord  (saith  he),  I  must  go  bury  my  father.  Why  ?  let  the 
dead  bury  the  dead."  What  is  the  meaning  of  this  but  to 
shew  thus  much,  that  the  first  shall  be  last  and  the  last  shall 
be  first  in  forsaking  their  worldly  interests  for  Christ,  and  for 
the  name  of  Christ ! 

This  is  true  also  in  point  of  resolution.  Many  that  are 
first  in  resolving  to  suffer  shall  be  last  to  suffer  when  it  comes 
to  it;  and  many  that  are  last  in  resolving  shall  be  first  in  suf- 
fering. "Lord  (saith  Peter),  though  all  men  forsake  thee,  yet 
will  not  I."  Bravely  resolved !  But  though  he  was  first  in 
the  resolve  yet  he  was  first  in  forsaking  Christ.  "  The  cock 
shall  not  crow  before  thou  deny  me."  And  you  know  how  it 
was  with  those  two  *  in  the  Book  of  Martyrs :  the  one  was  a 
very  fat  man,  and  he  would  burn,  his  grease  should  fry  in  the 
fire  for  the  name  of  Christ ;  the  other  was  a  lean  man,  and 
he  cries  out,  Oh,  I  am  afraid  I  shall  never  hold  out !  But 
when  it  came  to  it,  the  lean  man  was  the  martyr,  and  the  fat 
man  would  not  burn.  So  that  that  is  true  in  the  point  of 
resolution. 

And  true  it  is,  also,  in  the  point  of  endurance  and  pain  in 
the  work  of  suffering.  And  in  that,  many  that  are  first  in 
the  work  of  suffering  shall  be  last  in  the  reward,  and  many 
that  are  last  in  the  work  of  suffering  shall  be  first  in  the  re- 
ward. "  Though  I  give  all  my  goods  to  feed  the  poor,  and 
though  I  give  my  body  to  be  burned,  and  have  not  charity, 
it  profiteth  me  nothing,"  1  Cor.  xiii.  3.  Possibly  a  man  may 
give  his  goods  to  the  poor,  part  with  his  worldly  interest  to 
the  poor,  and  give  his  body  to  be  burned,  and  yet  want  love. 

*  Pendleton  and  Sanders. 


SEU.  2.]  IN  EVIL.  TIMES.  307 

So,  then,  the  first  in  the  very  work  of  suffering  may  be  last 
in  the  reward.  It  is  true  in  that  respect.  And  so  I  have 
done  with  that. 

Fourthly.  But  then  what  is  the  reason  of  this,  and  how 
comes  this  pass,  that  many  that  are  first  shall  be  last,  and 
many  that  are  last  shall  be  first  in  suffering  work  ?  There 
are  two  reasons  for  it. 

The  first  is  drawn  from  God  and  his  grace. 

The  second  is  drawn  from  ourselves  and  sufferings. 

The  first  is  drawn  from  God  and  his  grace,  thus :  It  is 
God's  ordinary  way  in  his  dealings  with  his  creatures,  to  set 
those  things  and  persons  before  that  do  stand  behind,  and 
those  behind  that  do  stand  before.  As  in  printing,  you  do 
not  take  the  letters  and  place  that  first  that  is  first  in  the 
alphabet,  but  that  which  is  first  in  the  word  ;  as  in  zeal,  z  is 
the  first,  but  it  is  the  last  in  the  alphabet.  And  so  God  in 
writing  down  the  names  of  men  in  the  book  of  life,  he  writes 
down  them  that  stand  behind;  the  last  letter  first  and  the 
first  letter  last.  See  it  for  instance. 

When  the  Lord  had  to  deal  with  men  and  angels,  which 
was  the  first  in  the  creation  ?  The  angels ;  they  were  the  elder 
brother  to  man,  they  stood  first :  but  when  men  and  angels 
had  fallen,  God  he  redeems  man,  and  sets  him  before  that 
stood  behind,  and  takes  the  fallen  angels  and  sets  them  behind 
that  were  first  in  the  creation ;  sets  them  behind,  and  man 
that  was  behind,  he  is  brought  before.  So  when  God  would 
take  a  people  to  himself,  what  people  did  God  take  to  be  his 
people  ?  A  poor,  forlorn,  despised  people,  the  people  of  the 
Jews ;  and  past  over  all  the  glorious  nations  of  the  world. 

And  when  God  would  take  a  family  out  of  that  people, 
what  family  did  he  take  ?  The  family  of  Jesse.  Arid  when 
he  would  take  a  particular  person,  what  person  was  it  ?  Da- 
vid the  younger  brother,  that  stood  behind,  and  was  among 
the  sheep :  he  that  stood  behind  was  brought  before,  and  he 
that  stood  before  was  set  behind.  That  for  the  time  of  the 
old  testament. 

So  in  the  time  of  the  new  testament.  The  Jew  stands 
first,  he  had  the  hansel  of  the  market,  he  had  the  hansel  of 
the  gospel ;  Christ  was  born  of  them  after  the  flesh ;  they 
had  the  oracles  of  God  ;  they  stood  first,  the  gentiles  stood 
behind ;  they  called  them  dogs :  "  It  is  not  meet  to  take  the 


308  SEASONABLE    TRUTHS  [SfiR.  2. 

children's  bread  and  cast  it  to  dogs."  Well,  these  gentiles 
that  stood  behind,  they  are  brought  before;  and  the  Jews 
that  stood  before,  they  are  set  behind. 

And  what  nation  did  God  take  out  of  the  gentiles  ?  Did 
he  take  any  great  continent  in  America,  where  the  gold  and 
the  silver  is  ?  No,  but  u  the  isles  shall  wait  for  thy  law ;"  and 
the  u  inhabitants  of  Kedar  shall  rejoice,  and  the  inhabitants 
of  the  rocks  shall  sing." 

And  when  God  would  convert  these,  whom  did  he  make 
use  of  to  do  it  ?  He  makes  use  of  Paul,  Paul  the  last  of  all 
the  apostles :  the  twelve  apostles  they  stood  first,  but  he  that 
stood  behind,  that  was  brought  in  last,  that  was  born  out  of 
time,  he  is  taken  to  do  the  work. 

And  who  are  they  that  are  converted  to  him  ?  They  are 
babes  and  sucklings.  "  Not  many  wise,  not  many  noble," 
but  babes  and  sucklings.  "  Even  so,  Father,  because  thou 
art  so  pleased/'  This  is  the  ordinary  way  of  God  :  he  takes 
those  things  that  stand  behind  and  brings  them  before,  and 
takes  those  things  that  stand  before  and  sets  them  behind. 
And  why  doth  he  do  so  ?  Why, 

Because  "  he  will  shew  mercy  to  whom  he  will  shew  mer- 
cy." Whom  he  will  he  shews  mercy  unto,  and  whom  he  will 
he  hardens ;  and  he  orders  things  in  such  a  way  that  no  flesh 
may  glory.  1  Cor.  i.  "  But  God  hath  chosen  the  foolish 
things  of  the  world  to  confound  the  wise,  and  God  hath  cho- 
sen the  weak  things  of  the  world  to  confound  the  things 
which  are  mighty,  and  base  things  of  the  world,  and  things 
which  are  despised  hath  God  chosen,  yea  and  things  which 
are  not,  to  bring  to  nought  things  that  are."  Why  ?  "  That 
no  flesh  should  glory  in  his  presence,"  verse  29.  God  will 
carry  things  in  such  a  way  as  no  flesh  may  glory  either  in 
their  doings  or  in  their  sufferings.  And  how  will  he  order  it 
then?  Therefore  the  first  shall  be  last,  and  the  last  shall  be 
first,  both  in  doing  and  in  suffering,  that  no  flesh  may  glory, 
but  that  grace  may  be  all  in  all.  Whom  he  will  he  shews 
mercy  to,  and  whom  he  will  he  hardens.  This  is  the  first 
reason,  drawn  from  God  himself  and  from  his  grace. 

The  second  reason  is  drawn  from  ourselves  and  from  our 
sufferings,  and  it  lies  thus : 

If  there  be  a  great  deal  of  suffering  that  will  come  to  little, 
and  if  there  be  a  little  suffering  that  will  amount  to  much, 


SER.  2.]  IN  EVIL  TIMES.  309 

and  come  to  much  ;  then  many  that  are  last  shall  be  first,  and 
the  first  shall  be  last  in  point  of  suffering. 

Now  so  it  is  that  there  is  a  great  deal  of  suffering  which 
will  come  to  little,  come  to  little  account.  Judas  left  all ;  and 
it  came  to  little.  Alexander  drawn  out  of  the  crowd  in  suf- 
fering for  Christ,  and  it  came  to  little :  "  Alexander  the  cop- 
persmith did  me  much  evil ;  the  Lord  reward  him  according 
to  his  works."  His  sufferings  came  to  little.  The  poor 
Christians  that  are  taken  slaves  by  the  Turks,  they  lie  in  sla- 
very ten  years  together  rather  than  they  will  renounce,  the 
Christian  religion,  yet  when  they  come  out,  oh,  what  drunkards, 
and  swearers,  and  enemies  to  God,  and  such  as  have  nothing 
of  Christ  in  them.  Oh,  they  suffer  much,  but  it  comes  to 
little ;  they  shall  not  be  saved.  So  that  I  say  there  is  a  great 
deal  of  suffering  that  will  come  to  little. 

On  the  other  side,  there  is  a  little  suffering  that  will  amount 
to  much.  A  cup  of  cold  water  shall  have  its  reward ;  the 
mite  that  the  poor  woman  gave,  more  than  all  the  rest,  saith 
our  Saviour.  It  was  no  great  matter  that  Onesiphorus  suf- 
fered for  Paul :  saith  Paul,  "  Onesiphorus  was  not  ashamed 
of  my  chains ;  he  sought  me  out  diligently,  and  oft  refreshed 
my  bowels  :  the  Lord  shew  mercy  to  the  household  of  One- 
siphorus/' It  was  no  great  matter  that  he  suffered,  but  it 
did  amount  to  much. 

But  you  will  say,  How  can  this  be,  that  there  should  be  a 
great  deal  of  suffering  that  will  amount  to  little,  and  a  little 
suffering  that  will  amount  to  much  ? 

Both  ways  I  answer. 

If  you  ask  now  it  can  be  that  a  great  deal  of  sufferings 
should  come  to  little  ? 

I  answer,  It  is  possible  that  a  man  may  lose  that  he  may 
gain.  I  am  a  minister,  and  have  a  living ;  and  I  may  lose 
my  living  possibly,  that  I  may  get  a  livelihood  another  way. 
I  may  suffer  and  go  to  prison,  that  I  may  be  maintained.  I 
do  not  reflect  upon  any  particular,  but  only  to  shew  the 
deceitfulness  of  our  hearts  in  such  a  case. 

And  who  doth  not  know,  that  a  man  may  suffer  from  a 
natural  boldness  and  courage ;  and  that  he  may  suffer  by 
crowding  in  among  good  people  that  are  in  a  suffering  way  ? 

And  who  doth  not  know,  that  a  man  may  suffer  upon  the 
strength  of  education  ?  As  a  Turk,  a  Jew,  a  papist,  a  pro- 


310  SEASONABLE    TRUTHi  [SER. 2. 

testa nt,  may  suffer  in  the  religion  that  they  are  educated  and 
brought  up  in. 

And  who  knows  not  that  a  man  may  suffer  very  much  in  a 
way  of  merit?  It  is  recorded  of  one,  that  he  invited  a 
friend  of  his  to  dinner,  that  so  he  might  show  unto  him  his 
hounds.  And  when  he  came,  he  shewed  unto  him  a  company 
of  poor  people,  and  said  unto  him,  These  are  my  hounds 
with  which  I  do  hunt  for  heaven.  In  a  way  of  merit  he 
speaks.  And  we  see  how  it  is  with  a  horse  or  a  cow  in  pas- 
ture that  is  eaten  down  ;  if  there  be  herbs  or  pleasant  flowers 
growing  in  the  ditch  that  is  full  of  water,  the  horse  or  cow 
will  reach  and  reach  many  times  so  far,  that  it  falls  into  the 
ditch.  Truly  there  are  many  fine  flowers  grow  in  the  suffer- 
ing ditch,  and  many  an  unsound  heart  may  reach  so  far,  until 
it  falls  into  the  ditch.  As  it  is  possible  that  a  man  may  tread 
a  great  deal  of  ground,  and  never  come  to  his  journey's 
end ;  so  it  is  possible  a  man  may  tread  a  great  deal  of  suffer- 
ing ground,  and  never  come  to  heaven,  for  there  is  a  great 
deal  of  dross  cleaving  to  our  best  sufferings. 

In  a  suffering  time,  then  we  are  apt  to  be  very  froward, 
and  to  be  impatient,  and  to  dwell  more  upon  our  own  plea- 
sures than  upon  God's  dishonour. 

In  suffering  times,  then  we  are  very  apt  to  forget  our 
former  experiences,  and  to  be  unthankful  for  our  present 
mercies. 

In  suffering  times  we  are  very  apt  to  boggle  at  the  dispen- 
sation, to  fall  foul  upon  instruments  j  to  complain  of  God's 
dealings  with  us,  and  not  of  our  own  unworthy  dealings  with 
God. 

In  suffering  times  we  are  very  apt  to  look  to  the  smart  of 
our  sufferings,  and  not  to  the  cause,  or  else  to  pitch  upon 
the  wrong  cause. 

In  suffering  times  we  are  very  apt  to  wish  that  we  had 
never  begun  in  the  work  of  God ;  As  Joshua  and  the  elders, 
when  they  smarted  before  the  men  of  Ai :  "  Would  to  God 
we  had  stayed  on  the  other  side  Jordan,"  say  they.  So  when 
men  meet  with  the  smart  of  afflictions  in  the  way  and  work 
ot  God,  oh  then,  Would  to  God  we  had  never  meddled  with 
the  work  of  reformation  ;  would  to  God  we  had  been  content 
with  our  leeks  and  onions  which  we  had  before. 

In  suffering  times  we  are  very  apt  to  comply  and  corres- 


SER.  2.]  IN  EVIL  TIMES.  311 

pond  with  our  enemies,  and  with  God's  enemies ;  and  to  usa 
unworthy  shifts  to  get  out  of  trouble,  as  Abraham  did,  "  Say 
thou  art  my  sister."  It  is  true  she  was  his  sister,  but  she 
was  his  wife,  and  it  was  an  unworthy  shift  for  such  a  man  as 
Abraham  was. 

In  suffering  times  we  are  very  apt  to  tempt  the  Lord,  and 
to  "  limit  the  Holy  One  of  Israel,"  and  to  say,  «  Can  God 
provide  a  table  now  ?  "  Can  God  provide  a  table  for  me  in 
this  wilderness  ?  Thus  there  is  a  great  deal  of  dross  cleaves 
to  all  our  sufferings,  and  therefore  no  wonder  that  a  great 
deal  of  suffering  comes  to  little. 

And  on  the  other  side,  that  a  little  suffering  may  amount 
to  much.  I  can  give  no  other  reason  of  it  but  this,  God 
hath  a  very  gracious  allowance  for  his  people.  As  we  use  to 
say,  we  bear  with  children  when  it  is  their  weaning  time. 
Truly  our  suffering  time  is  our  weaning  time  :  and  God  saith, 
Bear  with  such  an  one,  it  is  his  weaning  time.  "  You  have 
heard  of  the  patience  of  Job."  Why  I  have  heard  of  Job's 
impatience !  True,  but  God  did  not  measure  Job  in  his 
wallops,  but  when  he  was  cold.  As  we  do  not  measure  milk 
when  it  wallops  and  seethes,  but  when  it  is  cold ;  so  God 
doth  not  measure  Job  in  his  passion,  but  when  he  was  off  the 
fire,  when  he  was  cool.  You  say,  the  best  gold  must  have 
its  allowance ;  if  it  want  a  grain  or  two,  it  must  have  its 
allowance.  So  all  the  suffering  people  of  God  must  have 
their  allowance;  and  God  hath  a  very  great  allowance  for  his 
suffering  people;  and  therefore  this  is  all  the  reason  that  I 
can  give,  why  a  little  suffering  shall  go  a  great  way.  So  then 
put  all  together,  and  you  have  the  doctrine  cleared  in  all  the 
particulars  of  it. 

If  many  that  are  first  shall  be  last  in  point  of  suffering, 
why  then  should  we  not  all  take  heed  how  we  suffer,  look  to 
the  manner  of  our  sufferings,  look  to  our  hearts  in  suffering  ? 
He  is  a  virtuous  man,  that  doth  what  he  should,  as  he 
should.  So  he  is  not  a  true  sufferer,  that  suffers  what  he 
should,  but  that  suffers  what  he  should,  as  he  should. 
When  we  hear  how  far  a  man  may  go  in  religion,  arid  yet  be 
unsound,  and  go  to  hell,  then  we  should  say,  Good  Lord,  I 
will  then  look  to  my  heart  in  prayer,  and  look  to  my  heart 
in  duty.  So  in  point  of  suffering  if  many  that  are  first  shall 


312  SEASONABLE    TRUTHS.  [SfiR.   2. 

be  last,  and  the  last  first,  then  I  will  look  to  my  heart  in 
suffering,  if  ever  I  be  called  to  suffer. 

If  that  many  that  are  first  shall  be  last  in  suffering  work, 
why  then  should  we  not  walk  humbly  under  all  our  suffer- 
ings ?  «  The  first  shall  be  last,  and  the  last  shall  be  first." 
A  man  who  hath  prayed  a  prayer,  or  performed  a  duty,  he 
should  do  as  one  that  hath  written  a  letter ;  why  he  will  read 
over  the  letter,  and  then  he  mends  it,  and  then  he  looks  over 
the  letter,  and  throws  dust,  dust,  dust  upon  the  letter.  And 
so  a  man  when  he  hath  performed  any  duty,  he  should  look 
over  his  duty,  and  throw  dust,  I  mean  humility  and  self- 
denial,  upon  his  duties.  So  should  we  do  in  regard  of  our 
sufferings ;  if  ever  we  be  called  to  suffer,  read  over  our  suf- 
ferings, and  throw  dust  upon  our  sufferings,  walk  humbly 
under  them  ;  "  for  many  that  are  first  shall  be  last,"  in 
point  of  suffering. 

Why  should  we  rest  in  what  we  suffer,  and  not  press  on 
to  that  which  lies  before  ?  The  life  of  a  Christian  is  like  the 
life  of  a  man  in  a  cook's  shop,  from  one  work  to  another. 
Like  the  life  of  a  husbandman,  he  ploughs  and  he  harrows, 
and  he  sows  and  reaps  and  threshes,  and  he  never  stands 
still.  So  the  life  of  a  Christian,  always  at  work.  You  know 
what  our  Saviour  saith,  "  If  any  man  will  be  my  disciple, 
let  him  deny  himself,  and  take  up  his  cross."  What  then ; 
take  a  stool  and  sit  down  ?  No ;  "  Let  him  take  up  his 
cross  and  follow  me."  Follow  me  after  sufferings,  not  sit 
down  and  rest  there.  When  we  have  done  all,  still  press 
on  to  that  which  is  before. 

If  many  that  are  first  shall  be  last  in  point  of  suffering, 
why  should  we  not  take  heed  that  we  do  not  give  in  if  ever 
we  be  called  to  suffering  ?  as  it  is  said  of  the  French,  they 
are  fire  at  the  first  onset,  but  smoke  in  the  issue. 

So  there  are  many  that  are  rare  men  at  a  charge,  and  they 
overcome  in  a  skirmish,  but  they  give  in  at  the  battle.  But  is 
this  true,  that  many  that  are  first  in  suffering  shall  be  last  ? 
Oh,  then  why  should  we  not  take  heed  that  we  do  not  give 
in  if  we  be  called  to  suffering  ? 

If  this  be  true  also,  that  many  that  are  last  shall  be  first 
in  the  work  of  suffering ;  why  should  we  censure  or  despise 
some  that  are  weak,  that  do  drag,  that  do  come  behind,  that 
are  backward,  as  we  think,  unto  the  work  of  suffering  ?  We 


SER.  2.]  IN  EVIL  TIMES.  313 

will  not  blame  an  apple-tree  or  a  pear-tree  that  is  winter- 
fruit,  because  it  doth  not  come  so  soon  as  other  trees  that  are 
suncmer  fruit?  So  there  are  some  men  that  are  sooner  ripe 
for  sufferings,  and  they  are  summer  fruit ;  others  that  are 
backward,  and  they  are  winter  fruit,  they  do  not  come  so 
soon.  The  Lord  hath  many  gusts  of  sufferings,  and  such  an 
one  may  be  reserved  for  the  second  or  for  the  third  part. 
Now  as  we  do  not  blame  the  tree  for  bringing  forth  so  late, 
because  it  is  a  winter  fruit ;  so  why  should  we  despise  some 
that  are  backward  in  our  eyes,  that  hang  and  flag  as  to  the 
business  of  suffering  ?  Why  "  the  first  shall  be  last,  and 
the  last  shall  be  first." 

Why  should  any  be  afraid  or  be  discouraged,  because  they  are 
weak  and  unfit  to  suffer  ?  As,  many  that  are  first  shall  be  last, 
so  many  that  are  last  shall  be  first.  As  there  is  a  great  deal  of 
suffering  that  will  come  to  a  little,  so  there  is  a  little  suffering 
that  will  amount  to  much.  Therefore  though  you  be  unfit, 
as  you  think,  for  this  suffering  work,  yet  be  not  discouraged. 

But  you  will  say,  I  am  not  afraid  of  suffering  upon  this 
account,  but  I  am  afraid  of  my  suffering  because  of  my  sin : 
for  now  suffering  times  are  come,  and  we  suffer  for  our  sins ; 
and  can  any  suffering  that  comes  by  sin,  turn  to  a  good 
account  ?  If  I  did  know  that  my  suffering  should  turn  to  a 
good  account,  I  would  never  be  afraid  to  suffer :  but  I  fear 
my  suffering  will  not  turn  to  a  good  account,  because  my 
sufferings  come  by  sin.  Can  any  sufferings  that  come  by  sin 
turn  to  a  good  account  ? 

I  answer,  Yea,  through  the  grace  of  God.  When  the  ark 
was  taken,  were  not  the  people  in  a  sad  condition  ?  Yes, 
"  they  lamented  after  the  ark  twenty  years/'  And  did  not 
that  condition  come  by  their  sin  ?  Yes.  Did  that  turn  to 
any  good  account  ?  Yes,  for  Dagon  falls  down  before  the 
ark,  the  Philistines'  own  hands  brought  it  home  again,  and 
they  give  glory  to  God.  So  that  it  turned  to  a  good  account. 

But  especially  that  instance  of  David.  There  was  a  pesti- 
lence, and  many  thousands  died ;  and  did  it  come  by  sin  ? 
Yes ;  David  numbers  the  people.  Aye,  but  did  it  turn  to 
any  good  account  ?  Yes,  for  then  the  Lord  told  David  where 
his  temple  should  be  built.  2  Chron.  iii.  1.  David  had  a 
great  desire  to  know  where  God's  house  should  be  built ;  but 
never  was  it  told  until  now.  So  that  thus  this  suffering 


314  SEASONABLE    TRUTHS  [SfiR.  2. 

turned  to  a  good  account,  although  it  came  by  sin.  Possibly 
a  suffering  may  come  by  sin,  and  yet,  through  grace,  it  may 
turn  to  a  good  account. 

But  then  the  great  question  of"  all  is,  suppose  thus  :  Sup- 
pose there  be  such  a  great  reward  laid  out  for  those  that  suf- 
fer for  the  name  of  Christ ;  suppose  there  is  a  great  deal  of 
suffering  will  turn  to  a  little  account ;  suppose  there  is  a 
little  suffering  will  turn  to  a  great  account :  how  shall  I  so 
order  and  manage  my  sufferings,  as  that  my  sufferings  may 
turn  to  a  good  account  ?  Indeed  this  is  a  great  question,  and 
worthy  of  all  our  consideration. 

For  answer  unto  this  : 

If  you  would  order  and  manage  all  your  sufferings  so  as 
they  may  turn  to  a  good  account,  be  sure  of  this,  that  all 
your  sufferings  be  underlaid  with  godliness,  personal  godli- 
ness and  actual  godliness. 

With  personal  godliness.  For  if  your  person  be  not 
accepted,  your  suffering  will  not :  if  you  be  not  in  Christ, 
your  suffering  will  come  to  little.  As  the  tree  is,  so  is  the 
fruit  that  grows  upon  the  tree ;  if  the  tree  be  a  crab,  all  the 
fruit  is  but  crabs.  And  if  you  be  a  crab,  and  not  implanted 
into  Jesus  Christ,  your  suffering  will  not  be  accepted. 

And  not  only  personal  godliness,  but  actual  godliness  ;  so 
as  not  to  lie  in  any  sin,  either  of  omission  or  commission. 
For  any  sin  is  a  hole  in  the  bag  of  our  sufferings.  If  there 
be  a  hole  in  the  bag,  all  your  money  will  run  out.  Surely  if 
a  man  lies  in  any  sin,  that  sin  is  a  hole  in  the  bottom  of  the 
bag,  and  all  the  profits  of  his  sufferings  will  run  out,  though 
he  suffers  never  so  much  for  Christ  and  for  religion.  There- 
fore be  sure  that  all  your  sufferings  be  underlaid  with  godli- 
ness, personal  and  actual  godliness. 

If  you  would  so  order  and  manage  your  sufferings,  as  that 
they  may  turn  to  a  good  account ;  then  labour  to  get  your 
understanding  clear,  and  your  will  free,  in  the  matter  and 
business  of  sufferings.  For  though  the  thing  that  you  suffer 
for  be  never  so  right,  yet  if  you  have  not  a  clear  understanding 
in  what  you  suffer,  your  suffering  will  turn  to  little.  And 
though  you  have  never  so  clear  an  understanding,  yet  if  your 
will  be  not  free,  it  will  turn  to  little.  You  know  how  it  was 
with  Moses  ;  it  is  said,  "  He  refused  to  be  called  the  son  of 
Pharaoh's  daughter,  and  chose  rather  to  suffer  affliction  with 


SER.  2.]  IN  EVIL  TIMES.  315 

the  people  of  God."  Why  when  was  this  ?  When  he  came 
of  years.  Why  when  he  came  of  years  ?  Because  then  he 
had  discretion  and  understanding  ;  and  the  Holy  Ghost  would 
shew,  that  he  did  what  he  did  under  standingly  in  the  point 
of  his  suffering ;  and  he  did  \ifreely  in  the  point  of  his  will ; 
for  he  "  chose  rather :"  choosing  is  an  act  of  the  will.  So 
that  if  you  would  have  your  sufferings  turn  to  a  good  account, 
labour  to  get  a  clear  understanding  in  the  matter  of  your 
sufferings,  and  be  very  free  in  your  will. 

You  will  say  to  me,  How  can  I  be  freely  willing  to  part 
with  my  house,  or  land,  or  liberty  ? 

Yes,  you  may  be  very  free,  and  freely  willing  to  part  with 
all  in  reference  to  the  will  of  God  your  Father.  Christ  him- 
self said,  u  Father,  if  it  be  possible  let  this  cup  pass  from 
me."  He  was  unwilling  in  regard  of  the  thing  itself  he  suf- 
fered, but  he  was  very  willing  in  regard  of  the  Father's  will ; 
and  therefore  he  saith,  "  Not  my  will  but  thy  will  be  done." 
This  is  another  thing:  let  your  understanding  be  clear  and 
your  will  be  free  in  the  matter  of  your  sufferings. 

Take  heed  you  run  not  into  any  suffering  without  a  call, 
nor  rush  out  of  that  suffering  without  the  same  call  from  God. 
Noah  was  in  the  ark ;  and  when  the  waters  were  abated  from 
off  the  earth  Noah  would  not  stir  out  of  the  ark.  Why 
would  not  Noah  go  out  when  the  waters  were  abated  ?  Why 
as  Noah  had  a  call  to  go  in,  so  he  would  have  the  same  call 
to  go  out.  A  man  must  not  run  into  a  suffering  without  a 
call,  and  he  must  not  rush  out  of  it  without  a  call.  And 
therefore  you  shall  find  Christ  and  the  apostles,  and  all  the 
martyrs,  that  thus  they  acted  ;  they  would  hide,  and  go  aside, 
and  avoid  their  sufferings  ;  but  when  they  were  in  hold  they 
would  not  go  out  though  the  doors  were  open.  So  that  that 
is  the  next  thing  :  be  sure  of  this,  that  you  do  not  run  into 
sufferings  without  a  call,  nor  rush  out  of  sufferings  without 
the  same  call  from  God. 

If  you  would  order  and  manage  all  your  sufferings  so  as 
they  may  turn  to  a  good  account,  then  set  all  your  losses  upon 
Christ's  head  and  upon  Christ's  score,  which  you  may  do  if 
you  do  suffer  for  Christ's  cause ;  which  you  may  do  if  you  do 
suffer  according  to  Christ's  example;  which  you  may  do  if 
you  suffer  with  the  same  spirit  and  disposition  that  Christ  did 


316  SEASONABLE    TRUTHS  [SflR.  2. 

and  suffer  in  the  strength  of  Christ :  set  all  upon  the  head 
and  score  of  Christ. 

If  you  would  so  order  and  manage  all  your  sufferings  as 
that  they  may  turn  to  a  good  account,  then  take  heed  that 
there  be  no  contradiction  found  in  the  way  of  your  suffering. 
A  man  may  be  very  stiff,  and  stand  out  here,  and  yet  he  may 
yield  there.  Saith  the  apostle,  "  If  I  build  again  what  I  have 
destroyed  I  make  myself  a  transgressor/'  And,  "  Blessed  is 
the  man  that  condemns  not  himself  in  the  thing  that  he  al- 
lows/' It  is  possible  I  may  build  that  with  one  hand  that  I 
may  pull  down  with  another.  Possibly  a  man  may  be  very 
stiff,  and  stand  out  at  such  a  thing,  and  yet  he  may  yield 
there.  There  may  be  contradictions  found  in  the  way  of  our 
suffering.  And  let  me  tell  you  this,  If  it  be  thus,  your  suf- 
ferings will  come  to  little.  Take  heed  that  there  be  not  con- 
tradictions therefore  found  in  the  way  of  your  sufferings. 

If  you  would  manage  your  sufferings  so  as  they  may  turn 
to  a  good  account,  then  let  your  eye  be  more  upon  the  public 
good  than  upon  your  own  private  loss ;  more  upon  God's 
design  than  your  own  detriment ;  more  upon  God's  dishonour 
than  your  own  grievance  or  your  own  pressure.  It  is  good  for 
a  man  to  be  spiritual  and  savoury  in  his  suffering.  Our 
Saviour  saith,  "  Such  worshippers  the  Father  seeks,"  &c. 
And  truly,  I  say,  such  sufferers  doth  the  Father  seek  that  suf- 
fer in  spirit  and  truth,  whose  spirits  are  savoury  in  their  suf- 
ferings. And  when  is  that  ?  When  that  vour  eye  is  more 
upon  the  public  good  than  your  own  private  loss ;  more  upon 
God's  design  than  your  own  detriment ;  more  upon  God's 
dishonour  than  your  own  grievance  and  your  own  pressure. 

If  you  would  so  order  and  manage  all  your  sufferings,  as 
that  they  may  turn  to  a  good  account,  then  let  your  eye  be 
upon  that,  and  observe  what  that  is  that  you  have  most  de- 
lighted in,  and  that  your  heart  is  most  upon  in  this  world  ; 
and  give  that  up  to  God  the  first  thing  you  do,  for  truly  no- 
thing is  done  till  that  be  done.  It  is  said  of  Abraham  that 
"  God  tempted  Abraham."  Divines  observe  that  Abraham 
met  with  ten  temptations ;  but  it  is  never  said  before  that 
God  tempted  him,  until  he  spake  to  him  to  offer  up  his  son 
Isaac.  Why  there  was  his  heart  and  his  love  and  his  delight. 
And  where  doth  a  man's  temptation  grow,  but  where  his 
Isaac  is  ?  he  shall  be  sure  to  be  tried  there.  Here  was  Abra- 


SER.  2.]  IN  EVIL  TIMES.  317 

ham's  heart,  here  lay  his  temptation.  And  so,  it  may  be,  my 
heart  is  upon  my  house,  or  upon  my  land,  or  upon  my  trade ; 
and  I  cannot  part  with  this  :  I  can  part  with  any  thing  else, 
but  when  it  comes  to  this  I  am  ready  to  say,  The  good  Lord 
pardon  me  in  this.  Many  say,  I  will  not  adventure  to  suffer 
any  further  for  the  name  of  Christ,  than  I  can  secure  my 
trade,  or  my  land,  or  relations ;  but  when  it  comes  to  this,  I 
cannot  part  with  these  ;  I  must  have  my  trade,  &c.  Here  is 
a  but  comes  in.  Ananias  and  Sapphira  they  parted  with  a 
great  deal,  but  it  came  to  little,  because  they  had  a  reserve. 
And  so  if  we  have  our  reserves  with  the  Lord,  our  sufferings 
will  come  to  little.  So  that  observe  that  you  give  that  up 
first  to  God  that  your  hearts  are  most  upon  ;  for  nothing  is 
done  in  suffering  till  that  be  done. 

If  you  would  so  order  and  manage  your  sufferings  as  they 
may  turn  to  a  good  account,  then  let  the  load,  and  let  the 
weight  and  the  burden  of  all  your  sufferings  be  drawn  upon 
the  wheels  of  faith  and  love  ;  those  two  wheels,  of  faith  to- 
wards God  and  love  towards  man.  Saith  the  apostle,  "  By 
faith  Moses  chose  rather  to  suffer  afflictions  with  the  people 
of  God."  How  so  ?  Why,  "  by  faith  he  saw  him  that  is 
invisible  ;"  and  so  trampled  upon  visible  things.  And  by 
faith  he  had  an  eye  to  the  recompence  of  reward ;  and  so  over- 
looked these  things.  And  by  faith  he  saw  "  greater  wealth 
in  the  reproach  of  Christ  than  in  all  the  treasures  of  Egypt." 
And  so  the  three  children,  they  suffered  by  faith,  and  it  turned 
to  a  good  account. 

And  as  for  love,  you  know  what  the  apostle  saith,  "  If  I 
give  my  body  to  be  burned,  and  want  love,  it  profiteth  me 
nothing."  So,  then,  as  ever  you  desire  your  sufferings  may 
turn  to  a  good  account,  let  your  faith  towards  God  and  your 
love  towards  man  be  exercised.  And  let  these  be  the  two 
great  wheels  that  all  your  sufferings  shall  be  drawn  upon. 

If  you  would  order  your  sufferings  so  as  they  may  turn  to 
a  good  account,  then  labour  to  be  serviceable  in  and  by  your 
sufferings.  If  ever  God  call  you  to  a  prison,  labour  to  be  as 
serviceable  in  and  by  your  suffering  as  ever  you  can.  Peter 
was  in  prison  ;  What  came  of  it  ?  was  there  any  converted  ? 
No.  Why  so  ?  Peter  slept.  Aye  but  Paul  and  Silas  they 
sang  in  the  stocks,  and  they  preached  in  the  prison,  and  there 
is  the  jailor  converted.  They  were  serviceable  in  and  by 


318  SEASONABLE    TRUTHS  [SER.  2. 

their  sufferings  and  it  turned  to  a  good  account.  And  there- 
fore if  you  would  desire  that  your  sufferings  may  turn  to  a 
good  account,  labour  to  be  serviceable  in  and  by  your  suf- 
ferings as  God  calls  you  into. 

When  you  have  done  all  and  suffered  all,  then  say  and 
think  in  truth,  that  you  are  unprofitable  servants,  and  let 
your  eye  be  wholly  to  the  sufferings  of  Christ.  Offer  your 
own  sufferings  upon  the  sufferings  of  Christ  in  reference  to 
your  acceptance.  For  though  you  may  have  an  eye  to  the 
recompence  of  reward  to  encourage  you  to  suffer,  yet  you  are 
wholly  to  look  to  the  sufferings  of  Christ  in  reference  to  your 
acceptance.  And  therefore  when  you  have  done  all,  think 
and  say  you  are  unprofitable.  Two  men  went  up  to  pray, 
and  the  one  he  was  a  pharisee,  and  the  other  a  publican.  The 
pharisee  he  comes  and  praises  God  he  was  not  as  the  publi- 
can :  I  thank  God  I  am  not  as  this  publican  ;  I  fast  and  pray, 
and  I  am  not  as  this  publican.  Well,  there  comes  the  publican, 
and  he  smites  himself  upon  the  breast,  and  says,  I  am  a  poor 
sinner ;  oh,  the  Lord  be  merciful  unto  me  a  poor  sinner. 
So,  say  I,  two  men  go  up  to  suffer,  and  there  is  one  stands 
and  vaunts,  and  saith,  I  thank  the  Lord  I  am  not  so  cowardly 
and  dastardly  as  these  poor  spirited  men  that  dare  do  no- 
thing; my  flesh  shall  fry  in  the  fire.  But  the  other  stands 
at  a  distance,  and  saith,  Oh,  I  am  a  poor  creature ;  I  am 
afraid  to  suffer,  and  I  am  afraid  I  shall  betray  the  cause  of 
Christ.  Now,  I  tell  you,  this  poor  trembling  soul  that  is  last 
shall  be  first,  and  he  goes  away  rather  justified. 

If  you  would  so  order  and  manage  your  sufferings  as  they 
may  turn  to  a  good  account,  praise  God  over  your  suffering, 
and  pray  to  God  under  your  suffering.  I  put  these  two  to- 
gether— praise  and  pray.  This  is  a  certain  thing,  those  suf- 
ferings shall  turn  to  a  good  account  that  Christ  blesses.  How 
shall  I  know  whether  Christ  will  bless  my  sufferings  ?  Why 
if  I  can  bless  God  over  my  sufferings,  God  will  bless  my  suf- 
ferings to  me.  And  then,  are  you  called  at  any  time  to  suf- 
fer ?  go  away  rejoicing  that  you  are  counted  worthy  to  suffer 
for  the  name  of  Christ. 

Yet,  notwithstanding,  not  only  bless  and  praise  God  over 
your  sufferings,  but  pray  unto  God  under  your  sufferings. 
And  what  should  you  pray  for  ?  Pray  unto  the  Lord  that  he 
would  turn  your  sufferings  unto  a  good  account.  There  is  an 


SKR.  3.]  IN  EVIL  TIMES.  319 

old  promise  wrapt  up  in  the  apostle's  prayer :  u  The  God  of 
all  grace,  who  hath  called  us  unto  his  eternal  glory  by  Christ 
Jesus,  after  that  ye  have  suffered  a  while,  make  you  perfect, 
stablish,  strengthen,  settle  you,"  1  Peter  v.  10.  So,  then,  have 
you  suffered  a  while  ?  you  may  go,  then,  to  God,  as  to  the 
God  of  all  grace,  and  say,  Lord,  through  thy  providence  I 
have  now  suffered  a  while ;  thou  art  the  God  of  all  grace, 
make  me  perfect,  confirm  me,  stablish,  strengthen  and  com- 
fort me,  and  let  all  these  sufferings  turn  to  a  good  account. 
Thus  praise  God  under  your  sufferings,  and  pray  over  your 
sufferings,  and  so  shall  you  manage  and  order  all  your  suf- 
ferings as  that  they  shall  turn  to  a  good  account. 


SERMON  III. 

THE  WAY  TO  OBTAIN  A  SURE  AND  GREAT  REWARD. 

"  And  Jesus  said  unto  them,  Verily  I  say  unto  you,  that  ye  which 
have  followed  me  in  the  regeneration,  when  the  Son  of  Man  shall  sit 
in  the  throne  of  his  glory,  ye  also  shall  sit  upon  twelve  thrones,  judg- 
ing the  twelve  tribes  of  Israel. 

"  And  every  one  that  hath  forsaken  houses,  or  brethren,  or  sisters, 
or  father,  or  mother,  or  wife,  or  children,  or  lands,  for  my  name  sake, 
shall  receive  an  hundred-fold,  and  shall  inherit  everlasting  life." — 
Matt.  xix.  28. 

IN  this  scripture  we  have  our  Saviour's  answer  unto  Peter's 
question  propounded  at  verse  27,  "  Behold,  Lord,  (saith 
Peter,)  we  have  forsaken  all,  and  followed  thee  :  what  shall 
we  have  therefore  ?  "  Our  Saviour  answers  in  the  following 
verses,  and  his  answer  is  partly  comfortable  and  partly  cau- 
tional.  The  cautional  part  I  have  spoken  to  among  some  of 
you,  from  verse  30,  "  But  many  that  are  first  shall  be  last, 
and  the  last  shall  be  first."  The  comfortable  part  I  spake 
unto  the  last  Lord's  day  in  another  meeting.  And  being 
now  desired  to  speak  the  same  things  unto  you,  considering 
that  they  are  of  present  and  universal  concernment.  I  shall 
do  it  as  briefly  and  plainly  as  I  can. 

The  comfortable  part  of  Christ's  answer,  you  have  in  ver. 
28,  29,  wherein  our  Saviour  Christ  doth  shew  what  great 


320  SEASONABLE    TRUTHS.  [SEB.  3. 

reward  those  shall  have  that  do  suffer,  or  leave  any  worldly 
interest  for  him,  and  for  his  name  sake.  Which  reward  doth 
either  relate  unto  the  apostles  or  unto  others. 

It  relateth  unto  the  apostles  in  verse  28,  "  Verily  I  say 
unto  you,  that  ye  which  have  followed  me  in  the  regenera- 
tion," that  is,  in  the  preaching  of  the  gospel.  Preaching  of 
the  gospel  is  a  regenerating  work.  The  preaching  of  the  law 
is  convincing  work  ;  the  preaching  of  the  gospel  is  regenera- 
ting work.  "  Ye  which  have  followed  me  in  the  regener- 
ation/' in  the  great  work  of  preaching  the  gospel,  "  when 
the  Son  of  man  shall  sit  on  the  throne  of  his  glory,  ye  also 
shall  sit  upon  twelve  thrones,  judging  the  twelve  tribes  of 
Israel."  That  is  their  reward,  peculiar  and  proper  unto  them. 

The  reward  which  is  more  large,  extending  unto  all,  verse  29, 
and  "  every  one,"  not  every  one  of  you  shall  be  rewarded  that 
are  mine  apostles ;  but,  "  every  one  that  hath  forsaken 
houses,  or  brethren,  or  sisters,  or  father,  or  mother,  or  wife, 
or  children,  or  land,  for  my  name  sake,  shall  receive  an  hun- 
dred fold,  and  shall  inherit  everlasting  life."  From  whence 
then  I  took  up  this  observation ;  and  you  may  observe  from 
the  whole  thus  much  : 

That  whosoever  shall  leave  any  worldly  interest  for  Christ, 
and  for  his  name  sake,  shall  be  sure  to  be  well  rewarded. 

He  shall  be  well  rewarded,  for  he  shall  have  an  hundred- 
fold in  this  life,  and  everlasting  life  in  the  world  to  come. 
And  he  shall  be  sure  to  be  well  rewarded,  for  he  hath  put  a 
verily  upon  it:  "  Verily  I  say  unto  you:  and  every  one  that 
hath  forsaken  houses,"  &c.  So  then  the  doctrine  is  clear, 
That  whosoever  shall  leave  or  forsake  any  worldly  interest  for 
Christ,  and  for  his  name  sake,  shall  be  sure  to  be  well 
rewarded. 

For  the  claaring  of  this,  First,  We  must  inquire  what  it  is 
to  leave  any  worldly  interest  for  Christ,  and  for  his  name 
sake. 

Secondly,  What  the  reward  is  that  such  shall  have  that  do 
so,  and  wherein  it  consists.  And, 

Thirdly,  What  assurance  we  may  have  of  such  a  reward. 

And  first  of  all,  If  you  do  inquire  what  it  is  to  leave  any- 
thing for  Christ,  forsake  any  worldly  interest  for  Christ  ? 

I  answer,  That  a  man  may  leave  and  forsake  a  worldly 
interest  for  Christ  two  ways  : 


SER.  3.]  FOR  EVIL  TIMES.  321 

Either  by  his  own  will,  or  the  wills  of  others. 

We  do  leave  and  forsake  a  worldly  interest  by  our  own 
wills,  when  we  do  voluntarily  and  freely  deprive  ourselves  of 
our  commodity  or  satisfaction  for  Christ ;  as  the  apostles  left 
their  ships  and  nets  to  follow  Christ. 

We  do  leave  or  forsake  a  worldly  interest  by  the  wills  of 
others,  when  through  their  oppression  or  persecution,  we  are 
deprived  of  our  own  commodity  and  satisfaction  for  Christ : 
and  that  is  called  suffering. 

Our  Saviour  Christ  here  hath  respect  to  both,  and  in  both 
these  respects  it  is  true,  That  whosoever  doth  leave  any 
worldly  interest  for  Christ,  and  his  name  sake,  shall  be  sure 
to  be  well  rewarded. 

But  then  still  to  clear  it : 

What  is  it  to  leave  any  worldly  interest  for  the  name  of 
Christ  ? 

Th<i  name  of  Christ  is  that  whereby  Christ  is  made  known 
unto  us ;  as  the  name  of  a  man;  is  that  whereby  a  man  is 
made  known  unto  us.  A  man  is  make  known  unto  us  by  his 
name ;  so  Christ  is  made  known  unto  us  by  his  name.  That 
whereby  Christ  is  made  known  unto  us,  that  is  his  name. 

Now  Christ  is  made  known  unto  us  by  his  Spirit  and  by 
the  gospel. 

By  his  Spirit  he  is  made  known  unto  us.  For  as  God  the 
Father  is  made  known  unto  us  by  Christ  his  Son,  so  Christ 
is  made  known  unto  us  by  the  Spirit :  "  He  shall  take  of 
mine  and  shew  it  unto  you,"  saith  Christ.  And  upon  this 
account  therefore,  when  a  man  doth  suffer  any  thing  for  the 
Spirit,  or  for  any  working  of  the  Holy  Ghost  upon  his  heart 
or  soul,  then  he  is  said  to  suffer  for  the  name  of  Christ. 
And  upon  this  score  it  was  that  John  the  Baptist  was  ac- 
counted a  martyr  of  Christ,  and  enrolled  among  the  martyrs 
of  Christ.  John  the  Baptist,  if  you  look  into  the  story,  did 
not  suffer  for  any  gospel  truth :  John  the  Baptist  suffered  for 
this,  that  he  reprehended  Herod's  adulterous  courses  :  true, 
but  the  Spirit  of  Christ  put  him  upon  it ;  and  therefore  being 
stirred  up  thereunto  by  the  Spirit  of  Christ,  he  is  said  to 
suffer  upon  the  account  of  Christ.  So  that,  I  say,  the  Spirit 
of  Christ  is  that  whereby  Christ  is  made  known  unto  us ; 
and  when  a  man  doth  therefore  suffer  for  any  work  of  the 

VOL.  III.  V 


SEASONABLE  TRUTHS  [SfiR.    3. 

Spirit  of  Christ,  then  he  is  said  to  suffer  for  the  name 
of  Christ. 

But  Christ  also  is  made  known  unto  us  by  the  gospel,  as 
by  an  outward  means.  The  gospel  is  the  name  of  Christ, 
whereby  Christ  is  made  known  unto  us.  Every  truth  is  not 
a  gospel  truth ;  it  is  possible  that  a  man  may  suffer  for  a 
truth,  and  yet  not  suffer  for  a  gospel  truth.  But  look  when 
a  man  doth  suffer  for  a  truth,  which  is  properly  the  truth  of 
the  gospel;  then  he  is  said  indeed  to  suffer  for  the  name  of 
Christ,  whereby  Christ  is  made  known.  Would  you  there- 
fore know  when  a  man  may  be  said  to  suffer  for  the  name 
of  Christ  ?  Take  altogether,  thus  :  When  a  man  doth  suffer 
for  that  whereby  Christ  is  made  known  unto  us,  then  he 
suffers  for  the  name  of  Christ.  Christ  is  made  known  unto 
us  by  the  Spirit;  he  is  made  known  unto  us  by  the  gospel. 
Look  therefore  when  a  man  doth  suffer  for  the  work  of  the 
Spirit,  which  is  properly  the  work  of  the  Spirit ;  or  suffer 
for  the  truth,  which  is  properly  the  truth  of  the  gospel ; 
then  plainly  he  is  said  to  suffer  for  the  name  of  Christ ; 
and  whosoever  doth  so,  shall  be  well  rewarded. 

And  then  what  is  this  reward  that  those  shall  have  that 
do  leave  any  worldly  interest  for  Christ,  or  for  the  name  of 
Christ ;  and  wherein  doth  that  consist  ? 

The  reward  is  great :  and  it  will  appear  to  be  very  great, 
if  you  look  into  and  consider  this  text  and  Scripture  well. 
For  this  reward  it  doth  relate  unto  the  apostles,  or  it  relates 
unto  us ;  to  all  others  that  do  leave  any  worldly  interest 
upon  the  account  of  Christ. 

Now  as  for  the  apostles  their  reward  is  here  set  down, 
"  That  they  shall  sit  with  Christ  on  his  throne."  When 
Christ  sits  on  his  throne,  "  the  apostles  shall  sit  on  twelve 
thrones,  judging  the  twelve  tribes  of  Israel/'  For  the 
clearing  of  this,  only  these  two  things  : 

1.  What  it  is  for  the  apostles  to  "  sit  on  twelve  thrones 
with  Christ,  judging  the  twelve  tribes." 

And  2.  whether  are  there  any  degrees  of  glory,  seeing 
that  the  apostles  here  seem  to  have  a  degree  of  glory  given 
them  above  other  men. 

And  as  for  the  first  briefly  thus  : 

When  Christ  shall  sit  upon  the  throne,  they  are  said  to 
sit  on  twelve  thrones,  judging  the  twelve  tribes;  to  note 


SEB.  3.]  IN  EVIL  TIMES.  323 

their  communion   and  fellowship  with  Christ  in  his  judicial 
kingdom. 

But  whereas  "the  saints  shall  judge  the  world;"  it  is  true, 
the  saints  shall  judge  the  world,  and  shall  have  communion 
and  fellowship  with  Christ  in  that  great  work  of  judging  the 
world.  The  apostles  they  shall  sit  as  assessors  on  that  day ; 
at  the  great  assizes  the  apostles  shall  sit  on  the  bench  as 
assessors,  or  as  justices  of  the  peace,  by  the  judge ;  and  so 
shall  have  communion  with  him.  It  is  true,  that  all  the 
saints  shall  judge  the  world  by  their  lives  and  by  their  con- 
versations :  but  the  twelve  apostles  shall  judge  the  world 
by  their  doctrine ;  not  only  by  consenting  to  the  judgment 
of  Christ  as  all  the  saints  shall  do ;  but  in  Rom.  ii.  16.  it 
is  said  :  "  In  the  day  when  God  shall  judge  the  secrets  of 
men  by  Jesus  Christ,  according  to  my  gospel."  So  that 
this  is  all  that  is  here  meant,  That  in  the  grand  and  great 
assize,  that  kingdom  and  glory  of  Christ,  the  twelve  apostles 
they  shall  have  a  special  fellowship  and  communion  with 
him  above  others. 

But  then,  are  there  any  degrees  of  glory  ?  For  it  would 
seem  here  that  the  apostles  have  some  degrees  of  glory  above 
other  men.  Are  there  any  degrees  of  glory  ? 

Yes,  surely,  there  are  degrees  of  glory.  "  For  as  one  star 
differeth  from  another  star  in  glory,  so  shall  the  resurrection 
be,"  saith  the  apostle. 

But  though  there  be  degrees  of  glory,  all  that  glory  that 
the  saints  shall  have  in  heaven  shall  be  of  one  piece ;  for 
there  is  no  envy  there.  Envy !  there  is  none  in  heaven. 
And  whence  comes  envy  ?  We  may  see  that  among  our 
children  or  among  men.  If  you  have  four  or  five  children, 
and  make  them  clothes,  if  they  be  clothes  made  all  of  a 
piece,  they  do  not  envy  though  one's  clothes  be  bigger  than 
another's.  But  if  they  be  not  all  made  of  a  piece,  or  my 
brother's  clothes  are  better  than  mine,  or  my  sister's  clothes 
are  better  than  mine,  there  is  envy  ;  but  when  they  are  all  of  a 
piece,  they  do  not  envy.  So  if  you  invite  twenty  men  to  dinner, 
and  they  all  eat  of  the  same  dish,  there  is  no  envy ;  but  if  you 
have  a  meaner  dish  for  those  that  sit  at  the  lower  end  of  the 
table,  say  they,  Indeed  we  sat  at  such  a  table  but  we  had  a 
meaner  dish  :  and  so  they  envy.  But  if  one  man  eat  more 
than  another,  yet  if  they  eat  of  the  same  dish,  there  is  no 
Y  2 


324  SEASONABLE    TRUTHS  [SfiR. 3. 

envy.  Now  in  heaven  there  is  no  envy  ;  for  though  there  be 
degrees  of  glory,  yet  it  shall  be  all  of  a  piece,  and  all  of  a  dish. 
But  now  though  this  glory  in  heaven  shall  be  all  of  a  piece, 
and  though  there  be  degrees  of  glory  in  heaven,  yet  I  do  not 
think  this  scripture  to  be  understood  of  the  degrees  of  glory 
in  heaven;  for  there  is  no  judging  of  the  twelve  tribes  in 
heaven  :  Christ  shall  then  at  last  give  up  his  kingdom  unto 
the  Father.  This  is  spoken  therefore  of  a  glorious  judg- 
ment on  this  side  heaven ;  and  it  is  here  promised  unto  the 
apostles  above  all  others,  as  a  reward  suitable  to  them  :  for 
they  were  twelve,  preached  to  the  twelve  tribes;  some 
received  the  gospel,  some  did  not ;  and  therefore  here  is  a 
reward  propounded  suitable  unto  them.  But  thus  much 
for  the  reward  that  concerns  the  apostles,  by  the  way. 

Secondly,  But  then  it  will  be  said,  What  is  the  reward 
that  doth  concern  all  those  that  leave  any  worldly  interest 
for  Christ,  or  suffer  for  the  name  of  Christ  ? 

Why  that  doth  either  relate  unto  this  life,  or  unto  the  life 
that  is  to  come. 

It  relates  unto  this  life;  and  then,  saith  our  Saviour, 
"There  is  an  hundred  fold."  Look  whatsoever  that  is  that 
you  do  lay  out  for  Christ  here  in  this  life,  you  shall  receive 
an  hundred  fold  for  it  even  in  this  life.  Here  is  a  great 
matter,  and  it  is  well  worth  our  considering.  Look  whatsoever 
you  do  lay  out  for  Christ,  whatsoever  worldly  interest  you 
do  part  withal  for  Christ,  or  lay  out  for  Christ,  that  you  shall 
receive  in  an  hundred  fold  even  in  this  life. 

A.nd  to  make  this  out  unto  you ;  I  confess  it  is  a  great 
matter. 

But  first  of  all,  to  clear  it,  is  it  not  a  great  matter  for  us 
to  be  enriched  with  divine  promises  ?  One  promise  is  worth 
a  world;  he  is  rich  indeed  that  is  rich  in  promises.  We 
say  a  man  may  be  a  rich  man,  though  he  never  have  a  penny 
of  money  in  his  purse;  he  may  have  a  great  many  bonds, 
and  we  say  he  is  rich  man.  I  am  sure  that  Christian  is  rich 
indeed  that  is  rich  in  promises.  Well,  when  comes  the 
promise  ?  Look  when  a  man  doth  forsake  any  worldly 
interest  for  the  Lord,  then  comes  the  promise.  For  that, 
look  into  Gen.  xii.  and  you  shall  see  what  a  great  promise 
God  makes  to  Abraham,  verse  2  :  "  I  will  make  of  thee  a 
great  nation,  and  I  will- bless  thee,  and  make  thy  name  great, 


SER.  3.]  IN  EVIL  TIMES.  325 

and  thou  shalt  be  blessed."  Well,  but  when  comes  this 
promise  ?  The  first  verse  tells  you  :  "  Now  the  Lord  said 
unto  Abraham,  Get  thee  out  of  thy  country,  and  from  thy 
kindred,  and  from  thy  father's  house,  unto  the  land  that  I 
will  shew  thee." 

Aye,  but  suppose  that  Abraham  do  so,  what  will  the  Lord 
then  bestow  upon  Abraham  ? 

Why  I  will  make  of  thee  a  great  nation. 

But  if  I  go  out  of  my  country,  Abraham  might  say,  I 
shall  be  scattered,  and  come  to  nothing,  I  and  my  posterity. 

Nay,  but  "  I  will  make  of  thee  a  great  nation,  and  I  will 
bless  thee." 

Aye,  but  everybody  will  say,  I  am  a  fool  to  leave  my 
country,  and  go  I  know  not  whither. 

Nay,  but  "  I  will  make  thy  name  great,  and  thou  shalt  be 
a  blessing." 

Aye,  but  I  shall  meet  with  divers  enemies  abroad,  and 
they  will  fall  upon  me  and  ruin  me. 

Nay,  saith  the  Lord,  "  And  I  will  bless  them  that  bless 
thee,  and  I  will  curse  him  that  curseth  thee."  See  what  a 
great  promise  here  is  made.  When  did  this  promise  come  ? 
"  So  Abraham  departed,  as  the  Lord  had  spoken  to  him." 
Look  when  we  do  forsake  any  worldly  interest  for  the  Lord, 
then  comes  the  prorrise.  Now  is  not  one  promise  better 
than  any  worldly  interest,  an  hundred  times  better  ? 

But  is  it  not  a  great  matter  to  have  the  favour  of  God 
the  Father,  the  heart  of  God  drawn  out  unto  us,  to  be  amiable 
and  beautiful  in  the  eyes  of  God  the  Father  ?  Now  look 
when  a  man  doth  forsake  any  worldly  interest  for  God, 
then  he  is  beautiful  in  the  eyes  of  God  :  never  so  amiable 
or  beautiful  in  the  eyes  of  God,  as  then.  Take  it  thus  : 

Beauty  raises  persecution,  and  persecution  raises  beauty  ; 
they  are  mutual  causes. 

I  say,  Beauty  raises  persecution.  Persecution  you  shall 
find  doth  always  fall  upon  the  beautiful  piece  of  religion, 
upon  those  that  are  the  most  beautiful  pieces  of  religion. 
So  long  as  Christ  our  Saviour  lived,  persecution  lay  upon 
him,  and  not  upon  the  apostles  :  when  Christ  was  dead, 
then  the  apostles  were  the  most  beautiful  piece,  and  then 
the  persecution  lay  upon  them  especially.  When  the  apostles 
were  gone  off  the  stage,  in  the  primitive  times  the  pcrsecu- 


326  SEASONABLE    TRUTHS  [SER.  3. 

tion  always  fell  upon  the  most  eminent  saints.     Persecution 
always  falls  upon  the  beauty  of  religion.     In  Matt.  xiii.  we 
find  that   persecution  is  compared  to  the  scorching  of  the 
sun:  "And   when   the   sun   was   up  they  were  scorched;" 
speaking  of  the  stony  ground ;  which  is  expounded  in  verse 
21,  by  persecution :  "  For  when  tribulation  or   persecution 
arises  because  of  the   word."     The   scorching  sun  here   is 
interpreted   to    be    persecution.      And   you  shall  find  that 
the  scorching  sun  falls  with  most  prejudice  upon  the  greatest 
beauty;  the  greatest  beauty  suffers  most  by  the  scorching 
sun.     Truly  so  persecution  falls  upon  the  beauty  of  religion ; 
you  may  see  it  in  Cant,  i.,  there  the  spouse  is  described  in 
her  beauty :    "  If  thou  know  not,  Oh,  thou  fairest  among 
women,  &c.     I  have  compared  thee,  O  my  love,  to  a  com- 
pany  of  horses   in    Pharaoh's    chariots.      Thy   cheeks    are 
comely  with  rows  of  jewels,  thy  neck  with  chains  of  gold." 
But  saith  she,  at  verse  5 :  "I  am  black  but  comely,  O  ye 
daughters  of  Jerusalem,  as  the  tents  of  Kedar,  as  the  cur- 
tains of  Solomon."  Here  is  her  beauty  :  what  then  ?  "  Look 
not  upon  me   because   I  am  black,  because  the  sun  hath 
looked  upon  me."     "  The  sun  hath  looked  upon  me :"  what 
is  that?     Persecution:  "My  mother's  children  were   angry 
with   me."     The   scorching  sun  of  persecution  hath  fallen 
upon  my  beauty.      That  is  the  thing  I  speak  of,  namely,  that 
persecution  always  falls  upon  the  beautiful  piece  of  religion. 
And  so   on  the  other  side,  as  beauty  raises  persecution,  so 
persecution  raises  beauty.     A  man  is  never  more  beautiful 
in  the  eyes  of  God,  than  when  he  is  persecuted  for  the  name 
of  Christ,   and  when  he  doth  leave  and  forsake  a  worldly 
interest  upon  the  account  of  Christ.     You  may  see  it  in 
Ps.  xlv.   10 :  "  Hearken,  O  daughter,  consider,  and  incline 
ear;  forget  also  thine  o\*n  people,  and  thy  father's  house : 
so  shall  the   King  greatly  desire   thy  beauty."     See  where 
the   beauty  lies,  in  "forgetting  of  the  father's   house:"  in 
leaving  and  forsaking  a  worldly  interest  upon  the  account  of 
Christ,  here  is  beauty.     Now  is  it  not  an  hundred  times 
better  to   be  beautiful  in  the  eyes  of  God  the  Father  and  of 
Christ,  than  to   have  a  worldly  interest  ?     Certainly  it  is. 
But  then,  is  it  not  a  great  matter  for  a  man  to  have  com- 
munion and  fellowship  with  Jesus  Christ  in  his  sufferings  ? 
"  If  ye  suffer  with  him,  ye  shall  reign  with  him,"  saith  the 


SER.  3.]  IN  EVIL  TIMES.  327 

apostle.  Now  we  have  communion  and  fellowship  with 
Christ  in  his  sufferings,  either  at  the  Lord's  supper,  or  in  our 
sufferings  for  Christ ;  but  with  this  difference :  we  have 
communion  and  fellowship  with  Christ  in  our  sufferings  for 
Christ,  "by  filling  up  the  sufferings  of  Christ:"  we  have 
communion  and  fellowship  with  Christ  in  the  Lord's  supper ; 
but  then  we  do  not  fill  up  the  sufferings  of  Christ :  but  in 
our  sufferings  for  Christ  we  have  communion  and  fellowship 
with  Christ,  by  filling  up  the  sufferings  of  Christ.  So  that 
here  is  a  specialty  of  communion  with  Christ,  by  suffering 
for  the  Lord  Jesus.  Now  is  it  not  an  hundred  times  better 
to  have  communion  and  fellowship  with  Christ  in  his  suffer- 
ings, than  to  have  a  worldly  interest  ? 

Is  it  not  a  great  matter  to  have  the  Spirit  of  God  and  of 
glory  rest  upon  us?  You  know  what  the  apostle  Peter 
saith  concerning  those  that  suffer  for  the  name  of  Christ : 
"  The  Spirit  of  God  and  of  glory  shall  rest  upon  you/'  as 
the  dove  rested  upon  the  ark ;  she  hovered  upon  the  waters, 
but  at  last  she  rested  upon  the  ark :  so  the  Spirit  of  the 
Lord  hovers  over  men,  but  rests  upon  the  suffering  saints. 
Now  is  it  not  an  hundred  times  better  to  have  the  Spirit  of 
God  and  of  glory  resting  upon  us,  than  to  have  any  worldly 
interest  ?  Certainly  it  is. 

Is  it  not  a  great  deal  better  to  be  filled  and  abound  with 
divine  and  spiritual  consolations  ?  Look  when  a  man  doth 
leave  any  worldly  interest  for  Christ,  or  doth  suffer  for  the 
name  of  Jesus  Christ,  then  shall  his  heart  be  filled  with 
consolations.  You  see  what  is  said  for  that  in  2  Cor.  i.  5, 
saith  the  apostle :  "  For  as  the  sufferings  of  Christ  abound 
in  us,  so  our  consolation  also  aboundeth  by  Christ."  Why  now 
is  it  not  an  hundred  times  better  to  be  filled  with  inward 
consolations,  then  to  have  a  worldly  interest  by  one  ?  Cer- 
tainly it  is. 

Is  it  not  a  great  matter  to  us  to  have  an  assurance  of  our 
salvation  and  of  our  election,  to  be  sealed  to  us  ?  Surely  it 
is  a  great  matter.  Now  look  when  a  man  doth  suffer  for 
the  name  of  Jesus  Christ,  then  comes  the  assurance,  then  is 
the  sealing  time.  When  we  do  bear  our  testimony  unto 
Christ,  then  Christ  bears  his  testimony  unto  us,  that  we  are 
his  children  ;  when  we  bear  testimony  to  the  truth  of  Christ, 
Christ  bears  testimony  to  the  truth  of  grace  in  us.  See 


328  SEASONABLE    TRUTHS  [SfiR.  3. 

what  is  said,  Phil.  i.  28  :  "  And  in  nothing  terrified  by  your 
adversaries,  which  is  to  them  an  evident  token  of  perdition, 
but  to  you  of  salvation,  and  that  of  God."  A  token,  and 
of  God ;  it  is  God's  token.  But  look  into  Acts  ix.  and  you 
shall  see  what  the  Lord  saith  unto  Ananias  concerning  Paul. 
The  Lord  said  unto  him,  "  Go  thy  way,  Ananias  ;  for  he  is 
a  chosen  vessel  unto  me,  to  carry  my  name  before  the  gen- 
tiles, and  kings,  and  the  children  of  Israel."  Why  ?  "For 
I  will  shew  him  how  great  things  he  must  suffer  for  my 
name  sake."  So  that  suffering  for  the  name  of  Christ  seals 
up  our  assurance,  the  assurance  of  our  salvation,  the  assur- 
ance of  our  election.  Now  is  it  not  an  hundred  times  better 
to  have  the  assurance  of  our  election  and  of  our  salvation 
sealed,  than  to  have  some  particular  worldly  interest  lying 
by  us  ?  Certainly  it  is. 

But  is  it  not  a  great  matter  for  us  to  reign  with  Christ  a 
thousand  years  ?  Such  a  thing  there  is  promised  in  Rev.  xx. 
I  will  not  now  debate  how  and  in  what  manner  it  shall  be 
made  good ;  but  this  is  certain,  there  is  such  a  thing  pro- 
mised as  reigning  with  Christ  a  thousand  years.  Who  is 
that  promised  to  ?  verse  4,  such  as  those  that  suffer  for  the 
name  of  Christ:  "And  I  saw  thrones,  and  they  sat  upon 
them,  and  judgment  was  given  unto  them.  And  I  saw  the 
souls  of  them  that  were  beheaded  for  the  witness  of  Jesus, 
and  for  the  word  of  God,  and  which  had  not  worshipped  the 
beast,  neither  his  image,  neither  had  received  his  mark  upon 
their  foreheads,  or  in  their  hands  ;  and  they  lived  and  reigned 
with  Christ  a  thousand  years."  Now  is  it  not  an  hundred 
times  better  to  live  and  reign  with  Christ  a  thousand  years 
in  the  day  of  glory,  than  to  have  some  particular  worldly 
interest  together  for  the  present  ?  Sure  it  is. 

Now  put  all  these  things  together ;  why  every  one  of 
them  is  a  great  matter,  but  put  them  all  together,  and  you 
cannot  but  say  we  shall  have  a  thousand  fold  in  this  life. 

Aye,  but,  mark,  the  apostle  tells  us  we  shall  have  an  hun- 
dred fold  in  the  same  kind,  in  this  life :  how  can  that  be  ? 

Why  if  you  look  into  Mark  x.  you  shall  find  that  Mark 
doth  not  say  in  so  many  words,  that  we  shall  have  an  hun- 
dred fold  in  this  life,  in  the  same  kind ;  but  saith  thus  : 
"  Jesus  answered  and  said,  Verily  I  say  unto  you,  that  there 
is  no  man  that  hath  left  house,  or  brethren,  or  sister,  or 


SER.  3.]  IN  EVIL  TIMES.  329 

father,  or  mother,  or  wife,  or  children,  or  lands,  for  my  sake 
and  the  gospel's,  but  he  shall  receive  an  hundred  fold  new 
in  this  time,  houses,  and  brethren,  and  sisters,  and  mothers, 
and  children,  and  lands,  with  persecutions"  But  he  does 
not  say  he  shall  have  in  the  same  kind,  an  hundred  fold  in 
this  life,  and  an  hundred  fold  in  the  same  kind.  When 
Peter  left  his  nets  and  his  fishing  for  Christ,  Christ  made  him 
a  fisher  of  men ;  now  that  was  an  hundred  fold  in  this  life, 
but  not  in  the  same  kind.  But  to  clear  up  this,  take  these 
four  or  five  considerations. 

Consider  this :  Whatsoever  God  doth  for  us  immediately, 
that  is  an  hundred  times  better  than  what  what  he  doth  for 
us  by  means.  Now  look  when  a  man  doth  forsake  a  worldly 
interest  for  Christ,  and  puts  himself  upon  Christ,  Christ 
will  provide  immediately  for  him.  You  may  see  it  in  Matt. 
xv.,  there  were  a  company  that  had  followed  Christ,  and 
had  followed  him  so  long  that  they  were  faint ;  Christ  would 
not  send  them  away  fainting,  verse  32,  "  Jesus  called  his 
disciples  unto  him,  and  said,  I  have  compassion  on  the 
multitude,  because  they  have  continued  with  me  now  three 
days,  and  have  nothing  to  eat."  "  They  have  .nothing  to 
eat  :"  they  had  left  their  houses,  they  had  left  their  own 
victuals  and  their  own  provisions,  and  they  had  nothing  to 
eat;  and,  saith  he,  "  I  will  not  send  them  away  fasting,  lest 
they  faint  in  the  way."  Well,  what  shall  be  done  ?  Here 
Christ  works  a  miracle  :  "  And  they  took  up  of  the  broken 
meat  that  was  left  seven  baskets  full."  Do  you  think  now  that 
ever  these  men  made  a  better  meal  in  all  their  lives  ?  I  am 
persuaded  it  was  an  hundred  fold  better  to  them,  than  the 
best  meal  they  had  in  all  their  lives.  And  to  shew  that 
Christ  will  rather  work  a  miracle,  than  that  those  shall  want 
which  leave  ought  for  him.  What  Christ  doth  for  us  imme- 
diately, that  he  doth  fully  and  sweetly,  and  is  an  hundred 
times  better  than  that  he  doth  by  means. 

Look  what  the  Lord  doth  for  our  children  and  our  pos- 
terity, that  the  Lord  doth  for  us,  in  scripture  language. 
In  experience,  what  God  doth  do  for  our  children  and  for 
our  posterity,  that  God  doth  for  us.  Now  look  whatsoever 
that  is  that  you  that  are  parents  shall  leave  for  the  name  of 
Jesus  Christ,  Christ  will  give  it  an  hundred  fold  ;  it  may  be 
to  your  posterity.  What  shall  we  say  to  the  second  com- 


330  SEASONABLE    TRUTHS  [SfiR.  3. 

mandment  ?  The  second  commandment  you  know  is  this  : 
"  Thou  shalt  not  make  to  thyself  any  graven  image :"  that  is, 
thou  shalt  not  worship  God  by  any  means  but  that  which 
God  himself  hath  appointed.  Here  all  the  inventions  of 
men  are  forbidden ;  here  all  the  institutions  of  God  are 
commanded.  Well,  what  doth  God  promise  upon  the 
keeping  of  this  ?  "  I  will  shew  mercy  to  a  thousand  genera- 
tions." Stay  a  little  :  before  he  saith  he  will  punish  them 
that  break  this  commandment,  to  the  third  and  fourth  gene- 
ration :  "  I  will  punish  them  that  hate  me,  to  the  third  and 
fourth  generation."  "  Them  that  hate  me : "  pray  why, 
why  are  those  that  break  the  second  commandment  said 
to  hate  God  ?  It  is  not  said  upon  the  breaking  of  any  other 
commandment,  that  it  is  a  hating  of  God,  but  upon  the 
breach  of  the  second  commandment. 

I  conceive  the  reason  essentially  is  this,  because  persecu- 
tion grows  upon  the  second  commandment.  Those  that 
hate  the  people  of  God,  hate  God.  Now  where  doth  the 
hatred  and  persecution  grow?  Upon  the  keeping  the  se- 
cond commandment ;  not  conforming  to  men's  inventions, 
keeping  close  to  the  institutions  of  God ;  here  is  persecution 
grows  upon  this  commandment :  well,  saith  God,  "  I  will 
visit  the  iniquities  of  the  fathers  upon  the  children  unto  the 
third  and  fourth  generation  of  them  that  hate  me."  But 
as  for  those  that  keep  this  commandment :  "  And  shewing 
mercy  unto  thousands  of  them  that  love  me,  and  keep  my 
commandments."  Why  doth  he  say  commandments,  and 
not  this  commandment  ? 

The  reason  is  this,  because  in  the  second  commandment 
all  institutions  are  commanded;  all  the  inventions  of  men 
are  forbidden.  All  the  institutions  of  Christ  come  within 
the  second  commandment ;  and  therefore,  saith  he,  "  I  will 
shew  mercy  to  a  thousand  generations  of  those  that  love  me, 
and  keep  my  commandments,"  Now  here  is  a  hundred  fold, 
in  that  mercy  is  shewn  to  a  thousand  generations.  Well,  what 
God  gives  to  our  children,  and  to  our  posterity,  that  he  gives 
unto  us. 

A  third  consideration  is  this.  Look  what  that  is  which  we 
have  in  effect,  that  we  have  in  truth,  though  we  have  it  not 
in  the  formality.  Now  look  whatsoever  you  do  lay  out  for 
Christ,  whatsoever  worldly  interest  you  do  part  withal,  and  for- 


SER.  3.]  IN  EVIL  TIMES.  331 

sake  for  Christ,  that  you  shall  have  in  effect.  Why  ?  because  the 
same  affection  doth  still  remain.  I  will  express  it  thus  :  Sup- 
pose you  have  a  crab-stock,  and  there  you  plant  a  harvie,  or 
a  pearmain,  or  a  pippen ;  why  the  pippen  is  an  hundred 
times  better  than  the  crab  would  have  been.  Why  it  is  the 
same  stock  still,  under  the  harvie,  or  pippen,  or  pearmain ; 
only  there  is  an  apple  planted  that  is  an  hundred  times  better 
than  the  crab  was.  So  now,  you  have  a  delight  in  the  things 
of  the  world ;  well  you  leave  this  delight  for  Christ ;  you 
leave  not  the  affection,  but  there  is  a  better  object  plant- 
ed upon  the  affection ;  and  there  being  a  better  object 
planted  upon  the  same  delight,  thus  you  have  the  same  thing 
you  part  withal  for  the  name  of  Christ  in  an  hundred  fold. 

Look  what  that  is  that  we  have  in  a  way  of  substitution, 
that  we  have  in  truth,  and  in  effect,  though  we  have  it  not  in 
formality.  Now  look  what  that  is  that  you  do  leave  for  the 
name  of  Christ,  that  you  shall  have  an  hundred  fold  in  a  way 
of  substitution.  The  apostles  they  left  their  houses  ;  Peter  left 
a  house,  it  may  be,  or  a  fisher  boat,  for  Christ :  why  he  had 
an  hundred  houses  in  a  way  of  substitution,  he  had  an  hun- 
dred men's  houses  open  to  receive  him  ;  and  happy  was  that 
Lydia  that  could  receive  the  apostle.  And  this  is  that  which 
you  have  in  Psalm  xlv.  10.,  "  Hearken,  O  daughter,  and  con- 
sider ;  incline  thine  ear :  forget  also  thine  own  people,  and 
thy  father's  house."  What  then  ?  Why  then,  at  verse  16., 
"  Instead  of  thy  fathers,  shall  be  thy  children,  whom  thou 
mayest  make  princes  in  all  the  earth."  Here  now  is  the 
same,  in  a  way  of  substitution.  It  is  true,  it  is  not  the  same 
in  formality,  but  in  a  way  of  substitution ;  here  is  that  which 
is  an  hundred  fold. 

Look  what  that  is  which  we  have  in  a  way  of  satisfaction, 
that  we  have  in  truth  and  in  effect,  though  not  in  formality. 
Look  what  that  is  that  you  do  leave  or  forsake  for  Christ, 
that  you  shall  have  in  satisfaction  an  hundred  fold  more  than 
you  had  before.  If  you  leave  any  thing  for  Christ,  you  shall 
have  an  hundred  fold  more  satisfaction  in  what  you  have 
given  for  Christ,  than  what  you  keep  for  yourselves.  So 
that  an  hundred  fold  in  a  way  of  substitution,  and  an  hun- 
dred fold  in  a  way  of  satisfaction.  And  thus  you  see  how  we 
receive  an  hundred  fold  in  this  life  :  that  whatsoever  you  do 


332  SEASONABLE    TRUTHS  [SfiR.  3. 

lay  out  for  Christ  here,  you  shall  be  paid  an  hundred  fold  ; 
and  how,  and  in  what  manner. 

But  then,  what  is  that  reward  that  we  shall  have  in  the  life  to 
come  ?  Suppose  a  man  do  leave  a  worldly  interest  for  the 
name  of  Christ,  or  that  he  do  suffer  for  the  name  of  Christ ; 
what  is  that  reward  that  he  shall  have  in  the  world  to  come  ? 

Truly  that  reward  is  great,  and  I  am  not  able  to  speak  it ; 
it  requires  the  unwearied  hand  and  arm  of  eternity,  to 
tell  over  all  the  wealth  of  glory  that  the  suffering  people  of 
God  shall  have  in  the  world  to  come.  Only  thus  much  I  will 
say,  and  briefly. 

That  reward  you  that  are  suffering  saints  shall  have  in  the 
world  to  come,  it  shall  be  an  open  reward  :  for,  saith  Christ, 
"  he  that  confesseth  me  before  men,  him  will  I  confess  also 
before  my  Father,"  &c. 

It  shall  be  a  comfortable  reward  :  for  saith  the  book  of  the 
Revelations,  "  Then  all  tears  shall  be  wiped  out  of  jour  eyes." 
He  doth  not  say,  from  your  eyes,  or  from  your  cheeks  ;  no 
but  they  shall  be  wiped  out  of  your  eyes.  So  that  the  eyes 
shall  be  then  such  a  womb  as  shall  never  breed  a  tear  again. 
All  tears  shall  be  wiped  not  from  your  eyes,  but  out  of  your 
eyes.  So  in  Rev.  vii. 

As  it  shall  be  a  comfortable  reward,  so  an  honourable  re- 
ward :  for,  saith  our  Saviour  Christ,  "  Be  faithful  unto  the 
death,  and  I  will  give  thee  the  crown  of  life."  And 

As  it  shall  be  an  honourable  reward,  so  a  proportionable  re- 
ward, a  reward  proportionable  to  all  your  sufferings,  You  know 
wTiat  the  apostle  saith,  "  These  light  afflictions  which  are  but 
for  a  moment,  work  for  us  a  far  more  exceeding  and  eternal 
weight  of  glory." 

Will  you  say,  Aye,  but  our  afflictions  are  exceeding  heavy. 
Nay,  saith  the  apostle,  they  are  light. 

But  grant  they  be ;  to  balance  the  account,  you  shall  have 
a  weight  of  glory. 

Will  you  say,  They  are  long  and  tedious. 

Nay,  saith  the  apostle,  they  are^but  light. 

But  grant  they  be  long  and  tedious. 

To  balance  the  account,  you  shall  have  "  an  exceeding  and 
an  eternal  weight  of  glory." 

And  then,  as  it  shall  be  a  reward  proportionable,  so  it 
shall  be  a  reward  transcending :  over  and  beyond  proportion, 


SER.  3.]  IN  EVIL  TIMES.  333 

over  and  beyond  all  expression,  beyond  all  our  apprehensions 
or  thoughts.  Who  is  able  to  think  or  apprehend  what  the 
"  inheritance  of  the  saints  in  light  is  ;"  that  inheritance  that 
is  incorruptible,  and  undefiled,  and  that  fadeth  not  away? 
Look  into  Rom.  viii.,  "  If  ye  be  children,  then  are  ye  heirs, 
heirs  of  God,  and  joint-heirs  with  Christ;  if  so  be  that  we 
suffer  with  him."  See  it  hangs  upon  suffering ;  "  If  so  be 
that  we  suffer  with  him  that  we  may  be  also  glorified  toge- 
ther." Now,  "  if  children  then  heirs/'  All  our  children  are 
not  heirs :  well  but  all  the  children  of  God  shall  be  heirs, 
"  heirs  of  God."  What  is  that  ?  Some  think  that  is  to  be 
understood  objectively,  that  they  shall  inherit  God :  and  in- 
deed, they  have  all  things,  that  have  him  that  hath  all  things. 
"  Heirs  of  God."  But  take  it  efficiently,  shall  be  God's  heirs, 
and  "  joint-heirs  with  Christ."  He  doth  not  say,  joint-pur- 
chasers with  Christ,  but  joint-heirs,  "  joint-heirs  with  Christ." 
What  shall  Christ  inherit  ?  Why  Christ  is  God  the  Father's 
heir;  and  he  never  displeased  his  Father;  he  will  not  disin- 
herit him  therefore.  Look  what  God  the  Father  is  worth, 
that  Christ  shall  be  worth  :  and  look  what  Christ  is  worth, 
that  the  suffering  saints  shall  be  worth  :  for  they  be  "  joint- 
heirs  with  Christ." 

Lo  here,  here  is  an  inheritance  now,  and  here  is  the  reward 
that  the  suffering  saints  shall  have.  What  a  large  inheritance 
is  here.  This  is  that  they  shall  have  in  the  life  to  come.  And 
so  you  see  what  their  reward  is  that  lose  or  forsake  any  thing 
upon  the  account  of  Christ,  or  suffer  for  the  name  of  Christ. 
Thirdly,  But  then,  what  assurance  is  there  of  this  reward  ? 
I  will  go  no  further  than  the  text  :  our  Saviour  Christ 
here  puts  a  verily  upon  it :  verily :  you  have  the  word  of 
Christ  for  this  reward.  If  an  honest  man  make  you  a  pro- 
mise, you  will  believe  him,  especially  if  he  saith,  I  protest 
unto  you.  Why  Jesus  Christ  hath  protested  this  promise  : 
"  Verily,  (saith  he)  you  shall  have  an  hundred  fold  in  this 
life,  and  in  the  word  to  come,  life  everlasting." 

Well  then,  the  question  is,  Why  should  those  that  suffer 
for  the  name  of  Christ  have  such  a  great  reward  as  this  ? 
Why  should  those  that  leave  or  forsake  any  worldly  interest 
upon  the  account  of  Christ,  why  should  those  above  all  other 
people  be  so  well  rewarded  ? 

I  answer  :  these  above  all  other  people,  that  suffer  for  the 


334  SEASONABLE    TRUTHS  [SKR.  3. 

name  of  Christ,  these  are  those  that  do  honour  Jesus  Christ. 
What  is  honour  ?  Honour,  it  is  the  testimony  of  another's 
excellency.  When  I  testify  of  another  man's  excellency, 
then  I  honour  him.  Now  look  when  a  man  doth  forsake  a 
worldly  interest  for  the  truth  of  Christ,  then  he  testifies  there 
is  an  excellency  in  Christ :  and  the  greater  the  worldly  inter- 
est is  I  do  forsake,  and  the  less  the  truth  is  I  forsake  it  for; 
the  more  do  I  testify  there  is  an  excellency  in  Christ :  Christ 
therefore  will  be  sure  to  honour  them,  they  shall  be  well  re- 
warded. 

These  people  of  all  other  people,  are  the  people  that  do 
trust  in  the  Lord  before  the  sons  of  men  :  "  Oh  how  great  is 
thy  loving  kindness,  which  thou  hast  laid  up  for  them  that 
fear  thee ;  which  thou  hast  wrought  for  them  that  trust  in 
thee,  before  the  sons  of  men.'"  Some  trust  in  God,  and  be- 
lieve in  the  heart,  as  they  say,  but  they  do  not  trust  in  God 
before  the  sons  of  men.  But  now,  when  a  man  forsakes  a 
worldly  interest,  and  doth  suffer  for  the  name  of  Christ,  then 
he  trusts  in  the  Lord  before  the  sons  of  men  :  and  therefore, 
oh  how  great  is  the  loving  kindness  of  God  that  is  laid  up  for 
them. 

But  then,  these  above  all  other  people  that  suffer  for  the 
name  of  Christ :  these  are  those  people  that  are  firm  and  fast 
unto  God.  God  loves  a  fixed  spirit.  God  doth  not  love  to 
see  a  man  unsettled  in  points  of  religion.  Now  when  a  man 
will  leave  a  worldly  interest  for  the  cause  of  Christ,  and  the 
name  of  Christ,  there  is  a  fixation  in  such  a  man.  And 
therefore  he  of  all  other  people  shall  be  well  rewarded. 

These  people  of  all  other  people,  are  the  most  opposed  by 
the  grand  enemy  of  Christ.  Well,  who  is  the  grand  enemy 
of  Christ  in  these  days  ?  Antichrist.  Antichrist  is  the  grand 
enemy  of  Jesus  Christ.  Now  these  that  suffer  for  the  name 
of  Christ,  are  most  opposed  by  the  grand  enemy  of  Christ : 
and  Christ  will  be  sure  to  love  them  that  are  most  opposed 
by  his  grand  enemy. 

These  of  all  other  people,  they  are  the  people  that  over- 
comers  :  how  many  promises  are  made  to  those  that  over- 
come, Rev.  ii.  iii.,  "  To  him  that  overcometh ;  to  him  that 
overcometh  :"  a  promise  still  is  made  to  him  that  overcometh. 

But  how  do  we  overcome  ? 

In  Rev.  xii.  11.,  "  And  they  overcame  him,  (that  is,  the  de- 


SER.  3.]  IN  EVIL  TIMES.  335 

vil,)  by  the  blood  of  the  Lamb,  and  by  the  word  of  their  tes- 
timony, and  they  loved  not  their  lives  unto  the  death." 
These  of  all  other  people,  are  the  overcoming  people.  As 
Christ  overcame  the  devil,  by  being  overcome ;  so  men  over- 
come, by  being  overcome.  Those  that  suffer  upon  the  ac- 
count of  Jesus  Christ,  when  they  are  overcome  by  the  world 
in  the  view  of  the  world,  then  they  overcome.  Now 
Christ  will  be  sure  to  reward  them  well  that  overcome.  And 
thus  you  see  why  these  of  all  other  people  shall  be  so  well 
rewarded.  And  thus  you  have  the  doctrine  cleared. 

Now  then  by  way  of  application. 

If  this  be  true,  that  whosoever  doth  leave  or  forsake  any 
worldly  interest  for  Christ,  and  the  name  of  Christ,  shall  be 
sure  to  be  well  rewarded :  why  should  not  we  be  willing  to 
lose  and  to  be  lost  for  Christ  ? 

Good  friends,  the  time  is  coming  when  you  may  be  called 
to  leave  your  trades,  to  leave  your  shops,  to  leave  any  world- 
ly interest  you  have  for  the  name  of  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ. 
But  is  this  true,  that  such  shall  be  well  rewarded  ?  Why 
should  we  not  be  willing  then  to  lose  and  be  lost,  to  suffer  for 
the  name  of  Christ  ?  Can  you  have  a  greater  improvement 
of  your  money  ?  A  man  would  think  he  improves  his  money 
well  that  hath  ten  in  the  hundred,  six  in  the  hundred  now : 
but  here  is  an  hundred  for  one ;  not  ten  in  the  hundred,  but 
an  hundred  for  one.  If  a  merchant  venture  to  sea,  if  he 
could  be  sure  to  gain  twelve  in  the  hundred,  he  would  think 
he  came  to  a  good  market.  Why  behold  here  is  an  hundred 
fold  in  this  life,  and  all  this  insured  by  Christ ;  "  Verily, 
verily,  I  say  unto  you."  It  is  insured  by  the  word  of  Jesus 
Christ ;  not  ten,